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3  1833  01714  6561 

C    977.2    rS2r:r- 
[Cottman,     Geo^"ge    3.     18*57- 

1941  . 
I C  e  n  t  e  D  rj  i  a  1    h  i  s  t  o  r  y    a  n  d 

h  B.  r '  d  i:)  c)  (3  !■•:    o  -^     T  ii  ^  :i  i  b  i"\  a 


History  and  Handbook 

of  Indiana 

The  Story  of  the  State  from  Its  Beginning  to  the  Close  of  the  Civil  War, 
and  a  General  Survey  of  Progress  to  the  Present  Time 


Founder  Indiana  Magazine  of  History 

A  Survey  of  the  State  by  Counties 

Embracing  Specific  and  Local  Information  with  Numerous  Illustrations 


Editor   Hyman's   Handbook  of  Indianapolis,  Etc. 


Allen  County  Public  Library 

900  Webster  Street 

PC  Box  2270 

Fort  Wayne,  IN  46801-2270 

Copyright  1915 

By  MAX  R.  HYMAN,  Indianapolis 

All  rights  reserved 



This  work,  first  of  all,  aims  to  supply  a  popular 
need.  The  rescuing  of  history  from  documentary 
sources,  the  seeking  of  new  facts  and  the  discus- 
sion of  debatable  questions  is  a  field  to  which  the 
writer  has  here  given  but  secondary  attention, 
the  plan  of  the  work  being  purposely  difi:erent. 
This  plan  has  been  to  put  into  easily  available 
form  and  in  the  compass  of  one  volume  a  wide 
range  of  facts,  past  and  present,  that  wdll  con- 
vey an  intelligent  and  tolerably  complete  idea  of 
the  story  of  Indiana  and  the  thread  of  its  devel- 
opment on  which  the  facts  are  strung. 

These  facts  have  been  accumulating  in  pub- 
.  lished  historical  material  until  they  are  quite  suf- 
ficient to  tell  the  story  in  all  its  essentials,  but 
they  are  in  a  scattered  form,  practically  inac- 
cessible except  to  the  student  who  can  search 
them  out  from  the  shelves  of  the  larger  libraries. 
But  few  existing  works  aim  to  cover  the  history 
of  the  State.  Of  these  some  are  fragmentary, 
some  present  but  skeleton  outlines  too  meager  to 
impart  much  information,  and  none  satisfies  the 
repeated  demand  for  a  comprehensive  reference 
work.  If  this  volume  falls  short  of  such  ideal, 
it  can  at  least  be  claimed  that  it  is  an  advance  in 
that  direction. 

The  prime  thing  in  the  history  of  this  or  any 
other  commonw^ealth  or  society,  is  not  a  mass  of 
detached  facts,  however  picturesque  they  may 
be  in  the  recital.  The  chief  thing  of  interest  is 
the  organic  growth  and  the  facts  in  perspective 
as  revealing  that  growth.  Any  stage  or  condition 
is  but  the  "balance  of  preceding  forces,"  and  the 
culminating  interest  of  it  all  is  in  the  Present, 
which  we  sadly  need  to  understand  better.  With 
this  idea  in  view  the  undersigned,  in  his  author- 
ship of  the  historical  portion  of  the  book,  has 
endeavored  so  to  group  his  data  as  to  convey  a 
sense  of  the  chronology  and  development  of 
cause  and  efifect.  Those  developments  since  the 
Civil  War  period  have  not  been  traced  historic- 
ally, as  he  would  wish,  but  the  general  survey, 
dealing  with  the  results  of  the  historic  processes 
is.  it  may  be  held,  the  vital  thing. 

It  mav  be  added,   in   this   connection,   that   in 


filling  out  his  various  chapters,  the  author  has 
drawn  freely  upon  such  other  writers  as  have 
standing,  especially  those  who  have  made  especial 
studies  of  the  theme  in  hand.  He  has  taken 
their  reasonable  accuracy  for  granted,  and,  in 
most  instances,  accepted  them  as  reliable.  The 
aim  has  been  to  give  credit  in  every  case  proj^ 
erly  calling  for  it. 

The  county  sketches,  compiled  by  Mr.  llyman, 
with  whom  this  work  originated,  constitute  an 
important  part  of  this  work,  and  the  more  so. 
because  there  is  a  great  dearth  of  comparative  in- 
formation giving  the  relative  standing  of  the 
various  sections  of  the  State.  This  treatment  of 
the  county  units  will  thus  subserve  something 
broader  than  mere  local  history. 

Not  the  least  interesting  feature  of  this  work 
is  the  numerous  maps  and  illustrations.  These 
not  only  depict  conditions  as  they  existed  at  the 
dawn  of  the  State's  histor}-.  but  will  help  the 
reader  to  a  better  understanding  of  present-day 
developments;  revealing  to  many  for  the  first 
time,  more  fully  tlian  has  heretofore  l)een  done 
in  any  other  work,  much  that  is  historic  and 
picturesque  within  the  borders  of   Indiana. 

Among  the  authorities  drawn  upon  by  Mr. 
Hyman  in  the  preparation  of  the  "Survey  of 
the  State  by  Counties,"  and  to  whom  especial 
credit  is  due  for  valuable  assistance  are  Jacob 
Piatt  Dunn :  Ernest  \\  Shockley.  Ph.  D. ;  De- 
marchus  Brown,  State  Librarian  ;  Edward  Bar- 
rett, State  Geologist ;  John  I.  Plofi^mann.  As- 
sistant State  Superintendent  of  Public  Instruc- 
tion ;  Amos  W.  Butler,  Secretary  State  Board  of 
Charities  and  Correction  :  luigene  C.  Shireman. 
Commissioner  of  Fisheries;  Elijah  .\.  Glatlden. 
Secretary  State  Board  of  Forestry:  Charles 
Downing.  Secretary  State  Board  of  Agriculture; 
Gilbert  Hendren.  State  Examiner;  Edward  A. 
TVrkins,  President  Industrial  Hoard  of  Indiana. 
and  William  1^.  Tuite.  Deputy  State  Statistician. 

To  John  FI.  Ilolliday.  Rowland  lAans.  Guil- 
ford A.  Deitch.  Henry  Sievenson.  Hon.  \\'illiain 
D.  Bynuin.  Hon.  Charles  L.  Hein-\-.  Dr.  Sam- 
uel E.  l-'arp  and  Merica  1".  Hoagland  of  Indian- 

apolis,  and  to  Mrs.  M.  C.  (iarber  of  Madison, 
Phil  McXagny  of  Columbia  City,  Ulysses  S. 
Lesh  of  Huntington,  Oscar  F.  Rakestraw,  Editor 
Angola  Republican;  Howard  Roosa,  Editor  Ev- 
ansville  Courier,  and  Lyman  D.  Heavenridge, 
Editor  07^'en  County  Journal,  he  is  indebted  for 
valuable  contributions  and  suggestions. 

Interesting  and  valuable  photographs  were  sup- 
plied by  Addison  H.  Nordyke,  Dr.  ^  I  orris  Al- 
brecht,  Bert  Weedon  and  l^Vank  M.  Hohen- 
berger  of  Indianapolis,  and  William  M.  Her- 
schell,  of  'J'hr  ludianapolis  N ci^'s  and  Orra  Hop- 
per, School  Superintendent  of  Washington 
county,  also  contributed  a  valuable  collection  of 
photographs  of  historical  points  of  interest. 

The  book  is  from  the  Hollenbeck  Press,  and 
with   few  exce])tions  all  of  the  engravings  were 

made  by  the  Stafford  Engraving  Company  of 
Indianapolis,  from  original  photographs,  many 
of  which  were  taken  by  the  W.  H.  Bass  Photo 

The  work,  as  a  whole,  has  been  made  possible 
only  through  the  generous  support  given  to  Mr. 
Hyman  in  this  vmdertaking  by  the  people  of  the 
State,  whose  autographs  are  herein  published, 
and  to  whom  he  herewith  gives  public  acknowl- 

This  edition  is  now  submitted  to  the  public 
with  the  hope  that  it  will  be  found  to  be  useful 
as  well  as  interesting,  and  that  its  support  will 
necessitate  many  editions. 

George  S.  Cottman. 

Indianapolis,  Ind., 
December,  1915. 

Corrections  and  suggestions  are  invited 
for  future  editions.  Address  all  commu- 
nications to  Max  R.  H^"^IAN,  Publisher. 



A  History  of  Indiana  by  Topics,  Ciironologicallv  Arranged,  fkom 
THE  Beginning  to  the  Close  of  the  Ciyil  War. 


I     Preliminary — The     French     Occupancy    of     the     \\  aljash 

Valley 9 

II     Acquisition  of  Our  Territory — Story  of  Clark's  Conf|uc<t  17 

III  The  Northwest  Territory — Civil  Beginnings       ....  .v-^ 

IV  Indiana  Territory — Beginnings 41 

V     The  Danger  Period — Indian   History 57 

VI     The  New  State <j9 

VII     The  State's  Development  to  1836 83 

VIII     The  Story  of  New  Harmony 93 

IX     Internal    Improvement    Movements    Preliminary    to    Law 

of  1836 99 

X     An  Experiment  in  Paternalism 10^^ 

XI     Other  Developments  Prior  to  1840 10/ 

XII     1840  to  1850 — Conditions  and  Development  During  Dec- 

ade ^1' 

XIII  Period   from   1850  to   1860 119 

XIV  The  Civil  War  Period l'^'"' 


A  General  Survey  of  Indiana  as  Developed 
Since  the  Civil  War. 

XV     Conditions  Since  1870— General  Survey  of  Period  .     .      .  153 

XVI     Natural  Resources ^^^ 


...  187 

XVII     Manufactures      .      .      .      . 
XVIII     Agricultural  Advancement 


A  General  Survey  of  Indiana  by  Counties  witk  Bk.kf  Historical 
Sketches  Alphabetically  Arkangfd. 

Population  of  Incorporated  Cities  and  Towns  in  Indiana.  1910    .      .      4^4 

Addenda ', 

-,           ,    T    1  .      .      •     461 

General    Index 

PART  l\' 

Who^s  Who  in  Indiana— Brief  Biographical  Sketches  of 
Prominent  Men  and  \\*omen. 


A  History  of  Indiana  by  Topics,  Chronologically  Arranged, 

From  the  Beginning  to  the  Close  of 

the  Civil  War. 



Fundamental  Factors :  Soil,  Climate,  Stock 
and  National  Policy. — A  study  of  the  influences 
that  have  given  direction,  shape  and  character  to 
the  history  of  Indiana  carries  the  inquirer  Ixick 
not  only  to  the  beginnings  of  American  history 
in  the  Mississippi  valley,  but  to  more  remote 
causes.  For  example,  what  is  the  explanation  of 
the  phenomenal  swiftness  (as  history  goes)  with 
which  this  valley,  one  great  primeval  wilderness 
but  little  more  than  a  hundred  years  ago,  has 
progressed  to  the  high  tide  of  twentieth  century 
civilization  ?  Obviously,  soil,  climate,  configura- 
tion and  natural  features  of  the  country,  stock 
and  national  policy  are  all  factors  which,  col- 
lectively, have  wrought  results  that  for  expedite- 
ness  and  inherent  energy  hardly  find  an  analogy 
in  the  history  of  the  world.  A  comparison  with 
other  continental  portions  of  the  globe  presents 
some  interesting  contrasts.  The  most  striking, 
perhaps,  as  presenting  differences  imposed  by 
the  physical  basis,  is  Africa.  That  vast  conti- 
nent, with  its  more  than  ten  million  square  miles, 
lying  contiguous  to  the  older  centers  of  civiliza- 
tion and  itself  the  seat  of  the  most  ancient  ones, 
has,  until  recent  times,  remained  the  "dark  con- 
tinent," and  the  invasions  of  the  dominant 
nations  have  to  the  present  day  resulted  onl\-  in 
a  polyglot  group  of  colonies  that  are  practical!}- 

negligible  in  an  estimate  of  the  world's  growth. 
Insufficient  water  supply  and  vast  wastes,  tropic 
heat,  fell  diseases  and  ineradicable  pests  have 
been  effective  deterrents  to  the  successful  reign 
of  the  Caucasian. 

If  we  consider  Sovith  America,  with  its  zones 
of  climate  ranging  all  the  way  from  the  tropics 
of  Brazil  to  the  Antarctic  sterility  of  southern 
Argentine,  and  its  fertile  soils,  capable  of  sup- 
porting a  teeming  nniltitude.  we  lind  it.  beneath 
the  rule  of  a  Latin  race,  a  congeries  of  minor 
nations  that  seem  forever  on  the  border  of  an- 
archy. Briefly,  the  history  of  South  America 
and  that  of  the  United  States  since  the  settlement 
of  the  two  continents  largely  illustrates  the  dif- 
ference in  stock. 

Australia,  with  an  area  almost  e(|ual  to  that  of 
the  United  States,  is  little  more  than  one  vast 
l)arren  waste,  with  a  fringe  of  isolated  civilization 
strung  along  part  of  its  coasts. 

Of  Asia,  we  are  told  by  an  antlmrity.  "owing 
to  its  great  extent  from  east  to  west  the  central 
parts,  deprivetl  of  moistnre.  are  almost  every- 
where deserts,  and  a  belt  around  the  western, 
southern  and  eastern  shores  comprises  nearly  all 
that  contributes  to  the  sup])ort  of  man." 

This  same  writer  (  Lharles  Maclaren)  pointing 
ont  the  snperior  advantages  of  the  Anier- 



icas  as  a  seat  of  civilization,  maintains  that  "the 
new  continent,  though  less  than  half  the  size  of 
ihe  old.  contains  at  least  an  equal  quantity  of 
useful  soil  and  much  more  than  an  equal  amount 
of  productive  power" ;  and  he  adds  that  "Amer- 
ica is  indebted  for  this  advantage  to  its  compara- 
tively small  breadth,  which  brings  nearly  all  its 
interior  within  reach  of  the  fertilizing  exhalations 
of  the  ocean."  This  means  that  the  rain  supply, 
which  is  evaporated  from  the  ocean,  reaches 
these  interior  parts ;  the  rain  supply,  in  turn, 
means  a  system  of  well-supplied  streams,  and 
they  mean,  in  the  first  instance,  irrigation  and 
vegetation,  and  in  the  second,  natural  routes 
of  travel  and  transportation  that  are  a  great  de- 
termining factor  in  the  distribution  of  settlers  in 
a  new  country.  Apropos  to  this,  if  we  study  a 
hvdrographic  chart  of  the  Mississippi  valley 
showing  the  numerous  streams  that  ramify  far 
and  wide  from  the  great  "father  of  waters"  and 
its  larger  affluents,  and  if  our  imagination  adds 
to  these  the  innumerable  creeks  that  reach  out, 
traversing  almost  every  square  mile  of  the  coun- 
trv.  what  nature  has  done  for  the  land  in  this 
particular  becomes  apparent. 

Closely  correlated  with  the  abundant  water 
supply  in  this  favored  region  is  a  soil  tmsur- 
passed  in  productiveness  and  a  climate  which  is 
at  once  ada])ted  to  a  wide  range  of  vegetation 
and  to  the  stimulation  of  human  energy — a  very 
potent  factor  in  the  development  of  civilization. 
For  variety  of  productions  useful  to  man  perhaps 
no  spot  on  earth  excels  the  Mississippi  valley, 
and  this  value  is  enhanced  by  the  adaptability  of 
the  soil  to  vegetation  that  is  not  indigenous,  many 
of  our  products  today  being  of  exotic  origin. 
This  fertility  and  a(la])tability  of  the  soil,  says 
Livingston  Farrand  in  his  "Basis  of  American 
History,"  "must  be  regarded  as  among  the  chief 
contributing  causes  to  the  stupendous  growth  of 
the  American   nation." 

I  he  stock  that  jjcoplcd  oiu'  section  has.  of 
course,  ])vrn  ;in  immcasuraljle  factor  in  the 
extraordinary  dc\  (.lupnicnt  of  the  country.  What 
self-governnu'nl  is  in  the  hands  of  an  untrained 
Latin  race  is  dcnidnslrated  by  South  American 
bistorw  Tlic  Anglo-S.axon  tide  that  poured  into 
our  middlr  west  atkr  llu'  revolutionary  war  was 
not  only  tlic  olTsiJving  of  the  most  staid  and  on  earth,  ])Ut  it  bad  back  of  it 
nearly  tw(;  centuries  of  training  in  self-govern- 

ment. It  was  a  race  hardy,  independent  and 
capable,  jealously  guarding  its  institutions  and 
the  best  that  it  had  inherited  politically.  Above 
all,  its  individuals  were  ardent  lovers  of  their 
land  and  permanent  home-makers.  Add  to  this 
a  national  policy,  evolved  through  the  same  peo- 
ple, that  fostered  the  settlement  and  development 
of  the  public  domain  along  wise  lines  that  had 
been  thought  out  by  some  of  the  most  patriotic 
and  most  able  statesmen  of  the  age,  and  we  have 
in  rough  outline  the  fundamental  factors  of  that 
particular  phase  of  civilization  in  which  our  State 
shares.  To  ap})reciate  well  the  character  and 
meaning  of  our  local  history  we  should  consider 
these  antecedent  causes  explaining  the  larger  his- 
tory of  which  we  are  a  part.  A  long  and  interest- 
ing chapter  on  these  preliminaries  might  well  be 
written,  but  the  aim  here  is  to  touch  upon  them 
in  a  cttrsory  way  only,  as  an  introduction  to  our 
nearer  theme. 


Relation  of  the  French  to  Our  History. — The 

French  occupancy  of  the  Mississippi  valley,  last- 
ing nearly  a  century,  or  from  the  time  of  the 
explorations  of  La  Salle  and  Joliet  till  the  French 
and  Indian  war,  is  for  the  most  part,  as  a  tale 
that  is  told,  with  little  permanent  sequence.  This 
is  true  of  the  early  invasion  of  the  Wabash 
valley,  and  while  French  life  there,  from  the 
establishment  of  the  first  posts  in  the  first  half 
of  the  eighteenth  century  till  the  American  in- 
vasion early  in  the  nineteenth,  affords  a  pic- 
turesque and  romantic  preliminary  chapter  to  our 
history,  it  can  scarcely  be  called  an  integral  part 
of  it,  and  its  influence  in  modifying  our  develop- 
ment is  scarcely  appreciable.  The  story  of 
Indiana  as  a  State  is  a  story  of  .vmericanized 
Anglo-Saxon  stock  pure  and  simple.  The  iso- 
lated, straggling  French  life,  little  ethnological 
fragments,  as  it  were,  left  stranded  here  far  from 
their  kind,  was  not  strong  enough  to  tincture  the 
incoming  population  with  that  wonderful  French 
race  i)ersistence  that  is  notable  in  Canada,  and  in 
short  time  they  were  incontinently  sw^allowed  up. 
It  can  be  said,  however,  that  the  previous 
iM-ench  settlement  at  Vincennes  determined  the 
starting  ]Kiint  of  the  American  occupancy,  and 
the  beginning  i)lace  of  Indiana  politics.  The 
treaty  of  Greenville,  in   1795.  secured   from  the 



Indians,  along  with  certain  strategic  points  on  the 
Wabash  river  and  a  large  tract  at  the  falls  of  the 
Ohio,  for  George  Rogers  Clark  and  his  soldiers, 
the  lands  adjacent  to  "the  post  of  St.  V'incennes," 
to  which  the  Indian  title  had  already  been  extin- 
guished. This  reservation,  which  was  rather 
indefinite  as  to  boundaries,  in  turn  determined 
the  first  of  the  scries  of  Indian  jjurchases  that 
ultimately  comprised  the  whole  State.  By  a 
treaty  consummated  in  1803  William  Henry  Har- 
rison secured  an  extension  of  the  1795  reserva- 
tion, with  defined  boundaries,  that  reached  some 
fifty  miles  westward  from  V'incennes.  This  tract 
was  the  first  part  of  the  new  territory  to  be  sur- 
veyed by  the  rectangular  system  adopted  by  the 
United  States  government,*  and  was  the  first  to 
be  thrown  open  for  general  settlement.  This,  and 
the  existence  of  \'incennes  as  the  one  towai  in 
the  territory  that  was  to  be  the  future  Indiana, 
logically  determined  the  location  of  the  territorial 
seat  of  government  and  the  first  center  of  Ameri- 
can ])opulation. 

( )ne  great  preliminary  service  that  the  French 
did  for  their  successors  was  in  the  first  explora- 
tions of  the  country,  hirst  the  professed  ex- 
plorers and  then  the  coureurs  de  bois.  em- 
])loyed  l)y  the  fur  traders,  traversed  otu"  streams. 
])enetrating  to  the  remoter  ])arts  of  the  virgin 
wilderness,  and  the  maps  left  us  by  the  old 
French  cartographers  are  not  only  curious  as 
revealing  the  growth  of  the  geogra])hical  knowl- 
edge of  our  region,  but  are  particularly  inform- 
ative as  to  the  location  of  Indian  tribes  in  those 

French  Beginnings. — The  exact  dates  of  the 
tirst  iM-ench  explorations  of  the  Mississippi  vallev 
are  so  variable,  as  given  by  various  historians, 
that  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to  give  any  as  really 
authentic.  /Xccording  to  the  researches  of  Mr. 
J.  I'.  Dunn,  who  may  be  acce])ted  as  careful  and 
thoroughgoing,  La  Salle,  the  first  white  man  in 
this  region,  ])rol)al)]y  "traced  the  entire  lower 
boundary  of  Indiana  in  1669-70,"  by  way  of  the 
(  )hio  river,  and  ])assed  through  the  northwest 
>  oriKT  of  tlic  State  in  1671  or  1672.  From  this 
time  until  1(')79  (still  drawing  upon  Mr.  Dunn) 
there  was  no  recorded  exploration  of  Indiana, 
though  it  is  argued  that  in  that  interval  more  or 
less    tnr   trading   carrit-d   on    in    this   region. 

*  Sec  .section  on   Rectangular  Survey   System, 
i"  See  "Early  J-"rcncIi   Maps,"  p.    \5. 

The  portage  between  the  St.  Joseph  and  Kan- 
kakee rivers,  where  South  Bend  stands,  was  first 
used  Ijy  him  in  1679,  while  in  1682-3  "he  was  all 
through  Indiana  and  Illinois."  Who  was  the  first 
to  traverse  the  Maumee-Wabash  route  by  way 
of  the  site  of  Fort  Wayne  is  not  recorded,  but  it 
was  probably  used  by  the  fur  traders  at  a  very 
early  date,  as  the  W^abash  threaded  a  rich  and 
extensive  fur  country,  besides  being  one  of  the 
most  direct  highways  to  the  Mississippi.  The 
first  post  planted  in  this  valley  was  Ouiatanon. 
which  was  a  fort  as  well  as  a  trading  post.  There 
has  been  controversy  as  to  the  exact  location  of 
Ouiatanon,  but  according  to  Professor  Oscar  J. 
Craig,  formerly  of  Purdue  University,  who  has 
written  a  monograph  on  the  subject,  it  is  now 
pretty  well  established  that  it  stood  on  "the  west 
side  of  the  Wabash  river  and  four  miles  below 
the  present  city  of  Lafayette."  The  date  of  its 
establishment  is  given  as  1719  or  1720.  Its  pur- 
pose was  to  "coiniteract  the  influence  of  the 
English  and  to  keep  ascendency  over  the  In- 
dians." The  logic  of  the  location  was  that  at 
this  point  on  the  river  "the  lighter  barks  and 
canoes  that  were  used  in  the  carrying  trade  be- 
tween Canada  and  the  southwest  .  .  .  were 
changed  for  larger  ones,  to  be  used  on  the  deeper 
waters  of  the  lower  Wabash  and  the  Ohio" — the 
same  cause,  practically,  that  operated  in  the  lo- 
cating of  Lafayette  more  than  a  century  later. 
The  post  took  its  name  from  the  Ouiatanon  In- 
dians, who  were  located  in  that  vicinity.  Ouiata- 
noi  was  garrisoned  by  the  French  until  1760, 
when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  English,  but 
there  is  no  mention  of  any  military  force  there 
twenty-nine  years  later,  when  George  Rogers 
Clark  invaded  the  northwest  territory.  Accord- 
ing to  Craig,  its  later  history  was  enveloped  in 
mystery.  In  a  way  it  had  been  a  "settlement"  as 
well  as  a  post,  and  a  few  French  families  seem  to 
hive  lingered  there  until  Scott's  campaign  against 
the  Wabash  Indians,  in  1791,  after  which  they 
betook  themselves  to  other  settlements. 

'I'he  portage  between  the  Maumee  and  Wabash 
ri\ers.  where  Fort  Wayne  stands,  was  an  impor- 
tant point  commercially  and  a  strategic  one  from 
the  military  view.  Before  the  advent  of  the 
whites  it  was  the  site  of  one  of  the  principal 
Aliann  towns,  called  Kekionoi'a,  and,  according 
to  Dillon,  the  l''rench  established  a  trading  post 
there   ]irobably   as   early  as    1719,   which   would 



make  it  contemporary  with  Ouiatanon  in  its  be- 
ginning. Subsequently  they  erected  there  Fort 
Miamis,  which  was  surrendered  to  the  EngHsh 
in  1760.  This,  in  turn,  was  succeeded  by  Fort 
Wayne,  built  by  General  Anthony  Wayne's 
troops  in  1794,  and  the  name  of  which  was  trans- 
mitted to  the  present  city. 

Vincennes,  the  largest  and  most  permanent  of 
the  three  French  settlements  on  the  Wabash,  was 
also  long  involved  in  obscurity  as  to  its  origin, 
but  it  is  now  established  by  documents  unearthed 
in  Paris  by  Consul  General  Gowdy,  that  the  date 
was  1731.  It  began  as  a  military  and  trading  post 
and  went  by  various  names  before  it  evolved  into 
"Vincennes,"  in  honor  of  Sieur  de  Vincennes,  its 
accredited  founder.  The  life  of  this  isolated 
Gallic  community  in  the  far  western  wilderness 
for  three-quarters  of  a  century,  particularly  after 
the  severance,  by  the  war  of  1754-63,  of  all  ties 
with  the  country  whence  it  sprung,  makes  a  pic- 
turesque and  romantic  chapter  in  our  historv 
which  is  not  without  its  pathos.  For  years  it  left 
its  traces  up  and  down  the  Wabash  valley,  and 
these  are  inseparable  from  the  memory  of  the 
vanished  red  race,  with  which  it  assimilated. 

An  old  document  published  by. the  Indiana  His- 
torical Society  as  "The  First  Census  of  Indiana," 
gives  the  names  of  the  heads  of  families  residing 
at  the  three  French  settlements  in  1769.  By  this 
there  were  sixty-six  families  at  Vincennes,  twelve 
at  Ouiatanon  and  nine  at  Fort  Miami. 

French  Life  at  Vincennes. — The  old  French 
life  at  Vincennes  is  described  at  some  length  by 
J.  P.  Dunn  in  his  "Indiana."  Like  the  American 
pioneer  life  it  was  rude  to  primitiveness,  in  many 
respects,  but  with  many  distinctive  features.  The 
log  house  or  cabin,  instead  of  being  laid  hori- 
zontally with  notch  and  saddle  like  the  familiar 
American  type,  was  often  built  by  setting  the 
logs  upright  in  a  trench,  like  pickets. 

Sometimes  grooved  posts  were  set  a  distance 
apart  with  horizontal  slabs  to  fill  in  the  interven- 
ing spaces,  the  ends  fitting  in  the  grooves. 
Thatching  or  strips  of  bark  were  often  used  for 
roofs.  There  were  a  few  stone  houses  with 
piazzas.  Of  the  rude  furniture  usually  found  the 
conspicuous  article  was  the  high  corded  bedstead 
with  its  big  feather  bed  and  gay  patch-work  quilt, 
while  occasionally  in  the  better  families  a  display 
would  be  made  of  a  little  treasured  silverware  or 

some  ancient  hcirluuni  that  had  come  hjng  ago 
from  the  motherlaiul.  Jliey  were  fond  of  fiowers 
and  these  usually  could  be  found  in  prolusion  in 
their  gardens,  fenced  in  by  sharpened  pickets  set 
close  together  in  the  ground.  Every  man,  prac- 
tically, was  his  own  artisan,  and  as  there  was  no 
great  skill  and  perhaps  less  love  of  labor  the 
home-made  articles  were  few  and  crude.  The 
women,  we  are  told,  had  neither  spinning  wheels 
nor  looms,  and  the  clothing,  half  Indian  and  pic- 
turesque, was  a  mixture  of  leather  and  the 
fabrics  brought  in  by  the  traders — leggins,  moc- 
casins, the  capote  or  cloak,  a  fancy  sash  beaded 
by  the  Indians  and  a  gaudy  handkerchief  for  the 
head  being  in  the  sartorial  inventory.  Their  agri- 
cuhure  was  primitive  and  the  natural  fertilitv  of 
the  land  was  relied  upon  to  obviate  the  necessitv 
for  skilful  husbandry.  Their  cumbersome,  awk- 
ward plows  had  a  wooden  mold-board  and, 
drawn  by  oxen  l)y  means  of  a  rope  of  twisted 
rawhide  attached  to  a  horn-yoke,  instead  of  a 
neck-yoke,  could  turn  only  a  shallow  furrow. 
About  the  only  other  farm  implement  was  a 
clumsy  iron  hoe,  and  their  one  vehicle  was  a  light 
two-wheeled  cart  without  iron  work  of  any  kind 
about  it,  known  as  a  calache. 

Socially,  they  were  a  gay.  i)leasure-loving  peo- 
ple and  perpetuated  Gallic  customs  that  look  pic- 
turesc[ue  in  the  perspective.  Marriage  was  the 
great  event  and  was  preceded  by  the  publishing  of 
bans  and  by  the  betrothal  contract  witnessed  by 
relatives  and  friends,  while  the  ceremony  was 
celebrated  by  feasting  and  dancing  that  some- 
times lasted  for  several  days.  There  was  the 
charivari  and  even  a  so-called  Mardi  Gras  pre- 
ceding Lent,  whicli  consisted  of  dancing  an<i 
feasting  and  a  trial  of  skill  at  the  cooking  of  flap- 
jacks. C^n  New  Year's  day  it  was  the  custom 
for  the  men  to  go  tin-  rounds  making  calls  in 
which  it  was  their  privilege  to  kiss  the  hostesses. 
."-Sometimes  the  voung  men  masked  on  New 
Vear's  eve  and  went  from  house  t<t  liouse  ^^ingiiig 
a  carol,  and  a  feature  of  this  custom  at  one  time 
was  to  take  with  them  a  cart  and  receive  gifts  of 
clothing  and  ])rovisions.  which  were  afterward 
given  to  the  i)Oor.  One  of  the  luxuries  we  hear 
of,  which  sounds  oddly  out  of  place  in  the  Wa- 
bash wilderness,  is  that  of  billi.irds.  Hamilton, 
in  1778,  wrote  that  he  intendeil  to  destroy  all  the 
billiard  tables. 



Music  of  the  French. — "'Father  Benedict  Jo- 
seph Flaget,  the  1-Yench  priest  who  came  to  Vin- 
cennes  in  1792  and  taught  the  first  school  in 
Indiana,  appears  also  to  have  been  the  first  music 
teacher.  In  I'.ishop  Alerding's  chapters  on  'Tra- 
dition and  History  of  the  Diocese  of  Vincennes,' 
he  .says  of  Father  Flaget:  'He  also  formed  a 
chiss  of  singing  and  those  of  the  children  who 
ha<l  the  best  voices  were  exercised  in  singing 
French  canticles.  Tliey  sang  the  canticles  not 
only  in  the  school  and  in  the  church,  but  also 
while  laboring  in  the  fields.'  These  canticles 
were  hymns  taken  from  the  Vulgate  Bible  and 
sung  in  the  services  of  the  churches.  They  in- 
cluded the  Benedictus,  the  Benedicite,  the  Mag- 
nificat and  the  Nunc  Dimittis.     .     .     . 

"In  the  collection  of  the  Charles  Lasselle  MSS., 
now  in  the  State  library,  is  a  copy  of  a  French 
song,  entitled  "La  Guigniolet."  sung  on  New 
Year's  eve.  The  leader  sang  one  or  two  lines, 
then  stopped,  and  the  same  was  repeated  by  the 
company.  Before  retiring  a  last  song  was  sung." 
— Mivica  Hoaglaiid. 

The  Early  Fur  Trade. — W  hat  may  be  called 
the  first  industry  of  the  Mississippi  valley,  the 
fur  trade,  was  one  of  such  importance  commer- 
cially as  to  be  a  chief  cause  of  the  friction  be- 
tween France  and  England  in  America  prior  to 
the  French  and  Indian  war.  Interest  in  territory 
for  its  own  sake  seems  to  have  been  remote  and 
secondary,  compared  with  the  immediate  interest 
in  a  traffic  which  contributed  to  national  revenue 
and  built  up  large  private  fortunes.  This  applies 
to  no  locality  more  than  to  Indiana,  where  one 
vast  forest  teemed  with  fur-bearing  animals.  The 
agents  of  the  fur  trade  were  the  real  explorers, 
and  the  recorded  discoveries  of  the  avowed  ex- 
plorers were,  doubtless,  meager  beside,  the  un- 
recorded ones  of  the  men  who  traversed  the 
streams  wherever  there  was  a  chance  of  Indian 
trade.  At  one  time  during  the  French  regime  the 
annual  trade  at  the  post  of  Ouiatanon  alone  is 
said  to  have  been  £8,000,  and  in  the  year  1786 
the  records  of  the  custom  house  at  Quebec 
showed  an  exportation  amounting  to  £275,977.* 
One  of  the  early  acts  of  William  Henr}'  Harrison 
as  governor  of  Indiana  Territory  (in  1801-2) 
was  to  grant  trading  licenses,  the  local  ])rivilegcs 
of  each  trader  being  delmcd.  and  a  list  of  fortv 

of  these  within  the  present  limits  of  the  State 
has  been  preserved.*  A  subsequent  list  extends 
the  trade,  as  to  time,  to  1857,  before  which  period 
it  had  ceased  to  be  "Indian  trade."  The  per- 
sistence with  which  wild  animals  continued  to 
exist  in  face  of  this  ruthless  war  of  extermina- 
tion is  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  in  the  middle 
of  the  last  century,  at  least  a  hundred  and  fifty 
years  after  the  wholesale  killing  was  inaugurated, 
the  Ewing  brothers,  whose  trading  houses  were 
at  Fort  Wayne  and  Logansport,  are  said  to  have 
amassed  about  two  million  dollars  at  the  business. 

The  men  employed  as  carriers  by  the  early 
French  traders  were  the  famous  coureurs  des 
bois,  a  class  of  half-wild  woodsmen  which  stands 
out  picturesquely  in  history.  The  business,  as 
conducted  through  the  carriers  of  a  little  later 
period,  is  thus  described  by  Dillon  : 

"The  furs  and  peltries  which  were  obtained 
from  the  Indians  were  generally  transported  to 
Detroit.  The  skins  were  dried,  compressed  and 
secured  in  packs.  Each  pack  weighed  about  one 
hundred  pounds.  A  pirogue,  or  boat,  that  was 
sufficiently  large  to  carry  forty  packs  required 
the  labor  of  four  men  to  manage  it  on  its  voyage. 
In  favorable  stages  of  the  Wabash  river  such  a 
vessel,  under  the  management  of  skilful  boatmen, 
was  propelled  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  a  day 
against  the  current.  After  ascending  the  river 
Wabash  and  the  Little  river  to  the  portage  near 
Fort  Wayne,  the  traders  carried  their  packs  over 
the  portage  to  the  head  of  the  ]\Iaumee,  where 
they  were  again  placed  in  pirogues,  or  in  keel- 
boats,  to  be  transported  to  Detroit.  At  this 
place  the  furs  and  skins  were  exchanged  for 
blankets,  guns,  knives,  powder,  bullets,  intoxicat- 
ing liquors,  etc.,  with  which  the  traders  returned 
to  their  several  posts."  Elsewhere  the  same 
authority  tells  us  that  the  articles  carried  by  the 
French  traders  were,  chiefly,  "coarse  blue  and 
red  cloths,  fine  scarlet,  guns,  powder,  balls, 
knives,  hatchets,  traps,  kettles,  hoes,  blankets, 
coarse  cottons,  ribbons,  beads,  vermilion,  to- 
bacco, spirituous  liquors,  etc."  How  profitable 
the  trade  was  may  be  gathered  from  the  state- 
ment that  the  value  placed  on  l)ullets  was  four 
dollars  per  hundred  and  powder  was  priced  at 
one  dollar  per  pint  by  American  traders. 

•■  C.  B.  Lasselle,  in  Induma  Quarterly  JNtagazine  of  History, 
vol.   ii.   Xo.    1. 



Names  of  the  Wabash  River. — The  name 
Wabash  is  a  rehc  of  the  Miami  language,  which 
has  undergone  various  transformations.  In  a 
map  giving  the  Indian  names  of  our  streams,  pre- 
pared by  Daniel  Hough,  and  published  in  the 
Indiana  Geological  Report  for  1882,  the  name  is 
given  as  Wah-bah-shik-ka.  On  the  later  French 
maps  it  is  usually  given  as  Ouabache,  with  some 
earlier  variants.  This  was  the  French  attempt 
to  spell  the  Indian  pronunciation,  the  ou  being 
equivalent  to  our  w.  When  this,  in  turn,  became 
Anglicized,  it  still  was  an  attempt  at  the  Indian 
form.  At  one  time  the  French  named  the  river 
St.  Jerome,  and  it  so  appears  on  a  few  maps,  but 
the  change  was  short-lived.  W^abi  or  Wapi,  ac- 
cording to  Dunn,  is  an  Algonquin  stem  signifying 
white,  and  Gabriel  Godfroy,  a  recent  Miami,  who 
retained  the  lore  of  his  race,  affirmed  that  the 
Wah-bah-shik-ka  derived  its  name  from  the  for- 
mation of  white  stone  over  which  it  ran  in  one 
part  of  its  course. 

White  river  also  retains  in  part  the  Indian 
nomenclature,  the  original  name  being,  as  a 
French  map  gives  it,  Ouapikaminou,  Ouapi  sig- 
nifying white. 

Early  French  Maps. — Among  the  valued  pos- 
sessions of  the  State  library  are  two  large  atlases, 
in  which  are  mounted  a  chronological  series  of 
old  maps  of  the  Americas — Spanish,  French, 
English  and  American,  which,  covering  a  period 
of  more  than  two  hundred  years,  reveal  interest- 
ingly the  growth  of  geographical  knowledge  of 
the  western  hemisphere.  Those  by  French  char- 
tographers,  of  or  including  the  Mississippi  valley, 
running  from  1616  to  the  latter  part  of  the  eight- 
eenth century,  are  of  special  interest  as  connected 
with  the  French  explorations  and  occupancy. 
The  earliest  of  these,  one  by  P.  Bertius,  1616. 
gives  the  coasts  of  the  continent  in  distorted  out- 
line, and  a  very  crude  knowledge  of  the  great 
lakes  is  revealed,  but  all  the  interior  is,  of  course, 
one  vast  unexplored  blank.  Four  by  Guillaume 
Delisle,  dated  1703,  1720,  1722  and  1733  (the 
latter  date  doubtful),  show  the  slowly  changing 
ideas  during  that  span.  In  1703  the  Ohio,  with- 
out its  branches,  is  given  as  "Ouabache  autrement 
appellee  Ohio  ou  Belle  Riviere."  It  rises  in  west- 
ern Pennsylvania  in  what  appears  to  be  a  good- 
sized  lake,  called  "L.  Ouiasont,"  and.  in  its  upper 
course,  flows  parallel  with  Lake  Erie  through 
what  we  would  now  describe  as  northern  Ohio. 

I  he  lllinoi,-,  and  Kankakee  river>  i  not  named) 
have  their  rise  in  two  small  lakes  in  northern  In- 
diana. This  and  subsequent  maps  seem  to  indi- 
cate some  knowledge  of  the  lakes  of  Kosciusko 
county  and  the  belief  that  the  Kankakee  was  tbeir 
outlet.  By  1720  a  very  fair  knowledge  of  all  the 
great  lakes,  as  to  relative  size,  locations  and 
shapes,  and  also  of  the  Mississippi,  Ohio  and 
Illinois  rivers,  is  revealed.  In  1722  the  Wabash 
is  first  given,  though  ver\-  incorrectly,  it  flowing 
almost  parallel  with  the  ( )hio.  west  by  south. 
The  Ohio  is  so  named  in  its  ujjper  course,  but 
farther  down  is  given  as  "Ouabache."  In  1733 
the  Wabash  (unnamed)  is  quite  different,  being 
too  far  to  the  west  and  flowing  irom  the  north 
instead  of  northeast. 

Another  chartographer,  of  1726,  gives  the  Mau- 
mee  and  its  branches  imperfectly,  but  not  the 
Wabash.  One  of  1742  gives  the  "Hohio," 
"Oubach"  and  Maumee  (the  latter  unnamed). 
The  former  still  rises  in  its  lake  among  the  moun- 
tains of  western  Pennsylvania  :  the  Wabash  runs 
almost  parallel,  rising  in  a  small  lake  in  Ohio. 
As  yet  there  is  no  indication  that  the  map- 
makers  knew  of  the  portage  between  the  Maumee 
and  the  Wabash.  Branches  are  shown  flowing 
into  the  W^abash  from  the  north  and  west,  but 
not  from  the  south  and  east.  A  mountain-like 
elevation  is  shown  in  what  appears  to  be  about 
the  center  of  Indiana.  In  1746  the  Wabash,  given 
with  greater  accuracy,  is  first  called  the  "R.  de  S. 
Jerome,"  and  "F.  des  Miamis."  at  the  Maumee. 
evidently  indicates  the  old  French  fort  of  that 
name.  The  Kankakee  is  here  given  as  "Ilua- 
kiki."  In  1755  \\'hite  river  is  first  shown,  with 
both  its  branches.  'M.  Seutteri's  map  of  1720 
(see  page  11)  is  chiefly  notable  as  the  best 
one,  showing  the  boundary  lines  between  the 
English  colonies  and  New  France  and  the  one 
separating  the  two  great  French  provinces.  Can- 
ada and  Louisiana.  This  latter  line,  running 
eastward  from  the  ^lississippi  to  the  Maryland 
l)order,  cut  through  Indiana.  <  >ne  rather  won- 
ders why  the  French  should  c<:intiiuie  to  make 
maps  of  the  region  after  its  surrender  to  the 
British,  but  there  are  at  lea-t  three  or  four  after 
that  event.  J.  Leopold  Imbert.  1777.  first 
shows  Fort  Ouiatanon.  which  is  marked  "Fort 
Francois."  and  a  note  at  "F.  .ies  Miamis"  states 
that  it  was  built  by  the  French  in  1750.  ("Batit 
par  Ies  Francais  en  1750."  i    .\s  this  post  appears 



on  the  maj)  of  1746,  Imbert's  date  probably  refers 
to  the  rebuilding  of  the  fort  after  its  destruction 
by  fire.  Jt  is  curious  that  none  of  the  maps  be- 
fore that  of  1771,  by  Bonne,  indicate  the  exist- 
ence of  Vincennes.  Even  as  late  as  1806  we  find 
it  absent  from  that  of  E.  Mentelle,  though  on  this 
map  are  both  "Weauteneau"  and  "Fort  Miami" 
— the  latter  an  anachronism,  for  before  that  time 
Fort  Wayne  had  succeeded  to  Fort  Miami. 

Two  curiosities  among  these  maps  are  an  Eng- 
lish revision  of  d'Anville's  French  map,  of  abotit 
the  time  of  the  French  and  Indian  war,  and  a 
German  jjroduction  of  1821.  The  first  has  elab- 
orate notes,  in  which  it  is  claimed  that  the  Eng- 
lish were  entitled  to  the  country  by  early  discov- 
ery, they  having  "thoroughly  explored"  to  and 
beyond  the  INlississippi  as  early  as  1654-64.  In 
the  German  map  the  great  lakes  and  the  states  of 
the  northwest  territory  are  strangely  distorted. 
Lake  Michigan  touches  Indiana  east  of  its  longi- 
tudinal center,  and  there  are  mountain  ranges 
across  northern  Indiana  and  throughout  Ohio. 

Geologic  Cause  in  French  History. — An  in- 
teresting geological  story,  apropos  here,  which 
illustrates  how  remote  natural  causes  may  some- 
times enter  into  hvnnan  history,  is  given  by  Mr. 
Charles  R.  Dryer,  in  the  Sixteenth  Geological 
Report  of  Indiana  (1888).  The  French  in  their 
intercourse  with  the  Mississippi  valley,  as  even 
the  casual  reader  of  history  is  supposed  to  know, 
passed  into  the  interior  valley  from  the  basin  of 
the  great  lakes  by  the  rivers  of  the  two  systems, 
making  the  connections  over  various  short  port- 
ages at  water-sheds  where  the  navigable  waters 

of  opposite-flowing  streams  almost  met.  There 
were  six  or  seven  of  these  trade  routes,  and  one 
of  the  most  direct,  with  a  comparatively  short 
and  easy  portage,  was  from  Lake  Erie  up  the 
Maumee  to  the  point  where  Fort  Wayne  stands, 
thence  about  nine  miles  by  level  land  to  the  Aboit, 
or  Little  Wabash,  thence  down  the  A\'abash.  An 
examination  of  the  map  reveals  a  peculiar  nat- 
ural feature  at  this  portage.  The  St.  Joseph  and 
St.  Mary's  rivers,  flowing,  respectively,  from  the 
northeast  and  southeast,  unite  at  the  point  far- 
thest west,  then,  as  the  Maumee,  double  curiously 
on  their  previous  courses  and  flow  back  to  Lake 
Erie.  The  three,  presenting  a  sagittate  or  arrow- 
head form,  reach  into  the  fork  formed  by  the 
branches  of  the  Wabash,  thus  bringing  the  waters 
of  the  two  systems  almost  together  at  navigable 
points.  This  odd  situation,  Mr.  Dryer  explains 
in  terms  of  glacial  deposit,  the  explanation  be- 
ing that  vast  lobes  of  ice  in  the  glacial  period 
crowding  each  other  from  north  and  east  heaped 
up  their  ridges  of  morainic  matter  in  such  fash- 
ion as  to  determine  the  subsequent  river  valleys. 
In  view  of  this  theory  it  is  not  fanciful  to  say 
that  the  blind  forces  of  nature,  long  before  the 
advent  of  man,  predetermined  very  definitely  the 
little  chapter  of  French  history  in  the  Wabash 
valley,  and  whatever  relics  of  it  may  have  sur- 
vived in  our  later  history.  More  than  that,  it 
determined  at  a  later  day  a  very  important  trade 
route  (the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal,  which  fol- 
lowed the  Maumee  and  Wabash  valleys)  that 
played  no  little  part  in  peopling  and  developing 
the  Wal)ash  valley. 



From  the  close  of  the  French  and  Indian  war 
until  1779  the  country  northwest  of  the  Ohio 
river  was  under  British  rule,  the  occupancy  by 
that  nation  consisting  of  small  military  forces 
planted  at  Detroit,  Vincennes,  Kaskaskia  and  two 
or  three  other  points  along  the  Mississippi  river. 
The  invasion  of  this  region  and  its  conquest  by 
George  Rogers  Clark  makes  one  of  the  heroic 
and  romantic  chapters  of  American  history.  But 
for  such  a  leader  in  the  right  place  at  the  right 
time  there  is  little  doubt  that  the  vast  territory 
in  question,  now  comprising  the  five  great  States 
of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Michigan,  Illinois  and  Wiscon- 
sin, would  not  have  been  ceded  at  the  treaty  of 
Paris,  following  the  revolutionary  war.  England 
wished  to  retain  it  as  a  "buffer"  territory  to  sep- 
arate her  Canada  possessions  from  those  of  the 
United  States.  In  deciding  the  question  it  was 
a  case  where  "possession  was  nine  points  of  the 
law,"  and  we  had  possession. 

The  Situation. — When  the  American  colonies 
were  fighting  desperately  for  independence  and  a 
national  future,  Kentucky,  a  province  of  Vir- 
ginia, was  the  extreme  western  frontier.  Be- 
tween it  and  Canada,  where  the  English  were 
firmly  entrenched,  stretched  the  territory  in 
question,  a  harboring  place  for  savage  allies  of 
the  enemy  who  repeatedly  threatened  and  terror- 
ized the  Kentucky  settlements. 

The  Need  of  a  Leader ;  George  Rogers  Clark. 
— The  federal  congress  was  not  ignorant  of  or 
indift'erent  to  this  state  of  aft'airs  in  the  far  west, 
and  it  probably  would,  eventually,  have  moved 
in  the  matter  when  less  distracted  by  other 
troubles,  though  how  fatal  too  long  delay  might 
have  been  is  a  matter  for  guessing.  However,  it 
is  a  quite  safe  historical  assumption  that  the 
embryo  nation  was  fortunate  in  having  on  the 
endangered  territory  a  man  of  initiative,  states- 
manship, military  ability  and  tremendous  resolu- 
tion. This  person  was  George  Rogers  Clark,  a 
Virginian  by  birth,  but  a  Kentuckian  by  adoption, 
who,  by  his  strength  of  character,  had  become  a 
leader  in  the  new  settlements,  and  who  knew  the 

conditions  much  more  intimately  than  did  the 
government  in  the  east.  The  elements  that  come 
into  relief  when  we  examine  his  famous  cam- 
paign and  its  successful  outcome  are  this  un- 
erring, fundamental  comprehension  of  conditions 

Reproduction    of    Porirait    of    ( iciicral    ('iO(ir.i.;o    Kniicrs 
Clark.    (ProiHTty  of  X'iiiccnnes  Uiiiver>ity. ) 

and  men.  a  grim  will  that  no  obstacle  Cduld  daunt 
and  a  sagacity  that  gave  greatness  to  his  leader- 
ship ;  and  for  this  combination  of  (|ualilies  five 
great  commonwealths  of  subscciuent  days  owe 
him  ])erpetual  gratitude. 

Clark's  Idea  and  First  Steps. —  The  idea  that 
took  possession  of  Clark  was  the  invasion  and 
approi)riation  of  the  great  halt -possessed  land 
north  of  the  ( )hio.  Mis  purpose  was  defensive 
as  well  as  acciuisitive,  for  the  reasons  above  given 
— the  continual  danger  of  Indian  forays;  l)Ut  the 
difiicultv  of  securing  ade(|uate  sup])orl  from  the 
authorities  made  the  proiuisition  a  hard  one,  and 




the  first  step  was  to  create  faith  in  his  plans  and 
get  the  support.  Like  most  men  who  elaljorate 
schemes  of  maL,niitU(le  he  did  not  wear  his  heart 
on  his  sleeve.  After  the  inception  of  his  idea  he 
digested  it  well,  but  shared  it  with  few,  one  good 
reason  for  this  lieing  that  llic  undertaking  he  con- 
templated must,  for  its  success,  fall  as  a  surprise 
on  the  enemy.  As  revealing  at  once  the  slow  in- 
cubation of  his  scheme  and  his  thoroughness  in 
preparing  the  way,  as  early  as  the  summer  of 
1777  he  sent  two  spies  into  the  northern  territory 
for  the  purpose  of  gathering  more  explicit  infor- 
mation concerning  the  British  in  relation  to  the 
Indians.  His  plans  finally  thought  out,  his  next 
move  was  to  bring  them  before  the  powers  that 
could  give  the  necessary  authority  and  backing, 
and  to  this  end  he  went  to  Virginia,  where  he 
conferred  with  such  men  as  Patrick  Henry,  then 
governor  of  Virginia ;  Thomas  Jefiferson,  George 
Mason  and  George  Wythe.  The  boldness  of 
Clark's  scheme  captivated  while  it  challenged 
doubts.  The  hazard  and  chances  of  disaster  were 
great,  but  the  possible  benefits  to  the  country  in 
the  future,  aside  from  the  present  question  of 
annoyance  and  danger  to  the  Kentucky  country, 
after  careful  consideration,  outweighed  the  risk, 
and  in  the  end  the  Council  of  Virginia  advised 
the  appropriation  of  i  1.200  for  the  purpose  of  an 
"expedition  against  Kaskaskia,"  to  be  undertaken 
"with  as  little  delay  and  as  much  secrecy  as  pos- 
sible." This  advice  was  acted  upon  by  Governor 
Henry,  and  Clark  was  authorized  to  raise  a  force 
of  three  hundred  and  fifty  men  for  the  campaign. 
Authority  From  Virginia;  Letters  of  In- 
struction.— At  this  point  the  adventure  takes  on 
a  truly  dramatic  character.  With  a  view  to  the 
secrecy  necessary  to  the  ho])efulness  of  the  enter- 
prise, a  set  of  instructions  which  was  made  pub- 
lic, the  aim  of  which  was  "to  divert  attention 
frdui  the  real  object,"  commanded  Colonel  Clark 
to  enlist  seven  com])anics  of  men  to  act  as  militia  ; 
the  further  language  of  the  instructions  convey- 
ing the  idea  that  the  pur])()se  was  for  the  pro- 
tection of  Kentucky.  Under  cover  of  this  bogus 
pul)lication  Clark  received  from  ("lOvcrnor  Henry 
a  priwilc  letter  of  instructions  wliieli  read  as 
follows : 

Virj^iiiia,  Set. 

in   Couiuil,  W'nislmiK,  Jaiiy  2(1,   1778. 
Lieut.  Colonel  (ieor).;e  RoKcrs  Clark: 

You  are  to  i)rocec(l  with  all  convenient  .speed  to  raise 
seven  companies  <if  soldiers  to  consist  of  fifty  men  each, 

olificered  in  the  usual  manner  and  armed  most  properly 
for  the  enterprise,  and  with  this  force  attack  the  Brit- 
ish post  at  Kaskask}'. 

It  is  conjectured  that  there  are  many  pieces  of  can- 
non and  military  stores  to  considerable  amount  [?1  at 
that  place,  the  taking  and  preservation  of  which  would 
be  a  valuable  acquisition  to  the  State.  If  you  are  so 
fortunate,  therefore,  as  to  succeed  in  j'our  expectation 
you  will  take  every  possible  measure  to  secure  the  ar- 
tillery and  stores  and  whatever  may  advantage  the 

For  the  transportation  of  the  troops,  provisions,  etc., 
down  the  Ohio  you  are  to  apply  to  the  commanding 
officer  at  Fort  Pitt  for  boats,  etc.  During  the  whole 
transaction  you  are  to  take  especial  care  to  keep  the 
true  destination  of  your  force  a  secret.  Its  success  de- 
pends upon  this.  Orders  are  therefore  given  to  Captain 
Smith  to  secure  the  two  men  from  Kaskasky.  Similar 
conduct  will  be  proper  in  similar  cases.  It  is  earnestly 
desired  that  you  show  humanity  to  such  British  sub- 
jects and  other  persons  as  fall  in  your  hands.  If  the 
white  inhabitants  at  that  post  and  the  neighborhood  will 
give  undoubted  evidence  of  their  attachment  to  this 
State  (for  it  is  certain  they  live  within  its  limits)  by 
taking  the  test  provided  by  law  and  by  every  other  way 
and  means  in  their  power,  let  them  be  treated  as  fellow 
citizens  and  their  persons  and  property  duly  secured. 
Assistance  and  protection  against  all  enemies  whatever 
shall  be  afforded  them  and  the  commonwealth  of  Vir- 
ginia is  pledged  to  accomplish  it.  But  if  these  people 
will  not  accede  to  these  reasonable  demands  they  must 
feel  the  miseries  of  war  under  the  direction  of  that  hu- 
manity that  has  hitherto  distinguished  Americans,  and 
which  it  is  expected  you  will  ever  consider  as  the  rule 
of  your  conduct,  and  from  which  you  are  in  no  instance 
to  depart. 

The  corps  you  are  to  command  are  to  receive  the  pay 
and  allowance  of  militia,  and  to  act  under  the  laws  and 
regulations  of  this  State  now  in  force.  The  inhabitants 
of  this  post  will  be  informed  by  you  that  in  case  they 
accede  to  the  offer  of  becoming  citizens  of  this  com- 
monwealth a  proper  garrison  will  be  maintained  among 
them  and  every  attention  bestowed  to  render  their  com- 
merce beneficial,  the  fairest  prospects  being  opened  to 
the  dominions  of  both  France  and  Spain. 

It  is  in  contemplation  to  establish  a  post  near  the 
mouth  of  Ohio.  Cannon  will  be  wanted  to  fortify  it. 
Part  of  those  at  Kaskasky  will  be  easily  brought  thither 
or  otherwise  secured  as  circumstances  will  make  nec- 

You  are  to  apply  to  General  Hand  for  powder  and 
lead  necessary  for  this  expedition.  If  he  can't  supply 
it  the  person  who  has  that  which  Captain  Ljmn  brought 
from  Orleans  can.  Lead  was  sent  to  Hampshire  by  my 
orders,  and  that  may  be  delivered  you.  Wishing  you 
success,  I  am.  Sir,  Your  h'ble  serv. 

P.  Henry. 

One  who  wishes  to  enter  intimately  into  the 
romantic  story  of  Clark's  campaign  should  care- 
fully read  this  letter,  as  it  fixes  clearly  and 
authoritatively  the  policy  and  program  of  the 
campaign — a  program  that  was  carried  out  with 
little  deviation,  although  Governor  Henry  in  pri- 
vate conversation  with  Clark  implied  that  his 
written  instructions  might  be  construed  with  a 
certain  latitude  and  discretion. 

Recruiting  a  Military  Force;  Difificulties. — 
Thus  empowered  and  provided  with  money  for 
the  expenses  of  the  expedition  Clark,  with  char- 



acteristic  energy,  proceeded  to  the  execution  of 
his  plans.  His  first  base  of  operations  was  a 
western  settlement  on  the  Monongahela  river 
some  distance  above  Pittsburg,  known  as  Red 
Stone  or  Red  Stone  Old  Fort.  His  officers  were 
appointed  and  commissioned  to  raise  recruits  in 
western  Pennsylvania,  Virginia,  Carolina  and  the 
Kentucky  country,  and  in  this  preliminary  busi- 
ness the  first  serious  difiiculty  developed.  It 
must  be  remembered  that  the  real  reason  for  this 
recruiting  was  not  divulged.  Secrecy,  be  it  re- 
peated, was  essential  to  success,  and  the  instruc- 
tions made  public  by  Governor  Henry  conveyed 
the  impression  that  the  force  to  be  raised  was  for 
the  protection  of  Kentucky.  The  proposition  to 
draw  ofi^  from  other  parts  of  the  frontier  "for 
the  defense  of  a  few  detached  inhabitants  who 
had  better  be  removed"  met  with  an  opposition 
that  threatened  to  nip  the  whole  scheme  in  the 
bud  and  that  probably  would  have  stopped  short 
a  less  determined  leader.  As  Clark  himself  ex- 
pressed it :  "Many  leading  men  in  the  frontiers 
combined  and  did  everything  that  lay 
in  their  power  to  stop  the  men  that  had  enlisted, 
and  set  the  whole  frontier  in  an  uproar,  even 
condescended  to  harbor  and  protect  those  that 
deserted.  I  found  my  case  desperate — the  longer 
I  remained  the  worse  it  was."*  Out  of  the  men 
that  Captains  Joseph  Bowman  and  Leonard 
Helm  had  succeeded  in  recruiting  "two-thirds  of 
them  was  stopped,"  we  are  told,  those  that  were 
left  numbering  about  one  hundred  and  fifty. 
Clark,  however,  was  not  to  be  thwarted,  and 
equipping  himself  with  boats  and  supplies  at 
Pittsburg  he  put  down  river  with  his  little  force, 
accompanied  by  several  adventurous  families 
from  the  Pennsylvania  country,  borrowing  hope 
from  the  information  sent  him  that  one  of  his 
recruiting  officers,  Major  William  Smith,  would 
join  him  at  the  falls  of  the  Ohio  with  nearly  two 
hundred  men,  from  the  Holston  river  country, 
in  what  is  now  eastern  Tennessee.  But  he  was 
doomed  to  bitter  disappointment — a  part  of  one 
company  was  all  that  ever  appeared  of  Major 
Smith's  two  hundred  men. 

Military  Base  at  Falls  of  the  Ohio. — At  the 
falls  of  the  Ohio.  Clark  established  his  second 
base  of  operations  on  a  long,  narrow  island  after- 
ward  known   as    "Corn    Island,"   that   then    lay 

above  the  falls  where  the  I'ennsylvania  railroad 
bridge  now  spans  the  river.*  The  falls,  as  be- 
ing the  dividing  place  between  the  upper  and 
lower  river,  was  deemed  the  logical  point  for  a 
permanent  defensive  post.  Clark's  reason  for 
settling  on  the  island,  at  least  temporarily,  was 
twofold — better  protection  from  hostile  bands 
of  Indians  and  the  more  effective  guarding 
against  desertion,  which  danger  would  proljaljly 
follow  the  announcement  of  the  commander's 
real  plans.  'I^he  sagacity  of  the  latter  surmise 
was  not  at  fault  in  this,  as  the  sequel  showed. 

The  settlement  on  Corn  Island  consisted  of  a 
sufficient  numljer  of  rude  caliins  built  from  the 
timber  growing  on  the  island,  and  it  took  on  the 
character  of  a  real  "settlement"  by  virtue  of  the 
families  that  had  thus  far  accompanied  the  exi)e- 

Clark's  Memoir. 

Early  Indiana  Types. — From  Dillon's  History 
of  Iiidiaim. 

dition,  which  were  now  ai)portioned  ground  for 
gardens,  and  an  interesting  passage  in  "Clark's 
Memoir"  is  to  the  effect  that  when  word  was 
carried  back  to  the  people  on  the  Monongahela 
"great  numbers  moved  down,"  and  that  this  was 
"one  of  the  principal  causes  of  the  rapid  progress 
of  the  settlement  of  Kentucky." 

Clark  lingered  at  Corn  Island  the  better  ])art 
of  June,  1778,  still  hoping  to  swell  his  little  force, 
but  with  disheartening  results.  According  to 
William    H.    English,    who    is    the    leading   au- 

*  The  name,  which  was  atlopted  after  Clark's  occupaiuy,  seems 
to  have  been  borrowed  from  a  tradition  that  the  lirst  corn  in 
that  region  was  raised  there.  The  island  is  described  as  a  nar- 
row tract  about  four-fifths  of  a  mile  long  by  five  hundred  yards 
at  its  greatest  breadth.  If  it  now  existed  the  Pennsylvania  rail- 
road bridge  from  Jcflfersonvillc  to  Louisville  would  pass  directly 
over  it.  A  heavy  timber  growth  originally  protected  it  from  the 
ravages  of  the  river,  but  with  the  removal  of  this  protection,  it 
gradually  disappeared  until  washed  away  entirely.  Colonel  R.  T. 
Durrett,  of  Louisville,  did  what  he  could  to  get  that  city  to  pro- 
tect the  historic  spot,  but  without  avail. 



ihority  on  all  relating  to  this  campaign,  "it  is 
probably  a  fair  conclusion  that  Clark  brought 
with  him  to  the  falls  about  one  hundred  and  fifty 
men  ;  that  thirty-five  or  forty  were  added  to  his 
forces  while  at  the  falls  ;  that  he  left  not  exceed- 
ing ten  guards  on  Corn  Island  and  took  with  him 
on  the  Kaskaskia  campaign  about  one  hundred 
and  seventy-five  men.  It  is  possible  that  the 
officers  should  be  added  to  the  number,  but  it  is 
the  author's  belief  that  the  effective  force  with 
him  in  the  campaign  against  Kaskaskia  did  not  at 
anv  time  exceed  two  hundred,  which  was  cer- 
tainly less  than  half  the  numl)er  he  at  one  time 

Further  Difficulties ;  Clark's  Determination. 
— Clark's  own  words  reveal  at  once  the  situation 
and  the  character  of  the  man.  "I  was  sensible," 
he  says,  "of  the  impression  it  would  have  on 
many,  to  be  taken  near  a  thousand  (miles)  from 
the  body  of  their  country  to  attack  a  people  five 
times  their  number,  and  merciless  tribes  of  In- 
dians, then  allies  and  determined  enemies  to  us. 
1  knew  that  my  case  was  desperate,  but  the  more 
1  reflected  on  my  weakness  the  more  I  was 
pleased  with  the  enterprise." 

To  quote  Mr.  English  again:  "He  had  en- 
countered unexpected  obstacles  and  disappoint- 
ments from  the  time  his  recruiting  commenced. 
He  had  estimated  that  the  complete  success  of 
his  enterjM'ise  required  a  force  of  five  hundred 
men.  .  .  .  and  here  he  was  with  less  than 
two  hundred.  ...  It  was  a  turning  point, 
not  (jnly  in  his  life,  Init,  i)Ossibly,  in  the  destiny 
of  his  country,  for  if  the  expedition  had  broken 
u])  then  who  knows  what  would  have  been  the 
future  of  the  vast  territory  northwest  of  the 
( )hio  river,  or  where  would  have  been  the  present 
boundaries  of  the  United  States?  .  .  .  He 
realized  tliat  inaction  was  now  his  greatest  dan- 
ger, and  that  an  immediate  movement  against  the 
eneniy  was  the  best  and  only  way  to  hold  his 
forces  and  win  success." 

Clark  Divulges  His  Real  Object;  Attempts 
at  Desertion. —  It  was  not  until  the  eve  of  the  day 
set  for  (le])artnre  that  Clark  divulged  to  his  men 
his  real  ol)ic-i-(.      I  le  says  : 

".\tter  my  making  known  my  instructions 
almost  every  gentleman  espoused  the  enterprise 
and  i)lainly   saw   the  utility   of   it,  and   su])iiosed 

*  "Cniuiucst   (if   llic   Niirllnvfst." 

they  saw  the  salvation  of  Kentucky  almost  in 
their  reach  ;  but  some  repined  that  we  were  not 
strong  enough  to  put  it  beyond  all  doubt.  The 
soldiery  in  general  debated  on  the  subject,  but 
determined  to  follow  their  officers.  Some  were 
alarmed  at  the  thought  of  being  taken  at  so  great 
a  distance  into  the  enemy's  country,  that  if  they 
should  have  success  in  the  first  instance  they 
might  be  attacked  in  their  posts  without  a  possi- 
bility of  getting  succor  or  making  their  retreat. 
Some  dissatisfaction  was  discovered  in 
Captain  Dillard's  company,  consequently  the 
boats  were  well  secured  and  sentinels  placed 
where  it  [was]  thought  there  was  a  possibility 
of  their  wading  from  the  island.  Aly  design  was 
to  take  those  from  the  island  down  on  our  way 
who  would  not  attempt  to  desert,  but  got  out- 
generaled by  their  lieutenant,  whom  I  had  previ- 
ously conceived  a  very  tolerable  opinion  of. 
They  had,  by  swimming  in  the  day,  discovered 
that  the  channel  opposite  their  camp  might  be 
waded,  and  a  little  before  day  himself  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  company  slipped  down  the 
bank  and  got  to  the  opposite  shore  before  they 
were  discovered  by  the  sentinels.  Vexed  at  the 
idea  of  their  escape  in  the  manner  they  did,  as  one 
of  my  principal  motives  for  taking  post  on  the 
island  was  to  prevent  desertion,  and  intending  to 
set  out  the  next  day  I  was  undetermined  for  [a] 
few  minutes  what  to  do.  as  it  might  take  a  party 
several  days  to  overtake  [them],  and,  having  no 
distrust  of  those  who  remained,  the  example  was 
not  immediately  dangerous,  but  might  prove  so 
hereafter ;  and  recollecting  that  there  was  a  num- 
ber of  horses  [belonging]  to  gentlemen  from 
Harrodsburg,  I  ordered  a  strong  party  to  purstie 
them,  and  for  the  foot  and  horse  to  relieve  each 
other  regularly,  and  so  put  to  death  every  man 
in  their  ])ower  who  would  not  surrender.  They 
overhauled  them  in  about  twenty  miles.  The  de- 
serters, discovering  them  at  a  distance,  scattered 
in  the  woods ;  only  seven  or  eight  w^ere  taken. 
The  rest  made  their  way  to  the  different  posts  ; 
many  who  were  not  woodsmen  almost  perished. 
The  ])oor  lieutenant  and  the  few  who  remainetl 
with  him,  after  sufi'ering  almost  all  that  could  be 
felt  from  hunger  and  fatigue,  arrived  at  Har- 
rodstown.  Having  heard  of  his  conduct  [they] 
would  not,  for  some  time,  sufi'er  him  to  come  into 
their  houses  nor  give  him  anything  to  eat.     On 



the  return  of  the  party  the  soldiers  burnt  and 
hung  his  effigy."* 


The  Outlook. — The  hrst  objective  of  Clark's 
general  campaign  was  Kaskaskia  and  two  or 
three  minor  posts  on  the  Mississippi  river  within 
the  present  State  of  Illinois.  The  departure  of 
the  little  army  of  less  than  two  hundred  men 
from  Corn  Island  on  June  24,  1778.  [properly 
marks  the  beginning  of  a  military  adventure  that 
for  reckless  courage,  heroic  performance,  good 
luck  and  great  results  hardly  hnds  a  parallel. 
The  force  the  leader  had  counted  on  as  necessary 
to  success  was  hardly  more  than  half  filled  out, 
and  the  difficulties  to  be  met  were  an  unknown 
quantity,  though  enough  was  known  to  make  the 
invasion  with  the  force  at  hand  seem,  by  every 
probability,  a  foolhardy  adventure.  Kaskaskia, 
Cahokia  and  Vincennes  were,  or  were  supposed 
to  be,  well  fortified  points,  ecjuipped  with  troops 
and  cannon ;  that  these  English  troops  would  be 
re-enforced  by  the  Erench  inhabitants  of  those 
settlements  was  more  than  likely,  and  a  yet  more 
formidable  factor  to  reckon  with  was  the  Indians, 
who  were  numerous  about  the  French  towns  and 
almost  certain  to  be  hostile  to  the  Americans. 
Collectively,  English,  French  and  Indians  were 
numerous  enough  to  swallow  up  the  little  band 
of  audacious  invaders.  Clark's  own  words,  in 
his  "Memoir,"  show  that  he  believed  Vincennes 
alone  to  have  contained  "near  four  hundred 
militia,  with  an  Indian  town  adjoining  and  great 
numbers  continually  in  the  neighborhood."  Add 
to  all,  as  an  influence  on  the  morale  of  the  sol- 
diers, they  were  bound  for  wilderness  regions 
"near  a  thousand  miles  from  the  body  of  their 
country,"  where  in  case  of  reverses,  their  chances 
for  getting  back  were  exceedingly  slender.  It 
was,  indeed,  as  one  historian  expresses  it,  "a 
dangerous  and  doubtful  mission." 

A  Spectacular  Start. — The  appreciation  of  the 
dangers  was  doubtless  quickened  by  the  very  first 
experience  of  the  men  as  they  left  Corn  Island 
in  their  boats — that  of  shooting  the  falls  of  the 
Ohio,  which  was  a  feat  by  no  means  free  from 
risk ;  and  as  if  all  things  conspired  to  breed  awe, 
an  almost  total  eclipse  of  the  sun  cast  its  weird 

*  Memoir.     The  editorial  brackets  are  in   English's  work. 

gloom  over  the  visible  world  while  the  hazardous 
trip  was  made  down  the  boiling  ra])ids;  which,  as 
Clark  says,  "caused  various  conjectures  among 
the  superstitious." 

Whatever  the  eft'ect  on  the  superstitious,  how- 
ever. It  nowise  deterred  the  expedition,  which 
from  the  moment  of  starting  proceeded  with  a 
vigor  and  celerity  that  was  well  symbolized  by 
that  preliminary  rush  down  the  rai)i(ls,  the  jour- 
ney down  the  river  being  i)ushed  day  and  night 
by  relays  of  oarsmen.  Fearful  of  the  strength  of 
Vincennes  and  mingling  caution  with  his  courage, 
Clark  resolved  to  first  attack  the  settlements  on 
the  Mississi])pi  river,  the  reason  being  that  he 
might,  in  case  of  reverse,  escape  into  Spanish  ter- 
ritory across  the  river ;  or.  if  successful,  he  might, 
as  he  ex])ressed  it.  "pave  our  way  to  the  ])0sses- 
sion  of  F^ost  St.  Vincent."  The  first  objective 
point  was  Kaskaskia.  on  the  Mississi])pi.  in  what 
is  now  Randol])h  county,  Illinois,  and  in  order 
to  avoid  detection  in  the  approach,  the  plan  was 
to  debark  before  reaching  the  Mississippi  and 
march  across  country  northwestward,  a  distance 
of  one  hundred  and  twentv  miles. 

A  Wilderness  March  and  the  First  Success. 
— This  plan  was  carried  out.  I'our  days  and 
nights  of  rowing  brought  them  to  a  point  on  the 
Ohio  below  the  mouth  of  the  Tennessee  river, 
known  as  Fort  Massac,  a  former  French  strong- 
hold that  had  been  aljandoned.  This  i)lace  had 
formerlv  been  connected  with  Kaskaskia  by  an 
old  I-'rench  military  road  that  was  now  mostly 
obliterated,  and  this  was  to  l)e  Clark's  land  route, 
though  it  seems  to  have  been  little  better  than 
no  road.  Fortunately,  at  their  debarking  jilace 
they  fell  in  with  a  ])arty  of  hunters,  ami  one  of 
these  was  utilized  as  a  guide  over  the  obscure 
trace.  As  there  were  no  ]iack  horses,  the  men 
had  to  carrv  such  impedimenta  as  was  necessary 
to  their  maintenance  on  the  way,  and  thus  handi- 
cap])ed,  suft'ering  sometimes  from  thirst  and  liun- 
ger.  thev  marched  for  six  days  over  a  rough 
wilderness  country.  ( >n  the  evening  of  the 
b^jurth  of  July  they  api)roached  their  goal,  after 
ten  coiisecnli\e  davs  of  strenuous  labor  and  har<l- 
shi])s.  having  been  without  food  the  latter  ]iart 
of  llie  march.  They  entered  the  jilace  l)y  night. 
undiscovered,  found  access  to  the  garrison,  which 
"was  so  fortified  that  it  might  have  successfully 
fought  a  thousand  men,"  and  without  the  firing 
of  a  gun  c;i])tured  town,  fort  ami  soldiers.     The 



surprise  of  the  garrison  was  as  sudden  and  com- 
])lele  as  that  of  Ticonderoga  hy  Ethan  Allen,  and 
the  Ijoldness  with  which  Clark  took  control  of  the 
streets  of  the  town  cowed  the  French  inhabitants 
utterly.  Among  the  latter  the  belief  had  been 
fostered  that  Americans  were  little  better  than 
savages.  Nothing  short  of  savage  treatment  and 
ex])ulsion  from  their  homes  was  anticipated,  and 
the  next  day  a  delegation  of  citizens,  headed  by 
the  priest,  waited  humbly  upon  Clark  with  the 
pathetic  request  that  they  be  allowed  to  take 
leave  of  each  other;  that  families  be  not  sep- 
arated, and  that  the  women  and  children  be  per- 
mitted to  keep  their  clothes  and  a  small  quantity 
of  provisions.  The  conqueror  diplomatically  let 
this  fear  work  for  a  while,  then  deftly  won  them 
over  and  strengthened  his  position  by  the  assur- 
ance that  they  might  have  all  the  rights  and  lib- 
erties of  American  citizens,  further  imparting  to 
them  the  news  that  the  king  of  France  had  joined 
with  the  Americans  in  this  war  with  England. 
As  a  result  of  this,  Clark  tells  us,  "The  scene 
was  changed  from  an  almost  mortal  dejection  to 
that  of  joy  in  the  extreme — the  bells  ringing,  the 
church  crowded,  returning  thanks ;  in  short, 
every  appearance  of  extravagant  joy  that  could 
till  a  place  with  almost  confusion." 

Further    Operations    on    the    Mississippi. — 
This  was  an  auspicious  beginning  for  the  con- 
quest of  the  northwest,  but  it  was  only  a  begin- 
ning.     Further   up   the    Mississippi    were   three 
other  French  settlements — Prairie  du  Roche,  St. 
riiilips  and  Cahokia — that  had  to  be  reckoned 
with,    and    Clark,    with    characteristic    vigor,    at 
once  despatched  one  of  his  officers.   Major  Jo- 
seph   Bowman,    with    thirty    men    mounted    on 
horses  that  belonged  to  the  French,  to  surprise 
those  points.     Their  capture  was  facilitated  by 
a  number  of  the  Kaskaskians  who  had  friends 
and  relatives  at  the  places  named,  and  who  ac- 
comi)anied    Bowman,    much    elated    with    their 
newly-ac([uired  importance  as  American  citizens. 
The    success    of    this    expedition    was    complete. 
Tlu'i\-  was  no  resistance.     Possession  was  taken 
(»t    ihc-    fort   which  had  been  established  at   Ca- 
hokia, the  ])rincip;d  town,  and  before  J^owman's 
return  nearly  three  hundred  additional  French- 
men had  taken  the  oath  of  fidelity  to  the  United 

*  Bowman's  letter  to  George  Drinker. 

Father  Gibault  and  Vincennes. — These  oper- 
ations,  which  may  be  regarded  as  constituting 
the  first  chapter  of  Clark's  campaign,  put  him  in 
possession  of  the  Illinois  country ;  but  Vincennes 
and  the  Wabash  country  were  of  equal  impor- 
tance.    From  the  French  priest.  Father  Gibault, 
he  learned  that  the  British  commandant  there. 
Governor  Abbott,  had  gone  with  his   force   on 
some   business   to   Detroit,   and   this   informant, 
who  was  won  over  completely  to  the  American 
cause,    suggested   that   with   his    influence   Vin- 
cennes might  be  secured  without  even  the  trouble 
of  an  expedition  against  it,  his  proposition  being 
that  he  go  thither  as   an   emissary.     The  plan 
pleased  Clark,  and  ten  days  after  the  taking  of 
Kaskaskia,  Gibault,  a  Doctor  La  font  and  their 
retinue  departed  for  the  Wabash  post.    Arriving 
there,  a  day  or  two  spent  in  explaining  matters 
sufficed,  and  the  inhabitants  repaired  in  a  body 
to  the  church,  there  to  take  the  oath  of  allegiance 
and  assume  the  status  of  American  citizens.     To 
further    win    their    confidence,    an    officer    was 
elected  from  their  own  number,  and  the  fort  was 
garrisoned   with  the  citizen   soldiery,   under  the 
American  flag.     The  report  of   this   success  to 
Clark  he  speaks  of  in  his  "Memoir"  as  "joyful 
news,"  for  he  adds,  "without  the  possession  of 
this  post  all  our  views  would  have  been  blasted." 
Subsequently,  he  sent  one  of  his  officers.  Captain 
Leonard  Helm,  to  take  command  of  the  fort,  and 
Captain  Bowman  was  put  in  charge  at  Cahokia. 
An     Interval     of     Diplomacy. — The     seven 
months  intervening  between  the  capture  of  Kas- 
kaskia  and   the   final   march   against   Vincennes 
seem  quiet  and  uneventful  by  comparison  with 
the   more  brilliant  performances   of     the    cam- 
paign, but  during  that  time  Clark  was  demon- 
strating in  another  way  his  eminent  capacity  for 
the  work  in  hand.    The  region  north  of  the  Ohio 
had  to  be  held  as  well  as  captured,  and  the  estab- 
lishing of  anncable  relations  with  the  French  and 
Indian    inhabitants    were    quite    as    essential    as 
spectacular  victories  when  it  came  to  permanent 
possession.      The    policy    observed    toward    the 
h'rcnch  has   already  been   indicated   briefl}'.      It 
was,   in   the   lirst   instance,   the   cultivation   of   a 
wholesome  fear,  by  which  Clark  gained  and  held 
the  ascendency,  and,  in  the  second,  an  exercise 
of   justice   and    friendliness   that   (juite   won   the 
simple-minded    Gallic    woodsmen,    who    had    no 
great  reason  to  love  English  rule.    A  more  diffi- 



cult  task  was  to  establish  an  influence  with  the 
Indians,  who  were  not  only  many  in  number,  but 
separated  into  tribes  and  distributed  over  a  vast 
territory,  and  who,  in  large  part,  had  already 
come  under  English  influence.  It  was  here  that 
Clark  revealed  a  sagacity  of  method  that  would 
hardly  have  been  possible  to  one  with  a  less  inti- 
mate knowledge  of  Indian  character.  In  his 
"Memoir"  he  devotes  considerable  space  to  these 
Indian  transactions,  affording  interesting 
glimpses  of  this  sort  of  diplomacy  and  of  the 
characters  of  both  Clark  and  the  savages.  The 
thing  that  made  it  possible  was  the  bold  inroad, 
the  vigor  and  the  decisive  successes  of  the  "Big 
Knives,"  as  the  Americans  were  called.  The 
French  and  Indians  were  closely  in  touch,  and 
the  news  of  the  operations  at  the  French  settle- 
ments not  only  speedily  traveled  far  and  wide 
through  the  wilderness,  but  was  made  duly  im- 
pressive by  the  French  traders,  who  in  this  re- 
spect became  valuable  allies  to  the  conquerors. 
As  a  consequence,  the  various  tribes,  ignorant  of 
the  invader's  real  force  and  apprehensive  of  his 
power,  took  the  first  step  toward  conciliation, 
and,  as  we  are  told,  "came  in  great  numbers  to 
Cahokia  in  order  to  make  treaties  of  peace 
with  us."* 

Clark's  Mastery  of  the  Indians. — Putting  the 
garrison  at  Kaskaskia  in  charge  of  a  Captain 
Williams,  Clark  devoted  his  time  to  these  treaties, 
which,  he  says,  "were  probably  conducted  in  a  way 
different  from  any  other  known  in  America  at  that 
time."  The  custom  had  been  to  conciliate  the 
savages  with  a  great  display  of  presents,  thus  as- 
suming a  suing  attitude  that  was  often  construed 
as  fear.  Aside  from  the  fact  that  he  had  no 
presents  to  give,  that  was  not  Clark's  policy.  He 
met  them  with  the  lordly  demeanor  of  a  con- 
queror, and  while  he  observed  the  elaborate  cere- 
monies so  dear  to  the  savage  heart,  he  kept  his 
ascendency  at  every  turn  of  the  diplomatic  game. 
His  blunt  directness  and  his  fairness  had  their 
effect,  and  his  perfect  fearlessness — a  trait  that 
is  respected  above  all  others  by  the  Indian — made 
him  master  of  the  situation.  An  instance  may 
be  cited  to  illustrate  this.  Cahokia  was  full  of 
Indians  from  at  least  a  dozen  dift'erent  tribes, 
and  Clark  privately  confesses  that  he  was  "un- 
der some  apprehension  among  such  a  number  of 
devils,"  but   if   so   the   "devils"   never   knew   it. 

Soon  after  his  arrival  one  of  the  bands  laid  plans 
to  murder  his  guards  and  carry  him  oft"  bodily, 
and  the  attempt,  or  its  first  motion,  rather,  was 
actually  made  in  the  dead  of  night,  but  was  frus- 
trated by  his  vigilance.  The  town  was  stirred  up 
and  some  of  the  conspirators  caught.  Clark,  as- 
suming an  air  of  indift'erence,  simply  said  that, 
as  they  had  disturbed  the  peace  of  the  place,  the 
townsmen  could  do  witli  them  as  thev  saw  fit. 

Clark's  Memoir. 

Monunient  Alarkiiig  tlic  Site  ul  Furt  Sack\ill*j,  Lot.alt>i 
at  \'incennes.  Captured  by  Col.  George  Rogers 
Clark.  Feliruary  25.  1779. 

but  privately  he  directed  tliat  the  chiefs  of  the 
band  l)e  arrested  and  ]iul  in  irons:  which  was 
done  bv  the  b^reiich  iiihabiiaiils.  thus  prov- 
ing their  new  allegiance.  'Ihus  manacled,  these 
chiefs  were  brought  \o  the  council  day  after 
dav.  l)Ut  not  permitted  to  speak.  l"in;illy,  their 
irons  were  taken  otT  and  Clark  condescended  to 
sav  to  them  that,  though  their  conduct  deserved 
death,  vet  he  regarded  them  as  "only  old  women, 
too  mean  to  1)0  killed  bv  the  "P.ig  Knives'."    He 



told  them  that  so  long  as  they  remained  they 
should  he  treated  as  squaws,  and  when  they  were 
ready  to  go  home,  provisions  would  be  given 
them,  as  women  did  not  know  how  to  hunt ;  with 
which  he  turned  from  them  with  contemptuous 
indifference.  This  drastic  humiliation  was,  per- 
haps, the  most  scathing  punishment  that  could 
be  visited  u])on  an  Indian  brave,  and  the  agitated 
chiefs  tried  to  ai)proach  him  with  a  speech  and 
a  ])ipe  of  peace,  but  he  declined  to  hear  them, 
t)rokc  the  pipe  and  told  them  that  "the  'Big 
Knife'  never  treated  with  women,  and  for  them 
to  sit  down     .     .     .     and  not  be  afraid." 

The  next  move  astonished  even  Clark.  After 
a  "most  lamentable  speech."  two  young  braves 
of  the  band  were  oft'ered  to  be  put  to  death  as 
an  atonement  for  the  guilt  of  all.  Of  this  in- 
cident Clark  quaintly  says :  "It  would  have  sur- 
prised you  to  have  seen  how  submissively  those 
two  young  men  ])resented  themselves  for  death, 
advancing  into  the  middle  of  the  floor,  sitting 
down  by  each  other  and  covering  their  heads 
with  their  blankets  to  receive  the  tomahawk. 
.  .  .  This  stroke  prejudiced  me  in  their  favor, 
and  for  a  few  moments  I  was  so  agitated  that  I 
don't  doubt  but  that  I  should,  without  reflection, 
have  killed  the  first  man  that  would  have  oft'ered 
to  have  hurt  them."* 

The  u])shot  of  this  was  quite  on  a  par  with 
the  poetical  justice  usually  observed  in  fiction. 
Clark  ordered  the  two  heroic  young  warriors 
to  rise,  greeted  them  as  men,  and  then  and  there 
conferred  on  both  of  them  the  degree  of  chief, 
])resented  them  as  such  to  the  French  and  some 
-Spanish  gentlemen  who  were  present,  and  had 
the  garrison  salute  them. 

Following  the  attempt  to  kidnap  Clark,  and 
while  the  effect  u])on  the  other  Indians  was  yet 
uncertain,  he  simulated  the  utmost  indifference 
to  danger,  remaining  in  his  lodgings  away  from 
the  fort,  a])]iarently  without  guard,  though 
really  with  fifty  armed  men  concealed  in  the 
building,  and  even  assembling  a  numl:)er  of  the 
citizens  tor  a  dance  the  night  following  the  dis- 
tur])ance.f  'l"he  result  of  it  all  was  a  vast  in- 
crease ot  prestige,  and  his  reputation  as  a  great 
chief  s])read   far  and  wide. 

Dni-ing  these  litaties  at  Cahokic'i,  which  con- 
tinued  through   tlir   month   of    Se])tember,    1778. 

•  Letter  to  Mnson. 

t  Clark's  letter  to  Mason. 

an  "amazing  number  of  savages,"  as  Clark  ex- 
presses it,  attended,  some  of  them  coming  a  dis- 
tance of  five  hundred  miles,  and  in  his  letter  to 
Mason,  as  many  as  ten  tribes  are  specified  be- 
sides others  included  in  a  general  reference. 

Captain  Helm  at  Vincennes. — ^Meanwhile, 
Captain  Helm  at  Vincennes  ably  seconded  the 
work  of  Clark  by  successful  treaties  with  the 
Indians  of  the  Wabash,  chief  among  these  being 
the  Piankeshaws,  whose  village  was  adjacent  to 
Vincennes,  and  whose  chief.  Tobacco's  Son,  a 
man  of  considerable  standing  in  the  country, 
proved  to  be  a  stanch  friend  to  the  Americans  un- 
til his  death. 


Work  Accomplished ;  Governor  Hamilton  on 
the  Scene. — These  and  other  diplomatic  pro- 
ceedings and  a  few  minor  events  occupied  the 
autumn  of  1778  and  served  to  very  much  lessen 
the  influence  of  Governor  Hamilton,  of  Detroit, 
among  the  Indians.  Otherwise  it  may  well  be 
doubted  whether  Clark,  with  all  his  capacity  and 
resourcefulness,  could  have  held  the  possessions 
he  had  gained.  But  now  other  troubles  were 
brewing.  Word  had  traveled  to  Governor  Ham- 
ilton, of  Detroit,  of  the  occupancy  of  the  Wabash 
and  Illinois  country  ;  unknown  to  Clark,  he  had 
organized  a  military  force  for  the  recapture  of 
the  lost  territory,  and  now.  swooping  down  by 
way  of  the  Wabash  on  the  feeble  garrison  at 
Vincennes,  he  had  again  planted  the  British  flag 
there.     This  was  about  the  middle  of  December. 

An  Alarm;  Clark's  Uncertainty. — The  first 
knowledge  Clark  had  of  it  was  in  January 
when  the  alarming  report  followed  him  to  one 
of  the  French  villages  that  the  British  were 
marching  on  Kaskaskia.  The  oncoming  army 
proved  to  be  a  scouting  party  from  Mncennes 
that,  on  discovery,  turned  promptly  back,  but 
it  confirmed  a  suspicion  in  Clark's  mind 
aroused  by  the  fact  that  for  some  time  he  had 
received  no  word  from  Captain  Helm.  It  in- 
vested the  situation  with  a  new  danger.  How 
strong  a  force  Hamilton  might  have  he  did  not 
know,  and  it  was  more  than  probable  that  a 
march  against  Kaskaskia  would  be  next  in  or- 
der. His  own  ])osition  was  disheartening.  News 
of  his  success  had  been  sent  to  the  seat  of  gov- 
ernmciU  in   X'irginia  and  he  had  expected  rein- 



forcements,  but  not  even  a  word  in  return  had 
he  received.  The  term  of  enhstment  of  his  men 
having  expired,  and  his  instructions  being  silent 
on  this  and  other  contingencies  that  arose  he  had 
tided  over  these  difficuhies  by,  as  he  says,  "usurp- 
ing all  the  authority  necessary  to  carrv  my 
points."  But  his  military  force  had  been  de- 
pleted until  there  were  but  little  more  than  a 
hundred  of  the  American  soldiers,  and  how  far 
the  French  militia  could  be  depended  on  when  it 
came  to  a  real  test  was  problematical. 

settlemtnts  of  Kentucky  and  the  whole  western 
frontier  was  contemplated. 

A  Critical  Situation.— All  that  Clark  had 
done  bafle  fair  to  !)(_■  undone,  with  worse  to  fol- 
low. To  a  weaker  man  it  might  have  looked 
like  a  lost  cause,  but  Clark's  resolution  and 
prompt  action  in  the  matter  is  one  of  the  proofs 
of  his  essential  greatness  as  a  military  leader. 
His  chances  of  reinforcement  from  \irginia 
were  slight  as  against  the  chance  of  Hamilton's 
army  being  atigmented  by   Indians  to  an  over- 

V-  '"^-/fi:,  i.;::^0 


#^"  -:,  .^v,  '^  r^l^     ^4->   ^ 




/  3^ 

/  /-  /  ..:^i  ,r  ,/^^ 

>      »    *     <      2"- 

Hutchins'  Map  of  the  Original  "bidiana."  1778.     This  map  precedes  the  organization  of  Indiana  Territory  hy 
twenty-two  years.   It  covers  a  considerable  part  of  what  is  now  West  Virginia.    (See  page  41.  for  details.) 

A  Friend  From  Vincennes — Francis  Vigo. — 

In  the  midst  of  this  uncertainty  as  to  Hamilton 
and  his  intentions  there  hailed  fresh  from  \'in- 
cennes  Francis  Vigo,  a  friendly  Spaniard,  with 
full  news  of  the  situation  there  to  the  effect 
that  Hamilton  had  an  army  of  six  hundred  men. 
consisting  of  British  regulars,  Canadian  French 
and  Indians  ;  that  his  emissaries  were  diligently 
at  work  among  the  Indians,  both  north  and  south 
of  the  Ohio  ;  that  an  attack  would  be  made  on 
Kaskaskia  in  the  spring  (the  intervening  coun- 
try being  considered  now  too  difficitlt  of  pas- 
sage), and  that  a   further  caiupaign  against   the 

w  helming  force,  and  to  forestall  I  lamilton  and 
sur])rise  him  in  his  stronghold  as  (|uickly  as  pos- 
sible was  the  couj)  that  presented  itselt  as  the 
most  ho])eful  step  toward  retaining  the  country. 
He  regarded  it  as  a  desperate  cause,  btU,  as  lie 
wrote  to  ( lovernor  1  lenry.  "who  knows  wliat  for- 
tune will  do  for  us?"  The  hardships  of  a  march 
at  this  season,  which  put  it  out  of  the  <iuestion 
with  Hamilton  did  not  daunt  Clark  and  his  hardy 

Clark's  Swift  Action. — Swift  on  the  heels  of 
this  determination  ])rei)arations  were  made  for 
llie  expedition.     Clark's  own  men  were  with  him 



heartily  and  the  French  ralhed  enthusiastically 
to  his  support  and  on  the  fifth  of  February,  just 
one  week  after  the  arrival  of  Vigo  with  his  in- 
formation, one  hundred  and  seventy  men  left 
Kaskaskia  to  march,  as  Clark  describes  it, 
"eighty  leagues  through  a  drowned  country  in  the 
depths  of  winter,"  and  without  even  tents  to 
protect  them  from  the  winter  weather.  As  an 
auxiliary  to  the  campaign  a  Mississippi  bateau, 
or  large  boat,  was  laden  with  army  supplies, 
manned  with  forty-six  men  and  sent  by  way  of 
the  Mississippi,  Ohio  and  Wabash  to  a  point  be- 
low X'incennes,  to  connect  with  the  land  force 
when  it  should  reach  there. 

A  Heroic  Venture. — This  remarkable  expe- 
dition of  one  hundred  and  seventy  men  equipped 
with  small  arms  only,  against  a  force  at  least 
five  hundred  strong,  garrisoned  and  equipped 
with  cannon — this  and  the  culminating  assault 
and  ])rilliant  victory  that  forever  dethroned  the 
British  power  in  the  northwest  made  a  fitting 
climax  to  one  of  the  most  romantic  chapters  of 
American  history.  The  document  known  as  Bow- 
man's Journal,  a  daily  diary  kept  by  Captain  Jo- 
seph Bowman,  and  Clark's  Memoir  have  pre- 
served for  us  a  circumstantial  and  graphic  ac- 
count of  the  whole  enterprise.  The  march  of 
"eighty  leagues"*  occupied  eighteen  days.  The 
bottomless  mud  of  southern  Illinois  might,  of 
itself,  been  well  considered  as  impassable  by 
Flamilton,  but  in  addition  at  least  thirteen  of 
those  days,  as  recorded  by  Bowman,  were  spent 
in  struggling  through  water  in  the  form  of  rain, 
of  rivers  to  be  forded,  or  of  vast  shallow  lakes 
of  "drowned"  country  where  the  men  waded  for 
miles,  sometimes  hip  deep.  In  one  or  two  in- 
stances the  water  is  described  as  breast  deep,  and 
one  night  the  ice  formed  to  the  thickness  of  half 
an  inch,  or  more.  To  find  spots  dry  enough  for 
cam])ing  places  was  almost  impossible;  as  said, 
the  troops  had  no  tents  to  shelter  them  from  the 
rain,  a;i(l  their  i-lotliing  must  have  been  saturated, 
virtually,  during  the  whole  expedition.  Clark 
describes  their  exi)eriences  as  "incredible  hard- 
ships far  surpassing  ;niylhiiig  lli;it  any  of  us  had 
ever  ex])ericnce(l" — which  was  certainly  saying 
a  great  deal,  'i'hat  men  could  have  stood  such 
fatigue  ;in(l  e\]i(isure  shows  a  liardihood  that  is 

*  The  ilistaiicc  actually  covered  by  Clark  is  estimated  by  tlie 
late  Henry  Cauthorne,  a  local  authority  of  Viiicennes,  as  having 
been  from   160  to   170  miles. 

almost  unbelievable  in  a  more  effeminate  gen- 

Psychics  of  the  Campaign. — Clark's  sagacity 
in  keeping  his  soldiers  keyed  up  psychically,  is 
very  interesting.  "My  object  now  w^as,"  he 
says,  "to  keep  the  men  in  spirits.  I  suffered 
them  to  shoot  game  on  all  occasions  and  feast 
on  it  like  Indian  wardancers,  each  company  by 
turns,  inviting  the  others  to  their  feasts  .  .  . 
myself  and  principal  officers  putting  on  the 
w'oodsmen,  shouting  now  and  then,  and  running 
as  much  through  the  mud  and  water  as  any  of 
them.  Thus  insensibly,  without  a  murmur,  were 
those  men  led  on  ..."  A  little  later,  after 
fording  and  swimming  five  miles  of  water  near 
the  confluence  of  the  "two  Little  Wabashes,"  he 
says :  "By  evening  we  found  ourselves  en- 
camped on  a  pretty  height  in  high  spirits,  each 
party  laughing  at  the  other  in  consequence  of 
something  that  had  happened  in  the  course  of 
this  ferrying  business,  as  they  called  it.  A  little 
antic  drummer  aff'orded  them  great  diversion  by 
floating  on  his  drum,  etc.  All  this  was  greatly 
encouraging  and  they  really  began  to  think  them- 
selves superior  to  other  men,  and  that  neither 
the  rivers  nor  the  seasons  could  stop  their  prog- 
ress. Their  whole  conversation  now  was  con- 
cerning what  they  would  do  when  they  got  about 
the  enemy.  They  now  began  to  view  the  main 
Wabash  as  a  creek  and  made  no  doubt  but  such 
men  as  they  were  could  find  a  way  across  it. 
They  wound  themselves  up  to  such  a  pitch  that 
they  soon  took  St.  Vincent,  divided  the  spoil, 
and  before  bedtime  were  far  advanced  on  their 
way  to  Detroit." 

The  Investment  of  Vincennes ;  an  Audacious 
"Bluff." — The  final  task  of  making  their  way 
through  the  submerged  lands  of  the  Wabash, 
the  cumulative  eft"ect  of  the  hardships  made 
worse  by  famine,  w'as  almost  too  much  for  even 
these  men  of  iron,  but  no  leader  of  a  well-condi- 
tioned, overpowering  army  toward  his  certain 
prey  could  have  been  more  cavalier  than  Clark 
was  toward  the  fortified  enemy  that,  for  aught 
he  knew,  outnumbered  him  three  to  one.  He 
did  not  even  have  the  support  of  the  boat  with 
its  forty-six  men,  and  the  little  armament  of  ar- 
tillery that  had  been  sent  around  by  river 
for  the  boat  had  failed  to  make  connection.  And 
now,  with  his  less  than  two  hundred,  tired,  half- 
starved  riflemen,  he  boldly  invested  the  post,  and 



Historical  and  Chronological  Map  of  Territor\-  of  the  United  States  Xorthwest  of  the 
Ohio  River. — From  Dillon's  History  of  Indiana. 

1.  Falls  of   St.   Mary. 

2.  Head  of  Green  Bay. 

3.  Michilimacinac.  24. 

4.  Detroit — permanent    settlement    founded  25. 

^  1701.  26. 

5.  Kaskaskia.  27. 

6.  Vincennes.  28. 

7.  Fort  Harrison,  built  in   1811.  29. 

8.  Chicago.  30. 

9.  Ouiatenon    village,    destroyed    by    Gen.  31. 

Scott  in   1791.  32. 

10.  Ponce   Passu,   or   Ponceau   Pichou — now  33. 

called   Wild   Cat   Creek.  34. 

11.  Tippecanoe   Battle  Ground.  35. 

12.  Eel    River   Indian   village,   destroyed   by  36. 

Wilkinson,   1791.  37. 

13.  Mississinewa  villages,  destroyed  in  1812.  38. 

14.  Little  Turtle's  Town.  '  39. 

15.  La  Balme's  party  defeated,    1780. 

16.  Fort  Wayne,  built  in  October,   1794.  40. 

17.  Defeat  of  Indians  by  Wayne,  in   1794.  41. 

18.  Fort  Defiance,  built  bv  Wayne  in   1794.  42. 

19.  Mouth  of   St.   Joseph  of  Lake   Michigan  43. 

—Fort  built  by  La  Salle  in   1679.  44. 

20.  Lake    Peoria — Fort    Crevecoeur   built    by  4  5. 

La  Salle,   1680.  46. 

21.  St.   Louis,   founded  in   1763.  47. 

22.  Pittsburgh — site    of     Fort     Du    Ouesne,  48. 

built   in    1754. 

23.  Fort  Mcintosh,  built  in  1777  and   1778.  49. 


F'ort  Harmar,  built  in   1785. 

Massacre  of  Moravian   Indians,   1782.  52. 
Battle  of  Kanawha,   1774. 

F'ort  Washington,  built  in   1790.  53. 

Defeat  of  Col.   Loughrey's  party,   1781.  54. 

Pigeon  Roost  Massacre,  in  1812.  55. 
Falls  of  the  River  Ohio. 

Site   of   Frankfort,   Kentucky.  56. 

Lexington,  Kentucky.               _  57. 
Limestone,  now  Maysville,   Kentucky. 

I'ort  Gore,  erected  by   Dunmore,    1774.  58. 

Fort  Laurens,  built  in   1778.  59. 

Fort  Massac.  60. 

Old   Shawnee  Town.  61. 

Fort  Hamilton,  built  in  17';'1.  62. 

Fort    St.    Clair,    built    in    the    winter    of  63. 

1791-2.  64. 

Fort  Jefferson,   built   in    1791.  65. 
Fort   Cireenville,   built   in    1793. 

Fort    Recovery,   built   in    1793.  66. 

Falls  of  St.  Anthony.  67. 

River  Thames.  68. 

River  Raisin.  6*'. 

1-ort   Meigs,  built  in   1813.  70. 

l-'ort   Steplienson,  built  in    1812.  71. 

('apt.    John    Campl)ell    attacked    by    Sac  "2. 

and    Fo.K  Indians. 

Battle  of   Bad   A.\e,   1832.  73. 

Battle  of   Blue   Licks,   Kentucky.   1782. 

.Site  of  Boonesborough,  Kentucky — fort 
built  in   1775. 

Site  of  Danville,  Kentucky — established 
by  Virginia   Legislature,   1787. 

Wheeling,  \'irgini3,  founded   in   1770. 

^Lassacre  at  Baker's  Bottom,  in  1774. 

Principal  village  of  Delawares,  on  White 
River,   1810. 

Mouth  of   Embarrass   River. 

Mission  of  St.  Joseph,  visited  by  Charle- 
voix, in   1721. 

I'orks  of  River   Wabash. 

Site  of  Columbus,  Capital  of  Ohio. 

Site  of  Indian.ipolis,  Capital  of  Indiana. 

.'^ite  of  Springlicid,   Capital   of   Illinois. 

Site  of  Lansing,  Capital  of   Michigan. 

Site  of   Madison,  Capital   of  Wisconsin. 

Site  of  St.   Paul,  Capital  of  Minnesota. 

Rockfort,  or  I'ort  St.  Louis,  commenced 
by  La  Salle. 

Site  of   I'lirt  Chartres. 


Le   B.xuf. 


Brownsville,   <>r   Redstone  old    Fort. 

Site  of  C  ahokia. 

Stockade  fort,  at  mouth  of  Wabash. 

Site  of   L.iggstnwn. 



by  prisoner  sent  a  missive  to  the  French  residents 
IjidcHng  them  clioose  sides,  those  who  sided  with 
the  king  being  further  ordered  to  repair  at  once 
to  the  fort  and  join  the  "hair-buyer  general"* 
(Hamilton),  while  those  friendly  to  the  Ameri- 
can cause  were  refjuested  to  keep  out  of  the 
streets.  Subsef|uently  when  the  chief  of  the  ad- 
jacent I'iankcshaw  village.  Tobacco's  Son.  of- 
fered the  assistance  of  himself  and  a  hundred 
warriors,  it  was  declined.  Vet  this  was  in  the 
face  of  what  Clark  himself  called  a  "truly  criti- 
cal situation,  with  no  possibility  of  retreating  in 
case  of  defeat." 

In  a  word,  it  was  a  magnificent  example  of 
what,  in  modern  parlance,  is  called  "bluff,"  the 
aim  being  to  create  an  exaggerated  idea  of  his 
force.  To  strengthen  this,  as  he  approached  the 
town  he  took  advantage  of  the  topography  of 
the  country,  revealing  glimpses  of  his  men  at 
certain  i)oints  and  marching  and  countermarch- 
ing in  such  a  manner  as  to  create  the  illusion  of 
a  good-sized  army.  Time  was  purposely  con- 
sumed this  way  until  dark,  when  the  tactics  were 
changed,  a  circuit  made,  and  the  town  directly 
approached  from  another  side. 

A  Lively  Surprise  Party;  "Fine  Sport  for 
the  Sons  of  Liberty." — The  almost  humorous 
part  of  all  this  was  that  while  the  demonstration 
was  going  on  and  the  town  itself  was  agog  with 
excitement,  the  garrison  gave  no  sign,  much  to 
Clark's  mystification.  In  truth,  none  of  the 
French  having  conveyed  the  news  to  Hamilton, 
he  and  his  soldiers,  in  blissful  ignorance  of  it, 
were  placidly  entertaining  themselves  in  various 
ways.  Secure  in  what  was  virtually  an  island 
stronghold,  moated  by  leagues  of  flooded  low- 
lands, the  idea  of  an  attack  like  this  was  as  re- 
mote from  their  minds  as  a  visitation  of  arch- 
angels from  the  skies.  An  unwonted  stir  among 
the  townsmen  was  noticed,  but  little  attention 
paid  to  it,  and  even  when  the  attack  on  the  fort 
was  actually  begun  they  thought  the  shooting 
was  by  some  of  the  drunken  Indians.  Clark  says 
their  first  intimation  as  to  the  real  situation  was 
when  one  of  their  men  was  shot  through  a  ])ort- 
hole,  wln'le  an  ai)ocry])hal  story,  worth  ])reserv- 
ing  as  such,  is  to  the  effect  that  Ca])tain  1 1  elm,  the 

*  Tlii.s  name  was  applied  to  Hamilton  because  of  the  charge 
and  belief  that  he  offered  rewards  to  the  Indians  for  the  scalps 
of  Americans. 

American  officer,  now  captive,  and  some  of  the 
British  officers  were  engaged  in  a  friendly  game 
of  cards,  while  a  whisky  toddy  was  brewing  on 
the  hearth,  when  a  rifle  ball  striking  the  chimney 
to])  knocked  dirt  into  the  drink.  Helm  instantly 
guessed  at  the  meaning  of  the  firing  and  affirmed 
that  Ceneral  Clark  had  come  and  was  going  to 
take  the  fort. 

This  first  firing  occurred  after  dark  and  con- 
tinued throughout  the  night  of  February  23. 
The  excitement  of  the  occasion  keyed  up  the 
assailants  to  heroic  performance  and  made  the 
assault,  as  Captain  Bowman  expressed  it.  "fine 
sport  for  the  sons  of  liberty."  They  had  had 
time  to  dispose  themselves  about  the  fort  as 
they  saw  fit,  and,  protected  by  houses,  fences  and 
embankments,  where  the  artillery  could  not  be 
trained  on  them,  they  ruthlessly  picked  off'  the 
artillerymen  through  the  embrasures  till  few 
dared  stand  to  their  guns.  The  next  morning 
Clark  sent  to  Hamilton  a  demand  to  surrender, 
couched  in  the  rather  arrogant  ^language  of  a 
certain  conqueror ;  to  which  Hamilton  retorted 
that  he  and  his  garrison  were  "not  disposed  to 
be  awed  into  any  action  unworthy  of  British  sub- 
jects." Meanwhile,  the  Americans  had  eaten 
breakfast,  the  first  full  meal  they  had  enjoyed 
for  six  days,  and  now  w-ere  in  fine  fettle  for 
some  more  fighting,  which  was  at  once  granted 
them.  After  another  hot  fusillade  a  flag  of 
truce  came  from  Hamilton  with  a  letter  propos- 
ing an  armistice,  which  Clark  refused,  acceding 
to  nothing  short  of  the  surrender  of  the  garrison 
as  "prisoners  at  discretion." 

Some  more  fighting  and  then  Hamilton,  with 
one-sixth  of  his  dependable  men  put  out  of  the 
conflict,  began  to  seriously  consider  that,  among 
other  things,  he  was  six  hundred  miles  from  suc- 
cor and  that  honorable  terms  might  be  the  part 
of  prudence.  The  result  of  this  was  a  confer- 
ence between  the  two  commanders  in  which 
Clark,  with  characteristic  high-handedness,  had 
everything  his  own  way. 

A  Beginning  Point  in  Indiana  History. — 
That  day  Hamilton  signed  the  articles  of  capitula- 
tion and  the  next,  February  25,  1779,  at  ten 
o'clock  in  the  morning.  Governor  Hamilton  and 
his  men  marched  out  of  the  fort  between  the  lines 
of  American  troo])s.  in  formal  token  of  surren- 
der.    Colonel  Clark  and  two  of  his  ca])tains  with 



their  companions  marched  in,  hoisted  the  Ameri- 
can flag  and  took  formal  possession,  and  with 
that  act  the  soil  of  Indiana  became  a  permanent 
American  possession.  In  other  words,  that  cli- 
max to  a  dramatic  and  heroic  chapter  may  be 
considered  as  the  starting  point  of  Indiana  his- 
tory, for  from  that  planting  of  American  stock 
to  the  development  of  the  State  is  a  succession 
of  steps,  one  growing  out  of  the  other.  Hence, 
considering  all  the  preceding  matter  as  prelim- 
inary, we  take  up  the  history  j^roper  at  this 

The  First  American  Occupancy;  the  Passing 
of  the  French. — The  hoisting  of  the  American 
flag  over  Fort  Sackvillef  by  George  Rogers 
Clark  was  the  beginning  of  the  end  of  a  phase 
of  life  on  Indiana  soil  that  is  now  only  a  dim 
and  romantic  memory.  The  fate  of  the  poor 
French  who  had  settled  in  the  Wabash  valley 
was,  from  the  viewpoint  of  race  extinction,  some- 
thing of  a  tragedy.  Good  and  loyal  sons  of  their 
motherland,  they  had  come  to  this  far  wilderness 
when  it  was  a  province  of  France  with  no  thought 
of  its  ever  being  other.  Then  the  uriexpected 
fortunes  of  war  left  them  stranded  here,  thou- 
sands of  miles  from  their  native  home,  an  isolated 
handful,  aliens,  subject  to  the  rule  of  the  nation 
that  they  hated  most — the  rule  of  England.  For 
sixteen  years  they  were  under  the  jurisdiction  of 
their  foreign  masters,  and  then,  with  the  bold 
and  sudden  advent  of  Clark  and  his  little  army  of 
Americans,  they  rallied  with  true  (iallic  enthusi- 
asm to  his  support,  as  we  have  seen,  and  were 
an  instrument  of  importance  to  his  success.  So 
far  as  their  gain  was  concerned,  however,  it 
must  be  said  that  they  only  jumped  from  the 
frying-pan  into  the  fire,  the  unhappiness  of  their 
situation,  indeed,  being  the  more  accentuated 
because  the  incoming  Americans  dominated 
the  community  as  the  English  had  not. 
taking  possession  as  they  did  in  a  more  permanent 
way.  The  invaders  came  to  stay,  not  only  as  sol- 
diers but  as  settlers. 

*  Up  to  the  time  of  the  organization  of  the  Northwest  Terri- 
tory the  government  was  so  chaotic  and  the  incoming  population 
so  sparse  and  obscure  that  there  is  little  record  of  it.  The  first 
American  occupancy  that  comes  within  the  purview  of  history 
centered  about  Vincennes  and  in  Clark's  grant,  which  was  sur- 
veyed and  settled  as  early  as  1783,  or  soon  thereafter.  For  some 
years  this  latter  was  the  largest  American  center  west  of  Ohio. 

t  The  fort  at  Vincennes  was  called  Fort  Sackville  when  held 
by  the  English. 


Sketch  of  George  Rogers  Clark.— 'I '.(.rn  in 
-Mbemarle  county,  Xirginia,  .Xovember  19.  1752: 
died  near  Louisville,  Ky.,  b\'bruary  13,  1818.  lie 
was  a  land  surveyor,  and  commanded  a  comp;iny 
ni  Dunmore's  war  against  the  Indians  in  1774. 
He  went  to  Kentucky  in  1775  and  look  command 
of  the  armed  settlers  there,  lie  cajiturcd  Kas- 
kaskia  and  other  towns  in  1778.  which,  willi  tla- 
surrounding  region,  were  organized  into  Illinois 
county,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  X'irginia.  C  om- 
missioned  a  colonel,  he  successfully  labored  for 
the  pacification  of  the  ln<li;in  tribes.  Learning 
that  Governor  llamilton,  of  Detroit,  had  caj)- 
tured  \'incenncs.  Clark  led  an  exjjedition  against 
him  (February.  1779)  and  recajitnred  it  (  I'eb- 
ruary  25).  He  also  intercepted  a  convo\-  of 
goods  worth  ten  thousand  dfjllars.  and  afterward 
built  Fort  Jefi:'erson  on  the  west  side  of  tlie  Mis- 
sissippi. The  Indians  from  north  of  the  (  )hio. 
with  some  British,  raided  Keiituck\-  in  June, 
1780.  when  Clark  led  a  force  against  the  Shaw- 
noese  on  the  Cirand  .Miami,  and  defeated  them 
with  heavy  loss  at  Pickaway.  Me  served  in  X'ir- 
ginia during  its  invasion  by  Arnold  and  Corn- 
wallis,  and  in  1782  he  led  one  thousand  mounted 
riflemen  from  the  mouth  of  the  Licking  and  in- 
vaded the  Scioto  valley.  l)urning  five  villages  and 
laying  waste  their  plantations.  The  savages  were 
so  awed  that  no  formidable  war  party  ever  after- 
ward appeared  in  Kentucky.  C  lark  made  an  un- 
successful expedition  against  the  Indians  on  the 
XX  abash,  with  one  thousand  men,  in  1786.  I  lis 
great  service  to  his  comitry  in  making  the  fron- 
tiers a  safe  dwelling  place  was  overlooked  by  liis 
countrymen,  and  he  died  in  jioverty  and  obscur- 
ity."— Lossiiig's  "Cyclof'cdia  of  C  S.  Ilistdry." 

The  Documentary  Sources  of  Clark's  Cam- 
paign.— "Clark's  Memoir"  and  the  "Letter  t" 
Mason"  are,  perhai)S,  the  chiet  documents  for  a 
history  of  the  concjuest  of  the  Xorthwest,  though 
"Bowman's  Journal"  is  much  drawn  upon  and 
various  diaries  and  letters  are  tributary. 
.X  full  collection  of  these,  edited  by  James  .Xlton 
fames,  of  Xorthwestern  L'niversity.  constitute 
X'oluine  X'lII  of  the  Collections  of  the  Illinois 
State  1  listorical  Library.  There  are  too  man\- 
of  them  to  be  considered  here,  but  a  few  words 
concerning  the  three  important  papers  above  men- 



tioned  may  be  of  interest.  Clark's  "Letter"  and 
"]\Iemoir"  are  both  long  and  circumstantial  first- 
hand accounts  of  his  experiences  in  the  western 
country.  The  former  was  written  to  George 
Mason,  of  Virginia,  in  the  latter  part  of  1779, 
after  the  writer  had  returned  to  the  falls  of  the 
Ohio.  Its  special  value,  as  compared  with  the 
"IMemoir,"  is  that  the  events  were  then  freshly  in 
mind,  whereas  the  last-named  narrative  was 
penned  ten  or  twelve  years  afterward  and  is 
supposed  to  have  been  drawn  largely  from  mem- 
ory. The  first  account,  being  privately  addressed 
as  a  letter,  was  lost  to  the  world  and  was  not 
brought  to  light  for  years,  even  Clark  being  un- 
able to  locate  it  when  engaged  with  the  "Memoir." 
Eventually  it  was  unearthed  and  first  published 
in  1869.  The  original  is  in  possession  of  Judge 
James  Pirtle,  of  Louisville  (as  stated  by  Mr. 
James  in  1912). 

The  "Memoir,"  or  most  of  it,  seems  to  have 
been  written  in  1790,  and  was  done  at  the  solicita- 
tion of  Thomas  Jefiferson  and  James  Madison, 
who  saw  the  importance  of  securing,  before  it 
was  too  late,  a  first-hand  account  of  great  events 
by  the  chief  actor  in  them.  At  that  time  Clark 
was  soured  against  his  fellow  countrymen  and 
seems,  from  his  correspondence,  to  have  been  a 
little  loath  to  accept  the  task,  but  once  in  it  his  in- 
terest carried  him  through  an  interesting  and 
valuable  piece  of  autobiography.  The  original 
MS.  is  in  the  possession  of  the  Wisconsin  His- 
torical Society. 

Bowman's  Journal  was  a  daily  diary  of  the 
Vincennes  campaign  from  its  organization  at 
Kaskaskia  and  continuing  to  the  20th  of  March, 
nearly  one  month  after  the  reduction  of  Fort 

I'hese  documents  are  printed  in  full  in  W.  H. 
E>nglish's  "Conquest  of  the  Northwest,"  the  full- 
est study  we  have  of  the  life  of  George  Rogers 
Clark.  The  volume  by  James  Alton  Clark,  above 
referred  to,  is  the  fullest  collection  of  all  papers 
relating  to  Clark. 

Clark's  Ill-Fortune. — While  George  Rogers 
Clark,  by  his  lieroic  performances,  won  for  him- 
self a  cons]iicu()Us  ])lace  on  the  pages  of  our 
western  history,  he  fell  short  of  his  ardent  de- 
sires. Adversities  followed  his  successes,  the 
ingratitude  that  is  ])roverl)ial  as  to  republics,  was 
his  meed,  and  in  tlu'  I'nd  he  died  ;in  impoverished 

and  embittered  man.  A  part  of  his  scheme  of 
conquest  was  the  capture  of  Detroit  as  well  as  of 
Kaskaskia  and  Vincennes,  and  his  ambition  even 
aimed  at  the  stronghold  in  Canada.  Indeed,  had 
he  received  adequate  support  the  map  of  the 
United  States  might  have  been  other  than  what 
it  is  today.  But  the  support  was  not  forthcoming 
and  no  expedition  ever  reached  Detroit.  His 
position  was  a  peculiar  one.  He  was  not  in  the 
employ  and  under  the  authority  of  the  United 
States,  as  the  Continental  soldiers  of  the  Revolu- 
tion were,  but  in  the  employ  of  Virginia,  and 
that  State  financed  his  campaign.  But  Virginia's 
resources  were  badly  taxed  by  afifairs  nearer 
home,  and  perhaps  she  was  not  to  blame  for  fail- 
ing to  provide  men,  money  and  supplies  for  the 
remote  frontier.  Then  with  the  surrender  of 
Cornwallis,  in  1781.  actual  war  with  England 
ceased.  There  was  still  plenty  of  work  to  do 
among  the  Indians  of  the  Northwest,  and  Clark 
was  the  logical  one  to  do  it,  but  Virginia,  on  the 
plea  of  economy,  dismissed  him  from  her  serv- 
ice, and  at  a  time  when,  as  Mr.  English  aftirms, 
"he  w^as  in  dire  distress  for  even  the  common 
decencies  and  necessaries  of  life."  In  1783  he 
made  a  journey  through  the  wilderness  to  Rich- 
mond, Va.,  "in  a  condition  of  poverty,"  to  re- 
quest of  the  then  governor,  Benjamin  Harrison, 
a  small  advance  of  money  on  account,  as  he  was 
"exceedingly  distressed  for  the  want  of  neces- 
sary clothing,  etc.,"  and  added  that  the  State, 
he  believed,  would  be  found  considerably  in  his 
debt.  Whether  he  received  any  relief  then  is 
not  recorded  by  our  authority,  btit  twenty  years 
after,  when  he  was  paralyzed  and  helpless,  he 
was  granted  a  pension  of  four  hundred  dollars 
a  year,  and  twenty  years  after  he  was  in  his 
grave  the  State  acknowledged  her  debt  by  award- 
ing thirty  thousand  dollars  to  his  heirs.* 

In  1786  the  hostilities  of  the  Indians  to  the 
north  again  imperiled  the  Kentucky  settlements. 
Ere  this  Virginia  had  ceded  the  northwest  to 
the  United  States,  but  the  nation  was  so  slow  to 
take  the  situation  in  hand  that  Kentucky  herself 
raised  a  defensive  army,  put  Clark  in  command 
and  sent  an  expedition  against  the  tribes  of  the 
\\''abash.  It  was  but  the  beginning  of  new  mis- 
fortunes for  Clark.  Throtigh  insubordination 
of  the  men  the  invasion  came  to  naught.     Then 

*  English,  pp.  784-5. 



the  leader,  after  due  conference  with  his  officers, 
estabhshed  a  garrison  at  Vincennes,  the  inhab- 
itants having  become  hostile  to  the  Americans. 
The  garrison  had  to  be  provisioned,  and  to  meet 
what  he  considered  a  military  emergency,  he  for- 
cibly possessed  himself  of  the  goods  of  Vin- 
cennes merchants,  chiefly  one  Laurent  Bazadon, 
a  Spaniard.  The  government  refused  to  stand 
good  for  the  debt  imposed  upon  it  and  censured 
Clark  for  his  act.  Subsequently  Bazadon  brought 
suit  against  Clark  personally  for  $20,000,  and  an 
interesting  statement  of  that  suit  commanding 
the  sherifl:  to  attack  sundry  pieces  of  land  in 
Clark's  Grant  may  be  found  in  the  Indiana 
Quarterly  Magazine  of  History  for  March,  1908. 
While  it  is  stated  on  the  document  that  this  case 
was  dismissed  it  is  elsewhere  said  that  he  per- 
sonally suffered  loss  for  debts  which  his  coun- 
try should  have  paid.  At  any  rate  it  is  the  opin- 
ion of  history  that  both  Virginia  and  the  nation 
poorly  requited  him  for  the  services  that  added  to 
the  country  one  of  the  most  valuable  sections  of 
our  vast  domain.  He  felt  this  bitterly,  and  there 
exists  a  story  to  the  effect  that  when  Virginia 
sent  him  a  sword  as  a  testimony  of  appreciation 
of  his  services  he  broke  it  in  anger. 

Clark  was  never  married  and  in  his  latter 
years,  almost  to  the  time  of  his  death,  he  lived 
alone  in  his  log  house  at  Clarksville,  beside  the 
falls.  Among  his  misfortunes  were  paralysis 
and  a  burn  wdiich  necessitated  the  amputation 
of  one  leg.  He  died  in  1818,  at  the  home  of  his 
sister,  Mrs.  Lucy  Croghan,  near  Louisville.  Ky. 

Clark's  Grant. — When  C'ark  was  authorized 
by  Virginia  to  raise  soldiers  for  the  Illinois  cam- 
paign a  letter  to  him  written  jointly  by  Thomas 
Jefferson,  George  Mason  and  George  Wyeth  in- 
timated that  "we  have  no  doubt  that  some  fur- 
ther rewards  in  lands  in  the  country  will  be  given 
to  the  volunteers  who  shall  engage  in  this  service 
in  addition  to  the  usual  pay,  if  they  are  so  for- 
tunate as  to  succeed."  They  further  intimated 
what  they  thought  this  land  gift  ought  to  be,  as 
to  amount,  and  added :  "For  this  we  think  you 
may  safely  confide  in  the  justice  and  generosity  of 
the  Virginia  assembly." 

This  was  not  authoritative  enough  to  be  held 
out  as  an  incentive  to  the  soldiers  and  so  prob- 
ably cut  little  or  no  figure  in  the  results,  but  Vir- 
ginia did  not  forget  the  semi-promise.  In  1781, 
nearly  two  years  after  the  taking  of  Vincennes, 

the  general  assembl_\-  adopted  a  resolution  pro- 
viding "that  a  (|uantity  of  land  not  exceeding 
one  hundred  and  fifty  thousand  acres  be  allowed 
and  granted  to  the  .  .  .  officers  and  soldiers 
...  to  be  laid  off  in  one  tract  ...  in  such 
place  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  Ohio  as  the 
majority  of  the  officers  shall  choose,  and  to  be 
afterward  dixided  among  the  said  officers  and 
soldiers  in  due  proportion  according  to  the  laws 

Alap  of  bKlian  Land  Cessions.  The  mimlicrs  from  1  to 
53  indicate  order  of  purchase  of  tracts  witliin  the 
original  Indiana  Territory.  There  were  not  tifty- 
three  purchases  witliin  the  present  boundaries  of 
Indiana.     (See  page  43.) 

of  \'irginia."  In  1783  another  act  was  passed 
for  locating  and  surveying  the  amount  of  land 
above  sjiecified,  and  a  l)()ard  ot  cnmniissioners 
was  appointed  to  lake  the  business  in  hand.  One 
thousand  acres  was  to  be  laid  out  for  a  town  site 
and  the  other  one  hundred  forty-nine  thousand 
to  be  surveved  for  the  individual  clainiaiUs.  The 
tract  chosen  was  at  ami  above  the  falls  of  the 
Ohio  and  now  lies  mostly  in  Clark  county.  Ind.. 



though  lapping  over  into  Floyd  and  Scott  coun- 
ties. It  was  first  called  the  "Illinois  Grant,"  the 
conquered  territory  being  known  as  the  "Illinois 
country."  but  later  took  the  name  of  "Clark's 
Grant."  The  ])rincipal  surveyor  was  William 
Clark,  the  cousin  of  Cieorge  Rogers  Clark.  The 
thousand  acres  for  the  town  site  was  located  at 
the  falls,  between  the  present  Jeftersonville  and 
New  Albany,  and  was  called  Clarksville.  The 
rest  was  apportioned  among  a  total  of  300  men, 
ranging  in  amount  from  108  acres  for  each  pri- 
vate to  8,049  acres  to  General  Clark.  There  has 
been  some  criticism  of  this  division,  the  feeling 
being  that  privates  should  have  received  600 
acres  each,  that  being  the  amount  suggested  in 
the  letter  of  Jefferson,  Mason  and  Wyeth,  above 
spoken  of.  Of  the  men  who  received  lands  in 
this  tract  by  no  means  all  settled  there,  but  many 
sold  tlicir  portions,  preferring  the  cash  benefit. 

The  surveys  of  Clark's  Grant,  taking  the  Ohio 
river  for  a  base,  do  not  correspond  to  the  rect- 
angular system  as  it  exists  over  the  State  gen- 
erally and  thus  the  original  donation  can  be  read- 
ily located  on  any  map  that  shows  the  congres- 
sional townships. 

For  exhaustive  information  on  this  subject  see 
English's  "Conquest  of  the  Northwest." 

Father  Gibault  and  Francis  Vigo. — Two 
names  that  are  imperisha])ly  connected  with 
Clark's  concjuest  and  which  as  imi)erishably  stand 
as  reminders  of  public  ingratitude,  are  those  of 
Father  Pierre  Gibault  and  Francis  Vigo,  the  for- 
mer a  Catholic  priest  in  spiritual  charge  of  the 
French  residents  of  the  Illinois  country,  and  the 
latter  a  S])anish  merchant.  With  the  arrival  of 
Clark  at  Kaskaskia  (iiljault  heartily  espoused  his 
cause,  and  it  was  largely  through  his  influence 
that  the  I-'rench  generally  rallied  to  the  support 
of  the  invader,  lie  it  was  who  suggested  that 
the  easiest  way  to  win  Vincennes,  as  the  English 
commandant  and  his  garrison  were  temporarily 
away,  would  ])c  by  a  peaceful  conquest  of  the 
French  there,  and  his  proposition  was  that  he 
go  and,  by  virtue  of  his  power  among  them,  ac- 
complish that  end.  This  ])rogram  was  carried 
out  with  fullest  success,  and  after  he  had  paved 
the  way  C;q)tain  Helm  was  sent  to  take  charge 
of  lM)rl  Sackville,  which  he  held  until  the  luig- 
lish  governor,  Hamilton,  reca])tured  the  place. 
The  penalty  for  (iibault's  zeal  was  excommuni- 
cation by  his  bishops,  besides  pecuniary  loss  for 

which  he  was  never  reimbursed.  In  his  old  age 
he  sent  a  memorial  to  General  St.  Clair,  Gov- 
ernor of  the  Northwest  Territory,  in  which  he 
stated  that  he  had  risked  his  life  and  sacrificed 
his  little  property  to  aid  the  Americans;  that  his 
loss  had  amounted  to  at  least  fifteen  hundred 
dollars,  and  that  he  was  now  dependent.  All 
that  he  asked  was  a  beggarly  pittance  of  five 
acres  out  of  the  millions  he  had  worked  to  se- 
cure, where  he  might  have  an  orchard  and  a  home 
in  which  to  spend  his  few  remaining  years.  He 
never  received  the  five  acres  and  eventually  he 
betook  himself  into  Spanish  territory  beyond  the 
Mississippi,  where  he  died  in  1804.*  f 

Francis  Vigo,  a  merchant  of  St.  Louis,  then  a 
Spanish  possession,  who  carried  on  an  extensive 
trade  in  the  Illinois  country,  espoused  the  Ameri- 
can cause,  as  did  Gibault,  when  Clark  invaded  the 
territory,  although  he  did  so  at  considerable  risk, 
being  a  citizen  of  a  neutral  nation.  He  it  was 
that  brought  to  Clark,  at  Kaskaskia,  the  news 
that  General  Hamilton  had  recaptured  Vincennes 
from  Captain  Helm,  and  the  result  of  the  infor- 
mation he  had  gained  was  Clark's  swiftly  exe- 
cuted winter  campaign  which  forestalled  Ham- 
ilton's plans  for  the  spring,  and  won  Vincennes 
permanently.  Vigo  did  most  important  service 
by  the  rendering  of  financial  aid.  In  the  midst 
of  his  operations  Clark  became  seriously  handi- 
capped for  want  of  funds  to  provision  his  little 
army  and  to  renew  enlistments,  the  expiring  of 
which  threatened  to  disband  his  force.  No  help 
could  be  had  from  \"irginia.  In  this  emergency 
his  only  recourse  was  private  aid,  and  exercising 
the  discretion  given  him  by  his  letter  of  instruc- 
tions he  issued  drafts  on  the  State.  Accepting 
these  drafts  as  security,  Vigo  furnished  money 
and  supplies  to  the  amount  of  $12,000  or  more. 
Being  wealthy  at  that  time  and  Virginia  being 
embarrassed  with  her  debts,  he  did  not  push  his 
claims  for  years.  When  his  needs  began  to  press 
him  the  \'irginia  agent  was  unable  to  meet  his 
drafts  and  he  sold  some  of  them  at  a  discount  of 
eighty  per  cent.  He  still  held  one  for  over 
$8,000,  and  twenty-one  years  after  its  date  of 
issue  this  was  i)ut  in  the  hands  of  two  collectors. 
Through  some  seemingly  criminal  negligence,  not 
explained  in  history,  the  draft  was  lost  and  with 
it  all  chance  of  recovering  the  money  until  it  was 
found  again   amid   the  dust   in   the  attic  of  the 

Dunn's  "Indiana,"  p.  151. 



capitol  at  Richmond.  The  debt  was  now  fifty-five 
years  old.  Meanwhile  Vigo,  stricken  in  years, 
had  long  suffered  poverty.  Three  years  later 
he  died,  unrelieved.  Thirty-nine  years  more  of 
dawdling  and  red  tape  passed  and  finally,  ninety- 
seven  years  after  the  original  transaction,  the 
money  that  made  possible  the  capture  of  Vin- 
cennes  plus  accumulated  interest  was  paid  to  the 
heirs  of  the  man  who  had  been  more  generous 
than  prudent.  The  expenses  of  his  funeral,  even, 
were  not  paid  until  forty  years  after  his  death.* 

Soon  after  Clark's  conquest  Vigo  became  an 
American  citizen  and  came  for  permanent  resi- 
dence to  Vincennes,  where  he  was  honored  and 
prominent  for  many  years.  His  sense  of  grati- 
tude was  livelier  than  that  of  the  nation  he  had 
served,  for  in  appreciation  of  the  fact  that  Vigo 
county  w^as  named  for  him,  he  provided  in  his 
will  that,  if  his  claim  on  the  government  were 
allowed.  $500  should  be  given  to  the  county  for 
a  court-hovise  bell.  He  died  in  Vincennes  in  1836 
and  is  buried  there. 

The  Lasselle  Documents. — Among  the  pos- 
sessions of  the  State  Library  is  a  large  collection 
of  letters  and  other  papers,  some  of  them  orig- 
inals, some  copies,  that  relate  to  \'incennes  dur- 
ing the  early  American  occupancy.  These  docu- 
ments were  gathered  up  by  the  late  Charles  B. 
Lasselle,  of  Logansport,  who  for  many  years 
was  an  industrious  collector  of  everything  per- 
taining to  French  life  in  the  Wabash  valley.  Mr. 
Lasselle  was  himself  a  member  of  an  old  French 
family  that  had  been  intimately  identified  with 
the  valley  since  Revolutionary  times.  In  his 
later  years  he  occupied  a  room  in  the  court-house 
at  Logansport  which  was  fairly  filled  with  a  mis- 
cellaneous mass  of  documents,  relics  and  news- 
papers. Among  the  relics  were  the  mahogany 
liquor  chest  which  was  one  of  Governor  Ham- 
ilton's private  possessions  when  he  was  captured 
by  Clark ;  a  Revolutionary  drum  that  had  been 
found  in  old  Fort  Wayne,  and  the  original  parch- 
ment document  that  was  delivered  to  the  Mianfi 
Indians  at  the  treaty  of  St.  Mary's,  in  1819.  This 
parchment  bears  the  marks  of  the  various  chiefs 
that  represented  their  tribe,  and  the  signatures  of 
Jonathan  Jennings,  Benjamin  Parke  and  Lewis 
Cass,  commissioners,  and  William  and  John 
Conner,  interpreters.  It  was  delivered  to  the 
Miami  head  chief,  Richardville.  and  finally  came 

English,  p.   188. 


into  the  Lasselle  family  through  marriage  rela- 
tions. It  is  now  in  the  possession  of  the  State 

The  other  documents  referred  to  as  in  the  li- 
brary are  now  ])eing  classified  and  arranged  for 
conveinent  reference. 

The  First  Civil  Organization. —  In  October 
of  1778  \'irginia  was  electrified  by  the  news  thai 
Clark  had  actually  accomplished  the  conquest 
of  Kaskaskia  and  the  other  Mississipi)i  posts, 
and  one  of  the  first  acts  of  the  Virginia  Assem- 
bly, thereafter,  was  to  organize  the  newly-ac- 
(|uired  country  as  the  "County  of  Illinois."  r)n 
December  12,  Col.  John  Tcjdd.  of  Kciituckv,  a 
friend  of  Clark's,  was  appointed  county  lieuten- 
ant, or  local  governor,  and  he  arrived  at  Kas- 
kaskia in  May,  1779,  to  assume  charge  of  civil 
affairs.  This  was  the  first  American  government 
north  of  the  Ohio  river,  and  the  first  election  of 
officers  was  held  by  Todd  soon  after  his  arrival. 
In  Vincennes  about  a  dozen  civil  and  nearly  that 
many  militia  officers  were  elected,  all  of  them 
Frenchmen.  The  law  then  established  was  lo 
be  temporary  and  agreeable  to  those  "which  the 
})resent  settlers  are  now  accustomed  to,"  and  the 
instructions  from  the  Virginia  governor  to  Todd 
were  "to  use  every  eft'ort  to  win  ihe  friendshi]) 
of  the  French,"  and  to  conciliate  the  Indians  as 
far  as  possible;  which  shows  that  Patrick  Henry. 
at  least,  contemplated  a  just  and  friendly  rela- 
tion toward  the  new  citizens  of  the  State. 

Todd  did  not  remain  in  Illinois  very  long  but 
tlie  government  went  on  undisturbed  until  the 
judges  of  the  \'incennes  court  proceeded  to  gen- 
erouslv  apportion  among  themselves  tracts  of 
land  from  an  old  Indian  grant,  when  the  L'nited 
States  interposetl  an  objection. 

Meanwhile  \'irginia.  in  1784.  had  relin(|uished 
her  claim  to  the  whole  Illinois  country  in  tavor 
of  the  United  States,  and  with  that  act  the  way 
was  cleared  for  the  new  ]-)olitical  policy  which. 
a  little  later,  had  its  Inrth  in  the  famous  ordi- 
nance ot    1787. 

The  Wabash  Land  Company. —  The  W  al)ash 
Land  C  onipanv.  which  negotiated  was  ])er- 
haps  the  first  land  deal  in  Indiana,  dates  b.ack 
to  1775.  Then,  as  now.  real  estate  speculators 
were  a  thrift\  class  and  their  op])ortunities  were 
great.  In  tlie  vear  mentioned  Louis  \  ivial.  the 
agent  of  the  company  mentioned,  negotiated  with 
the    Piankeshaw    lndi;ins   at    X'incennes    for  two 



tracts  of  land  bordering  on  the  Wabash  river, 
that,  besides  a  large  tract  out  of  eastern  Illinois, 
comprised  perhaps  one-half  of  Indiana.  The 
first,  extending  along  the  Wabash  above  Vin- 
cennes  for  one  hundred  twenty  miles,  reached 
from  the  river  westward  for  ninety  and  eastward 
for  one  hundred  twenty  miles.  The  other,  ex- 
tending from  the  mouth  of  White  river  to  the 
junction  of  the  Wabash  and  the  Ohio,  reached 
the  same  distance  west  and  east  as  the  first  one. 
This  eastward  stretch  carried  it  almost  across 
the  present  state.  This  vast  possession  amount- 
ing, all  told,  to  about  thirty-seven  million,  four 
hundred  and  ninety-seven  thousand  six  hundred 
acres,  was  actually  transferred,  being  "signed  by 
the  grantees,  attested  by  a  number  of  the  in- 
habitants of  Post  Vincennes,  and  subsequently 
registered  in  the  office  of  a  notary  public  at  Kas- 
kaskia."  The  contract  between  the  parties, 
printed  in  full  in  Dillon's  Indiana  (pp.  104-9) 
is  too  long  to  reproduce  here,  though  the  pur- 
chasing price  may  be  given.  The  items  specified 
are:  "Five  shillings  in  money,  four  hundred 
blankets,  twenty-two  pieces  of  stroud,  two  hun- 
dred and  fifty  shirts,  twelve  gross  of  star  garter- 
ing, one  hundred  and  twenty  pieces  of  ribbon. 

twenty-four  pounds  of  vermilion,  eighteen  pairs 
of  velvet  laced  housings,  one  piece  of  malton, 
fifty-two  fusils,  thirty-five  dozen  large  buckhorn- 
handle  knives,  forty  dozen  couteau  knives,  five 
hundred  pounds  of  brass  kettles,  ten  thousand 
gun  flints,  six  hundred  pounds  of  gunpowder, 
two  thousand  pounds  of  lead,  four  hundred 
pounds  of  tobacco,  forty  bushels  of  salt,  three 
thousand  pounds  of  flour,  three  horses ;  also  the 
following  quantities  of  silverware,  viz. :  eleven 
very  large  armbands,  forty  wristbands,  six  whole- 
moons,  six  halfmoons,  nine  earwheels,  forty-six 
large  crosses,  twenty-nine  hairpipes,  sixty  pairs 
of  earbobs,  twenty  dozen  small  crosses,  twenty 
dozen  nose-crosses,  and  one  hundred  and  ten 
dozen  brooches." 

All  these  commodities,  amounting  in  value  to 
but  a  very  few  thousand  dollars,  even  when  fig- 
ured at  traders'  prices,  doubtless  seemed  to  the 
simple  Indians  a  bewildering  display  of  wealth. 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  they  got  the  best  of  the 
bargain,  for  Clark's  conquest  of  the  country 
threw  it  all  into  other  hands ;  the  claim  of  the 
Wabash  Land  Company  was,  of  course,  not  con- 
firmed, and  later  the  land  Avas  again  purchased 
of  the  original  claimants  by  the  United  States. 




Political  Antecedents.— Strictly  speaking  the  certainly  took  rank  as  niarkin.<<  a  new  (k-].ariure 

beginnings  of  our  civil  history  antedate  by  many  in  the  affairs  of  men. 

years  the  history  of  Northwest  Territory,  and  a  The     Written     Constitution.— Tlu-     formal 

very  brief   consideration   of   our   political   ante-  written    political    constitution    is    peculiarly    an 

cedents  may  not  be  amiss  as  an  introduction  to  American    institution,*    and    is    corresiKjnd'ingly 

the  form  of  government  we  live  under  in  the  dear  to  the  American  heart.      It   is  the   funda- 

present  State  of  Indiana.  mental  law  of  the  land,  the  ultimate  authority, 

It  is,  of  course,  understood  and  need  merely  which  the  legislative  power  must  resi)ect,  and  its 

be  mentioned,   that   we   are  the   lineal   heirs   of  provisions  are  set  forth  in  explicit  language.     In 

those  forces  in  English  history  that  have  made  its  supreme  character  it  was  the  offspring  of  the 

for    the    liberties    and    enlargement    of      man.  old  charter,  only,  as  Fiske  says,  "instead  of  a 

"Magna  Charta,"  or  the  Great  Charter,  wrung  document  expressed  in   terms  of  a  roval  grant 

from  King  John  by  the  barons  in  1215,  is  cus-  it  was  a  document  expressed  in  terms  of  a  jiop- 

tomarily  regarded  as  the  logical  starting  point  ular  edict."     The  "Fundamental  Orders  of  Con- 

for  a  study  of  those  liberties  and  their  develop-  necticut,"  of  1639,  is  cited  as  the  tirst  written  con- 

ments.     When,    four  hundred  years    later,    the  stitution  known  to  historv.     Similar  instruments 

stream  of  English  history  divided,  sending  forth  were  adopted  in  America  before  the   formation 

its  minor  current  in  the  new  world,  those  who  of  the  federal  union,  and  the  full  l^jwer  of  the 

founded   the   colonies  brought  Avith  them   ideas  process  was  the  work  of  the  Federal  Convention 

of  individual  rights  and  of  forms  of  government  when,  in  1787,  it  framed  the  Constitution  of  the 

that  all  Englishmen  had  contended  for  since  the  United    States,    which    instrument    William    F. 

concessions  of  King  John,  and  that  all  English-  Gladstone  has  designated  as  "the  most  wonderful 

men  shared  alike.     Then  came  a  differentiation  work  ever  struck  off'  at  a  given  time  by  the  l)rain 

in  the  development,  due  to  the  introduction  of  and  purpose  of  man." 

new  conditions.    The  isolated  life  of  the  colonies,  A  New  Question;  The  Public  Domain. — The 

remote  from  the  home  government,  fostered  lo-  Constitution   of   the   L'nited   .states  nowise   took 

cal  government ;  local  government  fostered  self-  the   place   of   the   instruments   under   which   the 

sufficiency,  independence  and  the  spirit  of  democ-  various  States  were  governed.    It  was  a  general 

racy,  and  a  century  and  a  half  of  development  constitution   strictly    for  the   control   of    federal 

along  this   line   could   hardly    fail   of   distinctive  functions.      But   now   an   entirely   new   (juestion 

results.  had  to  be  dealt  with — that  of   federal   jurisdic- 

In  brief,  the  elements  that  emerge  as  we  exam-  tion  over  lands  belonging  to  no  State.     Within 

ine  the  unfolding  of  the  American  ideal  are,  the  five  years  after  the  close  of  the  Revolution  tour 

idea  of  inherent  rights,  common  to  all  men,  the  States,  New  York.    X'irginia,    Massachusetts  and 

right  to  realize   these  through  self-government,  Connecticut,  had  ceded  to  the  national  govern- 

and  the  right  to  safeguard  them  at  every  point.  ment  lands  that  they  had  claime<l.  lying  west  of 

How  far  these  ideas  had  progressed  by  1776  is  the  Alleghany  ranges.     These  claims,  as  referral 

revealed  by  the  immortal   Declaration  of   Inde-  to  in  history,  were  somewhat  obscure  and  over- 

pendence,  which  startled  the  world  with  the  bold  lai)])ing  :  but  at  any  rate  the  cessions  placed  under 

and  radical  proposition  that  "all  men  are  created  the  control  of  the  l'nited  States  a  tract  of  virgin 

equal;  that  they  are  endowed  by  their  Creator  territory,  and  ibis  comprised  the  country  north- 

with  certain  inalienable  rights ;  that  among  these  west  of  the  Ohio  river  thai  ( ieorgc  Rogers  Clark 

are  Hfe,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness."  had  won  in  the  name  of  \'ir-inia.     ft  was  the  be- 

\\'hen,    in    addition    to   this,    the    age-honored    alle-  -7^^  ^^  interesting  tre..,n,ent  of  .his  subject,  sec  Fisk's  •'Civil 

giance  to  kings  was  cast  aside,  the  instrument  Government,"  chap.  vii. 




ginning  of  the  "public  domain,"  and  one  duty  of 
the  new  government  was  to  take  care  of  it. 

Thus  it  was  that  while  the  Federal  Conven- 
tion in  Philadelphia  was  making  the  nation's 
constitution.  Congress,  in  New  York,  was  elab- 
orating a  policy  of  government  for  this  domain. 

The  Ordinance  of  1787.— This  policy,  as  em- 
bodied in  a  document,  was  the  famous  ordinance 
for  the  government  of  the  territory  of  the  United 
States  northwest  of  the  Ohio  river,  passed  by 
Congress  on  July  13.  1787,  and  commonly  known 
as  the  "Ordinance  of  1787."  It  may  be  called 
a  special  federal  constitution  for  the  organization 
and  government  of  the  territory  belonging  to  the 
United  States  preliminary  to  the  creation  of 
States  with  their  own  constitutions.  It  is  con- 
spicuous among  the  instruments  of  the  country 
as  shaping  the  character  of  government  in  the 
territory  it  was  framed  for.  Daniel  Webster 
said  of  it:  "I  doubt  whether  one  single  law  of 
anv  law  given,  ancient  or  modern,  has  produced 
effects  of  more  distinct,  marked  and  lasting  char- 
acter than  the  Ordinance  of  1787."  Its  bill  of 
rights  has  led  some  to  speak  of  it,  with  a  little 
grandiloquence,  perhaps,  as  the  Magna  Charta  of 
the  west.  Its  most  famous  proviso  was  one  for- 
l)i(lding  the  existence  of  slavery  in  the  territory 
at  a  time  when  that  institution  was  forbidden  no- 
where else.  The  Ordinance  was  the  culmination 
of  previous  attempts  to  cope  with  a  j)roblem  that 
was  even  then  recognized  as  a  growing  danger, 
and  as  it  constitutes  our  immediate  political  foun- 
dation we  here  examine  it  in  its  parts.* 

The  Ordinance  contemplates  the  ultimate  di- 
vision of  the  territory  into  not  less  than  three 
nor  mcjrc  than  live  States,  certain  boundaries  of 
these  l)eing  delinitely  set.  It  established  grades 
of  government,  based  on  population,  for  these 
divisions:  "live  thousand  free  male  inhabitants, 
of  full  age,"  entitling  to  the  "second  grade"  of 
territorial  govenmient,  and  sixtv  thousand  en- 
titling lo  statehood  "on  an  ecpial  footing  with 
the  original  States  in  all  res])ects  whatever."  The 
territorial  government,  in  tlie  first  grade,  is  to 
be  in  ihe  hands  ot  a  governor  and  three  judges, 
whose  lirst  duly  is  to  "a(lo])t  and  ])ublish  in  the 
district  sui'li  laws  of  the  original  States,  criminal 
and  ci\il,  as  m;iy  br  neccssar\-  and  best  suited 
to  the  circumstances  of  the  district."     The  gov- 

*  Sec  Dvimrs  "Iti(li,-m:i"  for  ;m  (.■lalxnatc  discussion  of  this 

ernor  shall  be  the  commander-in-chief  of  the 
militia  and  shall  have  the  appointing  of  most  of 
the  officers,  both  military  and  civil. 

On  entering  the  second  grade  the  inhabitants 
of  a  territory  shall  be  entitled  to  elect  repre- 
sentatives from  their  counties  or  townships  for 
their  own  general  assembly,  and  this  "general 
assembly  or  legislature  shall  consist  of  the  gov- 
ernor, legislative  council  and  a  house  of  repre- 
sentatives," the  legislative  council  to  consist  of 
five  members,  to  continue  in  office  five  years,  and 
to  be  appointed  and  commissioned  by  Congress 
out  of  ten  that  have  been  nominated  by  the  gov- 
ernor and  the  representatives.  The  body  thus 
formed  is  to  have  the  authority  to  make  laws  "not 
repugnant  to  the  principles  and  articles  in  this 
Ordinance,"  all  bills  passed  to  be  "referred  to  the 
governor  for  his  assent."  The  Legislature  has 
the  authority  to  elect  a  delegate  to  Congress,  and 
this  delegate  will  have  the  right  to  join  in  the 
Congressional  debates,  but  can  not  vote.  The  bill 
of  rights  feature  takes  the  form  of  "articles  of 
compact  between  the  original  States  and  the  peo- 
ple and  the  States  in  the  said  territory,"  to  for- 
ever remain  vmalterable,  unless  by  common  con- 
sent. These  articles  are,  that  no  person  demean- 
ing himself  in  a  peaceable  and  orderly  manner, 
shall  ever  be  molested  on  account  of  his  mode  of 
worship  or  religious  sentiment :  that  all  shall 
be  entitled  to  the  benefits  of  the  writ  of 
habeas  corpus,  to  a  trial  by  jury,  to  judicial 
proceedings  according  to  the  course  of  the  com- 
mon law,  and  to  proportionate  representation  in 
the  Legislature.  All  persons  shall  be  bailable, 
unless  for  capital  offense  ;  all  fines  shall  be  mod- 
erate, and  no  cruel  or  unusual  punishments  shall 
be  inflicted  ;  no  man  shall  be  deprived  of  his  lib- 
erty or  property  but  by  the  judgment  of  his 
peers  or  the  law  of  the  land.  i 

It  may  seem  somewhat  curious  that  before 
taking  up  these  fundamentals,  in  fact,  in  the 
very  first  ])rovision,  the  Ordinance  deals  with  the 
question  of  the  equitable  distribution  of  in- 
testate estates,  thus  checking  at  the  start  any 
system  of  ])rimogeniture.  The  last  article  in 
the  document  is  the  one  that  is  cited  oftenest  in 
history — namel}-,  the  slavery  clause,  which  af- 
firms that  "there  shall  be  neither  slavery  nor 
involnntarv  servitude  in  the  said  territory,  other- 
wise than  in  the  punishment  of  crimes  whereof 
the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted."     This 



was  regarded  as  the  provision  of  all  others  that 
was  to  give  a  distinctive  character  to  the  civiliza- 
tion of  the  northwest,  for  it  meant  free  territory 
as  opposed  to  the  institution  of  slavery,  which 
was  already  coming  to  be  regarded  as  a  national 
curse.  The  promise  it  held  out  undoubtedly 
played  its  part  in  the  character  of  the  population 
that  from  the  beginning  gravitated  to  this  region. 

From  these  salient  features  of  the  Ordinance 
it  will  be  seen  that  its  Congressional  framers 
aimed  not  only  at  a  constitution  of  the  territories, 
as  such,  but  as  a  federal  instrument,  as  well, 
that  should  impose  certain  limitations  on  future 
State  constitutions.  Thus  while  the  State  con- 
stitution is,  in  a  sense,  the  "fundamental  law  of 
the  land,"  it  must,  after  all,  recognize  a  higher, 
ultimate  authority. 

Virginia's  Cession  to  United  States;  Forma- 
tion of  Northwest  Territory. — The  last  two 
sections  have  outrun  the  present  one  chronolog- 
ically in  the  attempt  to  follow  the  lineal  develop- 
ment of  our  fundamental  instruments.  Prior  to 
the  question  of  public  domain  and  the  Ordinance 
of  1787  came  the  cession  by  Virginia  of  her 
northwestern  possessions  to  the  United  States, 
along  with  other  territorial  relinquishments  by 
other  States.  As  said  on  a  previous  page,  the 
first  civil  organization  was  attempted  by  the  Vir- 
ginia Assembly,  which  established  courts  among 
the  French  and  temporarily  installed  John  Todd 
as  governor  of  Kaskaskia.  This  organization 
was  no  doubt  cruder  than  it  would  have  been 
had  the  future  ownership  been  more  certain.  As 
early  as  1781  Virginia  thought  favorably  of  the 
proposition  to  cede  her  newly-acquired  domain, 
and  in  1784  the  cession  was  made  and  the  whole 
territory  passed  over  to  a  new  jurisdiction.  For 
the  three  years  following  there  seems  to  have 
been  little  that  could  be  called  civil  government, 
but  with  the  adoption  of  the  Ordinance  of  1787 
steps  were  taken  to  organize  the  country  in  ac- 
cordance with  the  provisions  of"  that  instrument. 
The  region  then  took  the  name  of  "The  Territory 
of  the  United  States  Northwest  of  the  River 
Ohio,"  but  this,  in  popular  usage,  became  simply 
"The  Northwest  Territory."*  General  Arthur  St. 

Clair,  an  officer  of  the  kcvolution,  was  elected 
governor  loy  Congress,  and  he,  on  July  27,  1788, 
issued  a  proclamation  organizing  Washington 
county,  which  comprised  the  eastern  half  of  the 
present  State  of  Ohio.  Prior  to  that  a  land  com- 
pany had  purchased  of  Congress  a  tract  on  the 
Ohio,  taken  thither  the  first  colony,  and  founded 
the  town  of  Marietta.  'J'his  settlement  and  the 
one  county  above  named  marketl  the  real  starting 
point  of  civil  governincnl  in  the  Northwest  Ter- 
ritory. Tt  was  two  years  l)ef(jrc  any  other  countv 
was  formed.  With  the  election  of  the  governor, 
the  three  judges  re(|uire(l  Ijy  the  Ordinance  had 
likewise  been  chosen  and  with  the  conveninii 

*  Tlic  Northwest  Territory  comprised  the  present  States  of 
Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Michigan,  Wisconsin  and  a  part  of  Min- 
nesota. It  was  the  first  public  domain  of  the  United  States  and 
the  first  use  made  of  the  lands  was  in  the  discharge  of  the  na- 
tion's debts  to  Revolutionary  soldiers.  For  matter  at  length  on 
this  subject,  see  Burnet's  "Notes  on  the  Northwest  Territory" 
and  chapter  on  same  in  Dunn's  "Indiana." 

Map  of  the  Territory  of  Lidiana,  May  7.  ISCXJ.  h  in- 
cludes all  of  the  Northwest  Territory  west  of  a  line 
drawn  from  the  tnouth  of  the  Kentucky  river  to  Fort 
Recovery,  thence  ckie  north  to  the  northern  houndary 
of  the  United  States. — From  map  draziit  b\  E.  /'. 

the  officers  at  Marietta  they  ]irocee(led  to  their 
work  of  compiling  a  bod\-  of  laws,  the  result  be- 
ing a  small  volume,  iirinted  in  1795.  known  as 
the  "Maxwell  Code." 

With  the  history  of  the  Northwest  Territory 
\)\-\ov  to  tb.e  formation  of  Indiana  Territorx-.  in 
1800,  however,  it  is  not  our  purpose  to  deal  bc- 
\ond  noting  in  a  general  way  the  westward 
movement  that  presently  extended  to  our  terri- 
tory. \\'ith  the  opening  of  the  new  country  tlie 
infiux  began,  and  "it  is  estimated  that  within  a 
year  following  the  organization  of  the  territory 
full  twenty  thousand  men.  women  and  children 



passed  down  the  Ohio  river  to  become  settlers 
upon  its  banks."*  Most  of  this  earHer  immigra- 
tion, presumaljly,  did  not  go  Ijeyond  Washington 
coimtv.  The  progress  westward  was  retarded 
In-  the  hostihties  of  the  Indians,  whose  ill-feehng 
at  the  encroachments  upon  their  lands  was  kept 
alive  by  British  influences  from  the  north,  Eng- 
land's desire  being  that  this  region  should  still 
remain  a  wild  territory  between  the  frontiers  of 
the  two  nations.  According  to  Judge  Burnet, 
"the  woods  were  literally  swarming  with  In- 
dians, scattered  in  every  direction,  and,  in  addi- 
tion to  other  difficulties,  those  who  ventured  into 
the  wilderness,  from  duty  or  choice,  were  in  con- 
stant danger  of  meeting  some  of  those  parties  and 
suffering  the  consequences. "f  Nevertheless,  or- 
ganization proceeded  and  by  1796  there  were  four 
counties — Washington,  Hamilton,  St.  Clair  and 
Knox,  with  seats  of  justice,  in  the  order  named, 
at  Marietta,  Cincinnati,  Kaskaskia  and  Vin- 

Character  of  First  Immigrants.  —  Judge 
Jacob  Burnet,  in  his  "Notes  on  the  Northwest 
Territory,"  tells  us  that  "the  early  adventurers 
to  the  Northwest  Territory  were  generally  men 
who  had  spent  the  prime  of  their  lives  in  the  War 
of  Independence.  Many  of  them  had  exhausted 
their  fortunes  in  maintaining  the  desperate  strug- 
gle, and  retired  to  the  wilderness  to  conceal  their 
poverty  and  avoid  companions  mortifying  to  their 
pride  while  struggling  to  maintain  their  families 
and  improve  their  condition.  Some  of  them  were 
young  men,  descended  from  Revolutionary  pa- 
triots, who  had  fallen  in  the  contest  or  become 
too  feeble  to  endure  the  fatigue  of  settling  a 
wilderness.  C)thers  were  adventurous  spirits  to 
whom  any  change  might  be  for  the  l)etter,  and 
who,  anticipating  a  successful  result,  united  in 
the  enter] )rise.  .Such  a  colony  as  this  left  New 
I'jigland  in  17(S7  for  the  ])urpose  of  occupying 
the  grant  made  to  Sargent,  Cutler  &  Co.,  on  the 
Muskingum  river."]; 

l-'dsewhere,  si)eaking  of  the  social  status  at 
Cincinnati  and  the  garrison  there.  Fort  Wash- 
ington, during  the  latter  ])art  of  the  eighteenth 
century,  he  says:  "idleness,  drinking  and 
gambling  ])revailed  in  the  army,"  owing  to  the 
fact    ll)al    tln'v    liad    "been    several    vears    in    the 

•  Lossing. 

t  Biirnff'.s   "Notes  on   the   Ncirtluvcst   Territory. 

t  Burnet's  "Notes,"  p.   42. 

wilderness,  cut  off  from  all  society  but  their 
own,  and  no  amusements  but  such  as  their  own 
ingenuity  could  invent.  Libraries  were  not  to 
be  found ;  men  of  literary  minds  or  polished 
manners  were  rarely  met  with,  and  they  had 
long  been  deprived  of  the  advantage  of  modest, 
accomplished  female  society.  Thus  situated 
.  .  .  the  bottle,  the  dice  box  and  the  card  table 
were  among  the  expedients  resorted  to.  Such 
were  the  habits  of  the  army  wdien  they  began 
to  associate  with  the  inhabitants  of  Cincinnati 
and  of  the  western  settlements  generally."* 


Proposed  Division  of  Northwest  Territory. — 

I'rior  to  the  framing  of  the  Ordinance  of  1787 
a  committee,  of  which  Thomas  Jefferson  was  a 
member,  elaborated  a  plan  for  the  government 
of  the  western  lands,  and  this  plan  as  originally 
presented  proposed  the  division  of  the  north- 
western country  into  ten  States  w  hich  were  to  be 
christened  with  sounding  names  reflecting  the 
stilted  taste  for  the  classics  that  prevailed  at  that 
day.  We  cjuote  from  J.  P.  Dunn  ("Indiana," 
p.  180)  : 

"The  region  west  of  Lake  Michigan  and  north 
of  parallel  45  was  to  be  a  State  under  the  name 
of  Sylvania.  The  lower  peninsula  of  Michigan 
north  of  parallel  43  w^as  to  form  Cheronesus. 
That  part  of  Wisconsin  between  parallels  43  and 
45  was  to  be  Michigan.  Below  this  there  were 
to  be  two  States  to  every  two  degrees  of  latitude, 
divided  by  a  meridian  line  drawm  through  the 
rapids  of  the  Ohio,  except  that  all  the  territory 
east  of  a  meridian  line  drawn  throtigh  the  mouth 
of  the  Great  Kanawha  was  to  be  one  State  named 
Washington.  Betw'een  parallels  41  and  43  the 
eastern  State  was  Saratoga  and  the  western  Illi- 
noia.  Between  parallel  39  and  the  Ohio,  the 
eastern  State  was  Pelisipia  and  the  western  Poly- 
potamia.  Indiana,  therefore,  would  have  been 
divided  tip  among  these  six  States  last  named." 

French  and  American  Differences. — In  tem- 
])erament,  customs,  hal)its  and  general  charac- 
ter the  two  elements  had  little  in  common.  The 
French  are  pictured  as  indolent,  shiftless  and 
easy-going,  given  to  vivacity,  noise  and  merry- 
making, their  very  manner  of  apportioning  their 
lands  being  an  index  to  their  social  nature,  for 

*  Ibid.,  p.   36. 



the  long,  narrow  tracts  they  farmed  were  so 
shaped  as  to  bring  their  houses  near  together. 
The  Americans,  on  the  other  hand,  were  business- 
hke  and  thrifty,  with  an  eye  to  seizing  advan- 
tages, and  when  the  two  classes  came  into  indus- 
trial competition  the  incompetent  Frenchman 
gradually  went  to  the  wall  and  much  of  his  land 
that  had  formerly  yielded  him  some  sort  of  a 
living  went  to  his  competitor  at  prices  little  more 
than  nominal.  Before  this  turn  of  affairs,  how- 
ever, they  had  serious  cause  of  complaint,  as  is 

flour  and  corn  taken  forciljly,  and  various  other 
wrongs  perjjetrated.* 

These  summary  procccflings  might  have  been 
accounted  for,  in  ]);irt,  by  the  exigencies  of  war. 
for  the  capture  of  V'incennes  was  by  no  means 
the  end  of  military  operations  in  the  Northwest, 
but  they  also  indicate  that  the  rude  frontiers- 
man who  performed  the  rough  work  of  conquest 
that  has  been  described,  was  not  given  to  gentle- 
ness, nor,  perhaps,  to  strict  justice.  In  short,  the 
less  robust  exiles  were  not  fitted  to  cope  with  him 

The  Niagara  Falls  of  Washington  county  are  about  30  feet  high.  The  water  falls  uvcr  three  or  four  k^ilges  or 
benches  of  rocks  as  shown  in  the  picture,  which  was  taken  when  the  temperature  was  si.xteen  degrees  below 
zero,  in  the  early  morning.  The  stream  is  fed  by  a  spring  quite  a  distance  from  the  falls.  The  water  runs 
down  a  knob  about  150  feet  high.  It  is  150  feet  up  the  knob  to  the  falls.  The  rock,  which  is  shale  and  lime- 
stone, is  ragged  and  rough,  making  it  difficult  to  ascend.  The  falls  are  si.x  miles  northwest  of  Salem. 
— Orra  Hopper. 

shown  by  a  letter,  signed  by  sixteen  of  the  lead- 
ing citizens  of  Vincennes  and  addressed  to  the 
governor  of  Virginia  in  1781.  This  letter  affirms 
"horrible  treatment"  from  the  X'irginia  troojis. 
particularly  after  Colonel  Clark  left  the  town, 
the  charge  being  that  they  were  obliged  to  ac- 
cept for  their  goods  and  food  supplies  depreci- 
ated continental  money  at  coin  value ;  that  their 
cattle  and  hogs  were  killed  in  the  fields,  their 

and  with  those  who  followed  him  as  permanent 
citizens,  and  thus  the  story  of  French  life  on 
Indiana  soil  has  in  it  something  of  tragedy. 

Francis  Busseron's  Commission  as  Justice. — 
A  curious  relic  among  the  doctunents  ot  the  Las- 
selle  collection  is  an  early  form  of  commission 
for  the  ottice  of  justice  of  the  jieace.  l-'rancis 
"Bussero,"  to  whom  the  commission  was  issued, 

•  George  Rogers  Clark  Papers,  p.  430. 



properly  spelled  Busseron  or  Bosseron,  was  one 
of  the  most  prominent  French  citizens  of  Vin- 
cennes  at  the  time  of  the  conquest  and  for  some 
years  after.  He  was  a  major  in  the  militia  and 
his  name  is  to  the  present  day  perpetuated  in 
Knox  county  by  a  creek  and  a  village. 

The  commission,  issued  by  the  "Honourable 
Winthrop  Sargent,  Esquire,"  who  is  "vested  with 
all  the  powers  of  the  governor  and  commander- 
in-chief  of  the  Territory  of  the  United  States 
Northwest  of  the  River  Ohio,"  and  bearing  the 
seal  of  the  territory,  is  curious  by  reason  of  a 
legal  wording  that  seems  little  short  of  barbarous 
maltreatment  of  language,  and  it  is  interesting  as 
showing  the  functions  imposed  upon  the  magis- 
trate. He  seems,  indeed,  to  have  been  a  justice, 
a  prosecuting  attorney  and  a  grand  jury  all  rolled 
into  one.    The  commission  follows  : 

"To  all  unto  zvhom  these  Presents  shall  come.  Greet- 
ing : 

"Know  ye  that  we  have  assigned  and  constituted,  and 
do  by  these  Presents  constitute  and  appoint  Francis 
Bussero.  Esquire,  to  be  one  of  the  justices  to  keep  the 
Peace  of  the  Quorum  in  our  county  of  Knox,  and  to 
keep  and  cause  to  be  kept,  the  Laws  and  Ordinances 
made  for  the  Good  of  the  Peace,  and  for  the  Conserva- 
tion of  the  same,  and  for  the  Quiet,  Rule  and  Govern- 
ment of  our  Citizens  and  Subjects  in  the  said  county 
in  all  and  every  the  Articles  thereof  according  to  the 
Force,  Form  and  Effect  of  the  same,  and  to  chastise 
and  punish  all  Persons  offending  against  the  Form  of 
those  Laws  and  Ordinances,  or  any  of  them,  in  the 
county  aforesaid,  as  according  to  the  Form  of  those 
Laws  Ordinances  shall  be  fit  to  be  done;  and  to  cause 
to  come  before  him,  the  said  Francis  Bussero,  Esquire, 
all  those  that  shall  break  the  Peace,  or  attempt  anything 
against  the  same,  or  that  shall  threaten  any  of  the  Citi- 

zens or  Subjects  in  their  Persons,  or  in  burning  their 
Houses,  to  find  sufficient  security  for  the  Peace,  and 
for  the  good  Behaviour  toward  the  Citizens  and  Sub- 
jects of  this  Government;  and  if  they  shall  refuse  to 
find  such  security,  then  to  cause  them  to  be  kept  safe 
in  Prison  until  they  shall  find  the  same;  and  to  do  and 
perform  in  the  county  aforesaid,  all  and  whatsoever, 
according  to  our  Laws  and  Ordinances,  or  anj-  of  them, 
a  Justice  of  the  Peace  &  Quorum  may  and  ought  to  do 
and  perform ;  And  with  other  Justices  of  the  Peace 
(according  to  the  Tenor  of  the  Commission  to  them 
granted)  to  enquire  by  the  oaths  of  good  and  lawful 
men  of  the  said  county  by  whom  the  Truth  may  be  bet- 
ter known,  of  all  and  all  Manner  of  Thefts,  Trespasses, 
Riots,  Routs  and  unlawful  Assemblies  whatsoever,  and 
all  and  singular  other  Misdeeds  and  Offenses  of  which 
by  Law  Justices  of  the  Peace  in  their  General  Sessions 
may  and  ought  to  enquire,  by  whomsoever  or  howsoever 
done  or  perpetrated,  or  which  shall  hereafter  happen, 
howsoever  to  be  done  or  attempted  in  the  county  afore- 
said, contrary  to  the  Form  of  the  Laws  and  Ordinances 
aforesaid,  made  for  the  common  good  of  our  Citizens 
and  Subjects;  And  with  other  Justices  of  the  Peace 
(according  to  the  Tenor  of  the  Commission  to  them 
granted  as  aforesaid)  to  hear  and  determine  all  and 
singular  the  said  Thefts,  Trespasses,  Riots,  Routs,  un- 
lawful Assemblies,  and  all  and  singular  other  Premises, 
and  to  do  therein  as  to  Justice  appertaineth,  according 
to  the  Laws,  Statutes  and  Ordinances  aforesaid. 

"IN  TESTIMONY  WHEREOF,  we  have  caused  our 
Public  Seal  to  be  hereunto  affixed  :  Witness  Winthrop 
Sargent  Esqr.  vested  with  all  the  Powers  of  Our  Gov- 
ernor and  Commander-in-chief. 

Dated  at  Post  Vincennes  the  third  day  of  July, 
Anno  Domini  One  Thousand,  Seven  Hundred  and 
Ninety,  and  in  the  fourteenth  year  of  the  Inde- 
pendence of  the  United  States  of  America. 



"Before  me,  Winthrope  Sargent,  appeared  Francis 
Bussero,  Esqre.  and  took  the  oath  prescribed  to  all  offi- 
cers by  an  Act  of  the  United  States,  and  also  the  Oath 
of  Office  as  directed  by  the  Laws  of  this  Territory. 

"In  testimonv  whereof  I  have  hereunto  set  mv  hand 
this  fifth  day  of  July,  1790. 




The  Origin  of  "Indiana." — Who  gave  the 
name  "Indiana"  to  the  western  part  of  the  North- 
west Territory  when  it  was  set  off  as  a  new  terri- 
tory in  1800,  is  not  now  known,  hut  it  was  evi- 
dently borrowed  from  a  preceding  "Indiana" 
that  may  be  found  on  maps  dating  back  into  the 
eighteenth  century.  The  map  best  showing  the 
exact  boundaries  of  this  forgotten  tract  is  one  by 
Thomas  Hutchins.  pubhshed  in  1778.*  Roughly 
described  it  occupies  the  approximate  triangle 
formed  by  the  Little  Kanawha  and  the  Ohio 
rivers  and  the  western  ranges  of  the  Alleghanv 
mountains.  In  other  words,  it  covers  all  of  six 
and  parts  of  five  other  counties  now  within  the 
State  of  West  Virginia,  and  it  contains  about 
five  thousand  square  miles,  or  an  area  ecjtial  to 
the  State  of  Connecticut. 

The  little  chapter  of  forgotten  history  con- 
nected with  this  original  Indiana  is  interesting 
and  runs  as  follows :  After  the  French  and  In- 
dian war,  when  the  territory  in  question  had 
passed  into  the  possession  of  Great  Britain,  a 
trading  company  was  organized  at  Philadelphia 
to  establish  an  extensive  fur  trade  with  the  In- 
dians of  the  Ohio  valley.  A  large  consignment 
of  goods  sent  by  this  company  down  the  river 
was  forcibly  appropriated  by  some  predatory 
bands  of  savages  despite  the  nominal  peace  then 
existing  between  the  white  and  the  red  men.  The 
powerful  Iroquois  confederation  known  as  the 
"Six  Nations,"  which  claimed  jurisdiction  over 
the  marauders,  was  appealed  to  for  redress ;  it 
admitted  the  justice  of  the  claim,  and,  as  its 
wealth  consisted  chiefly  of  land,  it  gave  the  com- 
pany, by  way  of  indemnity,  the  Virginia  land  in 
question.  The  value  of  the  goods  had  been 
placed  at  something  like  a  half-million  dollars. 
The  vast  tract  thus  acquired  was  called  "Indiana" 
by  its  new  owners.  The  name  may  be  interpreted 
"the  land  of  the  Indians,"  and  in  it  may  be  de- 
tected the  classical  bias  that  is  traceable  in  Loui- 
siana, Virginia,  Carolina,  Pennsylvania,  Georgia, 
and  many  other  geographical  names. 

This  was  in  1768.  Either  then  or  later  the 
owners  took  the  name  of  "the  Indiana  Land  Com- 

pany," under  which  title  it  figures  in  the  (.  on- 
gressional  Journals  for  several  years,  beginning 
in  1779,  with  a  memorial  from  the  companv  pray- 
ing for  relief.  Tlie  occasion  of  this  memorial 
was  the  refusal  of  X'irginia  to  recognize  the  com- 
pany's title  to  the  land.  'I'Ik-  case  dragged 
along  in  Congress  as  such  things  do;  linally  that 
body  decided  that  it  could  do  nothing  in  the  mat- 
ter, and  in  the  end  X'irginia  swallowed  it  all, 
leaving  the  Indiana  Land  Company  to  drop  out 
of  history  and  Indiana  as  a  region  to  ]xiss  from 
the  maps.  By  1798,  "Indiana"  had  cea.sed  to 

For  map  see  p.  25. 

icrriturial  llall,  \  inccniics,  lISi'.x.  tin-  Jlnildnii;  m  Wliicii 
the  First  Territorial  Lej^islaturc  Met. 

Two  years  later,  when  the  "'i'erritory  North- 
west of  the  Ohio"  was  divided,  a  name  h.'.d  to 
be  found  for  the  western  jiart  of  the  region.  The 
name  of  the  now  defmict  Indiana  across  the 
river  seemed  to  l)e  e(|ually  applical)le  to  this 
country,  and  so  in  some  way,  now  lost  to  his- 
torv,  the  application  was  niaile.  In  the  sub- 
divisions that  followed,  our  .^tate  was  the  first 
to  take  on  permanent  l)Oundaries,  and  it  retained 
the  name.  This  time  it  stuck,  and  so  the  red  men 
ha\e  the  nioiuuneiit  thai  the  old  land  company 

In  western  Pennsylvania  there  is  a  county 
liearing  the  name  "Indiana."  which  is  probalily 
a  reminiscence  of  the  old  \'irginia  tract.  This 
county  was  erected  in  1802. 

An  interesting  and  little-known  monograph  on 




this  subject  is  "The  Naming  of  Indiana,"  by  Prof. 
Cyrus  W.  Hodgin,  of  Earlham  college,  published 
by  the  Wayne  County  Historical  Society  some 
years  ago. 

The  "Gore." — What  was  once  facetiously 
known  as  the  "Gore"  in  Indiana  Territory  was 
a  long  tract  in  the  shape  of  a  wedge  or  gore  ofif 
the  east  side  of  tlie  Territory,  widening  south- 
ward and  comprising  most  of  the  Whitewater 
valley.  This,  along  with  land  about  Vincennes 
and  a  few  small  tracts,  represents  the  first  terri- 
tory in  Indiana  to  come  into  the  possession  of 
the  United  States  by  treaty  with  the  Indians,  and 
dates  back  to  1795.  By  Wayne's  treaty  of  that 
year,  part  of  the  Indian  boundary  line  extended 
from  Fort  Recovery  (in  Ohio)  to  a  point  on  the 
Ohio  river,  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Kentucky. 
When  Indiana  Territory  was  created,  that  line 
was  part  of  its  eastern  boundary,  but  when  Ohio 
was  admitted  as  a  State  in  1802,  the  line  was 
shifted  eastward  to  the  mouth  of  the  Miami 
river— a  boundary  that  had  really  been  fixed  by 
the  Ordinance  of  1787.  Thus  the  triangle  in 
question  antedated,  as  a  frontier,  the  early  pur- 
chases along  the  Ohio  river,  though  the  lands 
were  not  put  on  sale  prior  to  1802.  Ohio  has 
laid  claim  to  this  strip  of  territory,  as  Michigan 
has  to  a  ten-mile  strip  that  was  added  to  Indiana 
on  the  north,  but  no  serious  attention  has  ever 
been  paid  to  these  claims. 

Creating  of  Indiana  Territory. — By  1800  the 
population  of  the  Northwest  Territory  had  in- 
creased and  spread  over  a  territory  so  vast,  in 
centers  so  widely  separated  that  the  administra- 
tion of  government  and  operation  of  the  courts 
became  very  difficult  in  many  instances,  and  cor- 
respondingly inefi^ective.  A  reduction  of  the  area 
and  administration  at  shorter  range  became 
desirable,  and  hence,  in  the  year  named,  the  most 
thicl-;l\-  ]iopulatcd  section  in  the  eastern  part  was 
set  ofi"  from  the  remainder.  This  eastern  por- 
tion, bounded  by  the  treaty  line  established  by 
C/cneral  Wayne's  treaty  with  the  Indians  of  the 
northwest  at  Greenville,  in  1795,  com])rised  the 
present  State  of  Ohio  and  the  eastern  part  of 
Michigan.  Until  the  creation  of  the  State  of 
Ohio,  in  1802,  this  still  retained  the  name  of  the 
"Northwest  Territory."  The  western  portion, 
comprising  all  the  rest  of  the  original  territory, 
and  extending  westward  to  the  Mississippi  river 

and  northward  to  Canada,  was  reorganized  un- 
der the  name  of  "Indiana  Territory."  There  were 
at  first  three  counties — St.  Clair,  Randolph  and 
Knox,  the  latter  covering  all  of  the  present  State 
of  Indiana,  and  the  population  was  given  at  6,550 
by  a  census  of  1800.* 

Organization  of  Government. — The  form  ot 
government  as  determined  by  the  Ordinance  of 
1787,  first  established  a  governor  and  three 
judges  whose  duty  it  was  to  compile  from  exist- 
ing statutes  a  code  of  laws  for  the  territory.  The 
large  powers  of  the  governor,  and  the  entire  con- 
trol by  the  federal  government  were  the  distinct- 
ive features  of  what  was  termed  the  first  terri- 
torial grade.  On  attaining  to  a  population  of 
5,000  free  male  adults  the  territory  was  eligible 
to  a  second  grade,  in  which  a  governor  and  legis- 
lative councils,  appointed  by  Congress,  and  a 
house  of  representatives,  elected  by  the  people, 
sticceeded  to  the  governor  and  judges.  Laws 
created  by  this  legislative  body  took  the  place  of 
the  borrowed  code.  The  territory  was  entitled  to 
a  delegate  in  Congress,  with  the  right  of  debate 
but  not  of  vote.  This  form  of  government  was 
imposed  until  the  territory  should  have  60,000 
free  inhabitants,  which  population  entitled  it  to 
statehood  with  its  own  constitution  and  machin- 
ery for  government. 

Beginning  of  Government. — The  govern- 
ment of  Indiana  Territory  began  July  4,  1800,  as 
recorded  in  the  opening  entry  of  the  territorial 
journal,  f 

The  seat  of  government  was  Vincennes.  The 
governor  was  William  Henry  Harrison,  and  his 
three  coworkers,  the  judges,  were  William 
Clarke,  Henry  Vanderburgh  and  John  Griffin. 
John  Gibson  was  secretary  of  the  territory  and 
acting-governor  on  various  occasions.  Harrison 
himself  did  not  arrive  at  A'incennes  until  January 
of  1801  and  prior  to  that  Gibson  appointed  a 
number  of  minor  officials  and  attended  to  the 
necessary  administrative  matters. 

One  of  Harrison's  first  acts  was  to  convene  his 
judges  and  proceed  to  adopt  and  publish  laws  for 
the  territory,  the  result  being  a  code  of  seven 

*  This  poi)ulation  is  said  to  have  been  distributed  as  follows: 
At  Clark's  CIrant,  929;  in  and  near  Vincennes,  2,497;  in  the  Kas- 
kaskia  region,  1,103;  Cahokia  and  other  Mississippi  river  settle- 
ments, 1,255.  Also  there  were  remote  trading  settlements  at 
Miohillimacinac,   Prairie   dii   Chien,   Green   Bay  and   other  points. 

t  Executive  Journal  of  Indiana  Territory,  1800-1816. — Ind. 
Hist.   Soc.   publications,  vol.   iii. 



laws  and  three  resolutions.  These,  chiefly,  dealt 
with  the  levying  of  taxes,  the  practise  of  attor- 
neys and  of  courts,  the  establishment  of  courts, 
the  compensation  of  officers  and  the  establish- 
ment of  ferries.* 

The  first  session  of  the  general  court  was  be- 
gun by  the  territorial  judges  at  Vincennes,  on 
March  3,  1801,  and  the  first  grand  jury  was  em- 
paneled with  nineteen  members. 

First  Public  Questions. — "Between  the  vears 
1800  and  1810  the  principal  subjects  which  at- 
tracted the  attention  of  the  people  of  the  Indiana 
Territory  were  land  speculations,  the  adjustment 
of  land  titles,  the  question  of  negro  slavery,  the 
purchase  of  Indian  lands  by  treaties,  the  organi- 
zation of  territorial  Legislatures,  the  extension 
of  the  right  of  suffrage,  the  division  of  the  Indi- 
ana territory,  the  movements  of  Aaron  Burr,  and 
the  hostile  views  and  proceedings  of  the  Shawnee 
chief,  Tecumseh,  and  his  brother,  the  Prophet. "f 

The  Slavery  Question. — In  spite  of  the  pro- 
vision in  the  Ordinance  of  1787  that  there  should 
be  "neither  slavery  nor  involuntary  servitude"  in 
the  Northwest  Territory,  otherwise  than  for 
the  punishment  of  crimes,  there  was  from  the 
first  a  pronounced  attempt  to  make  it  legal  in  In- 
diana. The  entering  wedge  for  this  attempt  was 
the  fact  that  negro  slavery  had  existed  among  the 
French.  This  continued  to  exist  and  its  elimina- 
tion was  but  laxly  followed  up.  It  is  estimated 
that  in  1800  there  were  one  hundred  seventy-five 
slaves  in  the  territory,  twenty-eight  of  which 
were  at  Vincennes.  In  some  instances  the  "in- 
voluntary servitude"  clause  was  avoided  by  the 
slaves  agreeing  by  indentures  or  contracts  to 
remain  with  their  masters  for  a  certain  number 
of  years. 

With  the  incoming  American  population  were 
many  southerners  who  were  favorable  to  slavery, 
and  Governor  Harrison  himself  decidedly  leaned 
that  way.  In  December  of  1802,  pursuant  to  a 
proclamation  issued  by  the  governor,  an  election 
was  held  in  the  various  counties  to  choose  dele- 
gates for  a  convention  at  Vincennes  on  the  twen- 
tieth of  that  month,  the  purpose  of  which  was 
to  consider  the  slavery  proviso  in  the  ordinance. 
This  was  a  movement  of  the  slavery  element,  and 
the  result  of  the  convention  was  a  memorial  to 
Congress   petitioning   that    the    proviso    be    sus- 

I)ended.  The  argument  made  was,  in  i>art,  that 
such  suspension  "would  be  highly  advantageous 
to  the  territory"  ;  that  it  would  "meet  the  appro- 
bation of  at  least  nine-tenths  of  the  good  citizens 
of  the  territory";  that  "the  abstract  question  of 
liberty  and  slavery"  was  not  involved,  and  that 
the  slaves  themselves  would  be  benefited  as  those 
possessed  in  small  numbers  by  farmers  "were 
better  fed  and  better  clothed  than  when  they 
were  crowded  together  in  quarters  by  hundreds" 
(Dillon).  The  committee  to  which  this  memorial 
was  referred  disapjjroved  of  the  suspension  and 
Congress  took  no  action.  That,  however,  by  no 
means  ended  the  matter  and  the  attempts  to  sad- 
dle slavery  upon  the  territfjry  continued  through- 
out the  territorial  i)eriod.  .Meanwhile  the  anti- 
slavery  element  was  not  indifi'ercnt  or  idle  and 
the  political  history  of  those  years  is  in  no  small 
degree  one  of  party  alignment  on  that  question. 
Generally  speaking,  the  Harrison  party  of  Knox 
county  which  stood  for  slavery  was  oj^posed  bv 
Clark  county  and  the  Quaker  element  of  the 
Whitewater,  with  whom  Jonathan  Jennings  be- 
came a  conspicuous  leader,  and  whom,  in  1816. 
they  made  the  first  governor  of  the  State.  Bv 
1816  the  anti-slavery  element  had  so  gained  in 
strength  as  to  elect  a  large  majority  of  the  dele- 
gates to  the  constitutional  convention  of  that 
year,  and  by  virtue  of  this  the  State  constitution 
fixed  firmly  the  status  of  Lidiana  as  one  of  the 
free  commonwealths.  This  was  the  beginning  of 
the  end,  but  the  tenacity  of  this  nefarious  cancer 
on  the  body  politic  is  well  illustrated  by  the  fact 
that  as  late  as  1840  a  few  slaves  were  reported 
in  Indiana  in  open  violation  of  the  constitutional 

Indian  Treaties  and  Land  Purchases. — Ar- 
ticle iii  of  the  ( )rdinance  of  1787  defines  the  ]iol 
ic\-  of  the  United  States  toward  the  Indians,  one 
clause  being  that  "their  lands  :\m\  projierty  shall 
never  be  taken  from  them  without  their  consent." 
This  means  that  while  the  United  States  nomi- 
nally took  possession  of  the  country  beyond  tiie 
(  )hio  ri\er  it  considered  the  land  as  still  in  the 
possession  of  the  original  owners.  Hence  ( lov- 
ernor  Harrison  was  ])ut  in  authority  over  a  coun- 
trv  which,  except  for  a  few  small  tracts  the  In- 
dians had  previously  jxirted  with,  did  not  belong 

*  Dillon,  p.  409. 
t  Ibid. 

*  The  sub-title  to  J.  P.  Dunn's  ""  is  "A  Redemption 
From  Slavery,"  and  the  book  is  primarily  an  exhaustive  study 
of  this  particular  question,  which  the  author  holds  to  be  an  im- 
portant formative  factor  in  our  history. 



to  the  whites  at  all.  One  of  his  first  duties  was 
the  acquiring  of  land  for  the  prospective  com- 
monwealth to  grow  upon  and  his  accomplishment 
to  this  end  was  one  of  his  conspicuous  services. 
The  ownership  was  complicated,  a  number  of 
tribes  having  overlapping  claims  to  various  parts 
of  the  territory  desired  and  treaties  negotiated 
with  ihcse  tribes  by  Harrison  extended  over  a 
period  of  six  years,  or  from  1803  to  1809.  The 
fruit  of  this  w^as  five  separate  purchases  within 
the  present  Indiana  that  comprised  the  whole 
southern  portion  of  the  State  and  lapped  over  into 
Illinois.  Besides  these  there  were  other  large 
tracts  not  within  the  present  limits  of  our  State. 
Subsequent  purchases  by  other  agents  brought 
the  number  of  tracts  up  to  more  than  fifty  before 
the  entire  State  was  secured,  and  the  last  one  was 
made  in  1840.  These  lands  were  paid  for,  chiefly, 
by  such  commodities  as  the  Indians  needed  or 
fancied  and  by  annual  payments  of  money,  and 
were  trivial  as  compared  with  the  value  of  the 

Land  Surveys;  Rectangular  System. — The 
first  step,  preparatory  to  settlement,  was  the  sur- 
vey of  the  public  lands  as  they  were  secured  by 
the  government.  The  system  adopted  was  one 
that  was  elaborated  for  the  public  domain  of  the 
nation  and  dates  back  to  1785.  It  is  known  as 
the  "rectangular  system"  and  consists  of  series  of 
east-and-west  and  north-and-south  lines  inter- 
secting each  other  so  as  to  cover  the  face  of  the 
country  with  sciuares  of  an  equal  size  called  con- 
gressional townships.  These  rectangles,  six  miles 
square,  are  subdivided  into  thirty-six  square 
miles  of  "sections."  The  measurements  are  made 
from  base  and  meridian  lines,  each  township  be- 
ing numljcrcd  in  its  relations  to  these  two  lines. 
As  numl)ercd  north  or  south  from  the  base  line 
they  are  described  as  a  given  number  of  town- 
shi])s.  I^ast  or  west  from  the  meridian  they  oc- 
cupy a  certain  range.  The  sections  are  numbered 
from  1  to  .^6,  l)eginning  in  the  northeast  corner 
of  each  townshi]),  running  westward  to  6,  then 
eastward  on  the  second  tier  to  12,  and  so  on.  Any- 
tliing  less  than  a  section  is  described  as  a  fraction 
of  a  s])ecified  section  and  its  exact  location  given 
within  the  section.  l-Jy  this  admirable  sv.stem  any 
tract  in  the  .Stale  can  be  easily  and  accurately  lo- 
cated and   its  boundaries   delined,  thus  avoiding 

*  l-'(ir  in.i|i  sri-  \t.  ^\.     A   full  list  of  tlu-  i)urcliasos  may  l)i'  fmind 
in   .Smith's  "Histcjiy   nf   Iiuliana." 

the  confusion  and  troubles  that  have  arisen  in 
some  of  the  States,  notably  Kentucky,  by  reason 
of  overlapping  claims. 

The  Indiana  base  line,  which  was  run  in  1804, 
crosses  the  southern  counties  about  the  latitude 
of  Vincennes.  Our  meridian  runs  a  few  miles 
west  of  the  longitudinal  center  of  the  State,  ex- 
tending from  the  Ohio  river  to  the  Michigan  line. 
The  location  of  these  two  principal  lines  was  de- 
termined by  the  fact  that  the  first  tract  to  be  sur- 
veyed by  the  general  system  west  of  Ohio  was 
one  adjacent  to  Vincennes,  extending  eastward 
to  the  point  where  the  intersection  of  the  lines 
was  established.  The  surveys  of  the  various" 
tracts  shortly  followed  the  purchases.  Vincennes 
and  its  immediate  surroundings  and  Clark's  Grant 
show  irregular  surveys  owing  to  the  work  being 
done  before  the  introduction  here  of  the  govern- 
ment system. 

The  government  surveyors  not  only  established 
their  measurements,  but,  incidentally,  gathered 
much  valuable  information  abovit  the  natural  fea- 
tures an(,l  resources  of  the  country  which  was 
carefully  recorded  in  their  field  notes. 

'Tn  the  land  office  at  the  statehouse  in  Indian- 
apolis may  still  be  seen  the  drawings,  together 
with  the  'field  notes'  made  by  these  early  survey- 
ors of  our  State.  They  are  in  excellent  condition, 
and  not  only  show  the  surveys  as  they  were 
made,  but  also  the  location  of  lands  purchased 
from  the  Indians  from  time  to  time,  the  locations 
of  the  roads  and  canals  through  the  State,  and 
many  other  interesting  things  connected  with  the 
history  and  development  of  our  State."* 

Land  Sales  and  Land  Offices. — As  the  lands 
were  surveyed  and  put  on  sale  land  districts  were 
established,  each  with  its  land  office  where  pur- 
chasers entered  their  claims  and  secured  the  same 
by  paying  down  one-fourth  of  the  government 
price,  which  at  one  time  was  $2  per  acre,  and  at 
another  $1.50.  The  balance  was  paid  in  anmial 
instalments  and  subject  to  forfeiture  if  the  pay- 
ments fell  delinquent.  In  time  there  was  consid- 
erable trouble  with  delayed  payments,  and  some 
legislation  for  relief. 

The  first  land  office  in  Indiana  was  established 
at  Vincennes,  March  26.  1804.  with  John  Badol- 
let   as   register   and   Nathan   Ewing  as   receiver. 

*  Mrs.  Conklin's  "^'oiing  People's  History  of  Indiana"  lias  a 
very  itiforniativf  chapter  on  the  early  surveys  and  land  sales. 
See  also  map  of  government  surveys  in  Indiana,  by  Prof.  John 
Collett,   in  geological   report   for   1882. 



The  second  office  was  opened  at  Jeffersonville  in 
1807.  Subsequent  ones,  as  the  acquired  lands  ex- 
tended northward,  were  at  Brookville,  Indian- 
apolis, Craw  fords  ville,  Winamac  and  Fort 

Divisions  of  Indiana  Territory. — Originally 
Indiana  Territory  extended  westward  to  the  Mis- 
sissippi and  northward  to  the  Canadian  bound- 
ary. In  1805  a  division  was  made  by  a  line  run- 
ning eastward   from  the  southern  extremity  of 

Ohio  extended  north  to  Canada  till  the  forma- 
tion of  the  State  of  Ohio  in  1802.  when  the  coun- 
try cut  off  by  Ohio's  northern  boundary  was 
added  to  Indiana.  The  western  boundary  of  Ohio 
as  established  at  that  time  shifted  the  line  that 
had  previously  formed  the  eastern  boundary  of 
Indiana,  thus  forming  the  "Gore."* 

First  Party  Divisions. — The  first  partv  divi- 
sions in  Indiana  were  not  along  the  line  of  na- 
tional (juestions.  but  on  local  issues  that  aroused 

Old  Alill  on  Big  Raccoon  Creek  near  AnTiies1)urg,  in  Parke  County.  The  tradition  is  llial  William  Henry 
Harrison  encamped  here  with  his  troops  on  his  wav  to  tlie  Battle  of  Tippecanoe,  in  1811.— C'<'»r/,'jy  >>f 
A.  H.  Nordvke. 

Lake  Michigan  and  north  of  this  line  the  Terri-  considerable  feeling  and  gave  rise  to  factions  as 

tory  of  Michigan  was  created.     Again,  by  a  con-  well  as  parties.    Consi)icuous  among  these  issues 

gressional  act  of  February  3,  1809,  all  that  coun-  were  the  ([uestion  of  i)ermitting  slavery  and  the 

try  lying  w^est  of  the  Wabash  river  and  of  a  line  division  of  the  territory,  the  latter  being  more  or 

drawn  due  north  from  Yincennes  to  the  Cana-  less  linked  with  the  first.    Knox  county  developed 

dian  line  was  constituted  a  separate  territory  and  a   dominating   pro-slavery   group   with    ll.irnson 

called  Illinois.     This  gave  to  Indiana  its  present  as  its  recognized  head,  and  this  was  reintorced 

limits  except  that  subseqttently  the  Michigan  line  I'v  the  pro-slavery  element  in  the  Illinois  cuntry. 

was  shifted  ten  miles  north  of  the  sotUhern  ex-  ^'^"k  countv  and  the  eastern  s,de  ot   the  tcrn- 
tremity  of  the  lake. 

The  eastern  part  of  the  Michigan  peninstila 
was  not  at  first  a  part  of  Indiana  Territory,  as 
the  line  separating  the  latter  from  what  is  now 

tory  was  largeh'  anli-sla\  er\ ,  with  lonathan  Jen- 
nings as  its  most  consjiictious  champion.  '1  his  di- 
vision existed   until   the    formation   ot    the   State 

*  See  section   •"The  (".ore."  [>.  ^2. 




Constitution  fixed  the  status  of  the  question  in 
favor  of  anti-slavery.  In  1805  one  hundred  and 
five  anti-slavery  residents  of  the  Whitewater  re- 
gion signed  a  memorial  to  Congress  petitioning 
that  their  section  be  annexed  to  Ohio,  the  reason 
directly  given  being  that  while  they  were  in  easy 
communication  with  that  State  they  were  sep- 
arated from  the  Indiana  seat  of  government  by 
a  wilderness  that  for  many  years  would  likely  be 
unoccupied  by  any  other  than  Indians.  As  these 
petitioners  were,  mainly,  anti-slavery  Quakers 
and  entirely  out  of  harmony  with  the  party  in 
power  at  Vincennes  it  is  likely  that  the  unex- 
pressed reasons  were  the  strongest. 

Again,  in  the  same  year,  another  petition  asked 
that  a  latitudinal  division  of  the  territory  be  made 
and  that  the  lands  already  purchased  from  the 
Indians,  extending  from  the  Miami  to  the  Missis- 
sippi be  made  into  a  state.  This  would  give  Vin- 
cennes the  central  and  logical  position  for  the 
permanent  capital,  and  was  all  to  its  advantage, 
and  it  was  opposed  by  the  Illinois  residents  who 
objected  vigorously  to  the  Vincennes  domination. 
One  source  of  dissension  was  the  question  of  en- 
tering the  second  grade  of  government,  the  ar- 
gument against  which  was  additional  expenses 
and  increased  taxes  without  commensurate  bene- 
fits ;  the  Harrison  party  came  to  be  regarded  with 
odium  as  "aristocrats,"  and,  in  short,  the  terri- 
tory with  its  internal  animosities  and  factions 
was  anything  but  a  harmonious  social  unit.* 

Extension  of  Suffrage. — For  the  first  terri- 
torial grade  the  ordinance  of  1787  conferred  no 
rights  of  suffrage  on  the  citizen.  The  governor 
and  judges  were  installed  by  the  federal  govern- 
ment and  the  laws  and  courts,  and  all  appoint- 
ments, both  civil  and  military,  were  in  their 
hands.  The  appointive  power  and  general  au- 
thority of  the  governor  could  be  autocratic. 

With  the  second  grade,  wherein  a  house  of  rep- 
resentatives was  elected  while  the  legislative 
council  was  appointed  from  Washington,  the  vot- 
ing was  "restricted  to  those  inhabitants  who,  in 
addition  to  other  qualifications,  owned,  severally, 
at  least  fifty  acres  of  land"  (Dillon,  ]).  540). 
While  the  large  powers  of  the  governor  were  not 
abused  by  1  larrison  there  was  more  or  less  chaf- 
ing under  the  reslriclioii  imposed  upon  the  citi- 
zen.   A  law  of  1S()7  modified  the  (lualifications  of 

electors  by  a  liberal  construction  of  the  ordi- 
nance, and  Congress  in  1808  modified  them  still 
more  by  extending  the  franchise  to  the  owner  of 
a  town  lot  of  the  value  of  $100.  Still  Congress 
was  petitioned,  not  only  to  further  modity  the 
qualifications  but  to  make  the  legislative  council 
and  the  territorial  delegate  to  the  federal  body 
elective.  The  election  of  the  delegate  was  granted 
in  1809,  and  in  1811  the  right  of  voting  was  given 
to  every  free  white  male  person  who  had  attained 
the  age  of  tw^enty-one,  who  had  been  a  resident 
of  the  territory  for  one  year,  and  w^ho  had  paid 
a  county  territorial  tax.  In  1814  the  law  was 
made  to  read  "every  free  white  male  person  hav- 
ing a  freehold  in  the  territory  and  being  a  resi- 
dent in  the  same,"  the  time  of  residence  being 
eliminated.  This  year,  also.  Congress  authorized 
the  Legislature  to  lay  ofT  the  territory  into  five 
districts  of  two  counties  each  and  extended  to  the 
voters  the  privilege  of  electing  the  members  of 
the  legislative  council.  The  next  stej)  was  the 
complete  self-government  granted  by  the  act  en- 
abling the  territory  to  become  a  separate  State  ■ 
with  its  own  constitution.* 

First  Original  Laws. — The  first  laws  in  op- 
eration in  Indiana  Territory  were  a  code  com- 
piled by  the  governor  and  judges  from  the  stat- 
utes of  other  States.  In  1807  the  Legislature 
wdiich  was  established  with  the  second  grade  of 
government  (in  1805)  passed  the  first  laws  orig- 
inal with  the  territory ;  and  these,  together  with 
the  borrowed  code  as  revised  by  John  Rice  Jones 
and  John  Johnson  and  amended  by  the  Legisla- 
ture, were  published  the  same  year.  "These  old 
statutes  relate  principally  to  the  organization  of 
superior  and  inferior  courts  of  justice :  to  the  ap- 
pointments and  duties  of  territorial  and  county 
offices ;  to  prisons  and  prison  bounds  ;  to  real  es- 

*  I'or    a    IciiKtliy    study    of    the    |inli( 
territorial  (Jays,  st-c   Dunirs  "Iniiiana.' 

iiiclitidiis    ihiring    the 

*  Edward  E.  Moore,  in  his  book,  "A  Century  of  Indiana," 
points  out  that  the  territorial  government  really  contained  very 
little  that  was  democratic.  As  he  says:  "The  governor,  the  sec- 
retary, the  judges  and  one  branch  of  the  Legislature  we:e  r.p- 
pointed  by  the  president  and  congress,  and  the  minor  officers, 
including  the  magistrates  and  civil  officers  in  the  counties  and 
townships,  were  appointive  by  the  governor.  The  people  had  the 
bare  privilege  of  electing  the  members  of  the  lower  house  of  the 
Legislature  under  the  second  grade  of  government.  Even  '.hen 
they  were  hedged  about  with  residence,  race  and  property  qual- 
ifications until  tin-  I'laucliise  was  enjoyed  by  a  small  percentage 
of  the  population  only.  .Such  property  qualifications  were  also 
required  of  the  officers  to  lie  appointed  or  elected  as  to  insure 
their  selection  from  the  wealthier  and  more  favored  classes.  The 
governor  was  made  a  part  of  the  Legislature  and  at  the  same 
time  had  the  power  of  absolute  veto  over  its  acts.  He  also  had 
authority  to  convene,  jirorogue  or  dissolve  the  asseml)ly  when  he 
saw  fit. 



tate,  interest  on  money,  marriages,  divorces,  li- 
censes, ferries,  grist  mills,  elections,  punishment 
of  crimes  and  misdemeanors,  militia,  roads  and 
highways,  estrays,  trespassing  animals,  enclosure 
and  cultivation  of  common  fields,  relief  of  the 
poor,  taverns,  improving  the  breed  of  horses, 
taxes  and  revenues,  negroes  and  mulattoes  under 
indenture  as  servants,  fees  of  officers,  sale  of  in- 
toxicating liquors,  relief  of  persons  imprisoned 
for  debt,  killing  wolves,  prohibiting  the  sale  of 
arms  and  ammunition  to  Indians  and  certain 
other  persons,  the  standard  of  weights  and  meas- 
ures, vagrants,  authorizing  aliens  to  purchase  and 
hold  real  estate  in  the  territory,  the  incorporation 
of  a  university,  the  Vincennes  library,  the  bor- 
ough of  Vincennes,  the  town  of  Jeffersonville, 
the  Wabash  Baptist  Church,  etc. 

"By  the  provisions  of  the  territorial  code 
of  1807  the  crimes  of  treason,  murder,  arson  and 
horse-stealing  were  each  punishable  by  death. 
The  crime  of  manslaughter  was  punishable  ac- 
cording to  the  common  law.  The  crimes  of  bur- 
glary and  robbery  were  each  punishable  by  whip- 
ping, fine  and,  in  some  cases,  by  imprisonment 
not  exceeding  forty  years.  Riotous  persons  were 
punishable  by  fine  and  imprisonment.  The  crime 
of  larceny  was  punishable  by  fine  or  whipping 
and,  in  certain  cases,  by  being  bound  to  labor  for 
a  term  not  exceeding  seven  years.  Forgery  was 
punishable  by  fine,  disfranchisement  and  stand- 
ing in  the  pillory.  Assault  and  battery  as  a  crime, 
was  punishable  by  fine  not  exceeding  $100.  Hog- 
stealing  was  punishable  by  fine  and  whipping. 
Gambling,  profane  swearing  and  Sabbath-break- 
ing were  each  punishable  by  fine.  Bigamy  was 
punishable  by  fine,  whipping  and  disfranchise- 
ment" (Dillon).  Debtors  were  not  only  impris- 
oned, but  when  liberated  could  be  sued  by  the 
sheriff  for  maintenance,  thus  incurring,  perforce, 
more  debt.  Paupers  could  be  "farmed  out"  for 
their  maintenance  to  the  lowest  bidders  at  "pub- 
lic vendue  or  outcry."  For  altering  brands  on  do- 
mestic animals  one,  for  the  second  ofi:'ense,  might 
be  branded  on  the  hand  with  a  letter  "T"  (for 
thief),  burned  in  with  a  red-hot  iron,  while  for 
manslaughter  he  might  be  similarly  branded  with 
"M.  S."  Disobedient  children  or  servants  could 
be  sent  to  jail  or  a  house  of  correction  till  they 
should  "humble  themselves  to  the  said  parent's 
or  master's  satisfaction."  For  mayhem  one  could 
"be  sold  to  service  by  the  court     .     .     .     for  any 

time  not  exceeding  Uvq  years."  As  an  ofi'set  to 
the  fierceness  of  these  laws  it  should  be  said  that 
they  seemed  to  be  more  or  less  dead  letter  relics 
of  an  earlier  day,  for  we  hear  little  of  the  worst 
of  the  penalties  being  inflicted.  \'ery  few,  if  any, 
were  hung  for  horse-stealing,  yet  horse-stealing 
was  practised  ;  and  as  to  mayhem,  in  a  rude  fight- 
ing age,  when  gouging  and  biting  was  the  ap- 
proved method,  it  was  one  of  the  commonest  of 
crimes,  and  it  is  doubtful  if  any  one  ever  spent 
five  years  in  virtual  slavery  for  so  poi)u]ar  a 
sport.  Another  illustration  of  the  crudenos  of 
the  laws  was  the  legislation  against  Saljbath 
breaking,  profane  swearing,  fisticuft's.  cock  fight- 
ing, horse  racing,  and  various  kinds  of  gambling, 
all  of  which  misdemeanors  were  practised   w  itli 



First  Buildings  un   Imliana  Univt-rsitv    Laiiiiiii>. 

very  little  interference.  Tlie  most  incongruous 
of  all  was  the  direct  forbidding  of  lotteries  by  a 
statute  that  was  a])proved  and  signed  the  same 
day  as  another  law  authorizing  a  lottery  tor  the 
benefit  of  X'incennes   l'ni\-ersity.* 

Difficulties  cf  Early  Judiciary. — (  >ne  <-f  the 
problems  of  the  territorial  period  was  that  of  a 
satisfactory  judiciary  system,  the  source  ol  trou- 
ble being  an  im])erfect  atljustment  l)elween  the 
federal  and  the  legislative  ])Owers.  A  memorial 
by  the  Legislature  laid  before  Congress  as  late  as 
1814  thus  sets  forth  the  difficulty: 

"By  a  law  of  Congress  one  of  the  judges  ap- 
pointed 1)\-  virttie  of  the  ordinance  for  the  gov- 
ernnieiU  of  this  territory,  is  authorized  to  hold  a 
court.  Thus  one  of  the  f federal  1  judges,  Iieing 
com])etent  to  hold  a  couit.  m.iy  decide  a  ])rinci- 
ple  or  a  point  of  law  at  o-.:e  term,  if  the  other  two 

*  See  laws  of  1S07. 



judges  are  present,  they  may  decide  the  same 
principle  or  point  of  law  different.  Thus  the  de- 
cisions of  the  superior  court,  organized,  we  pre- 
sume, by  the  general  government  finally  to  settle 
in  uniformity  the  principles  of  law  and  fact 
which  may  be  brought  before  them  by  suitor,  may 
be,  and  frequently  are,  in  a  state  of  fluctuation ; 
hence  the  rights  of  persons  and  property  become 
insecure.  There  is  another  evil  growing  out  of 
the  system  of  one  judge  being  competent  to  hold 
the  superior  court,  or  that  court  which  forms  the 
last  resort  of  the  suitor  in  any  government,  and 
particularly  in  the  territory ;  for  appeals  are 
taken  from  all  the  courts  of  inferior  jurisdiction 
in  the  territory  to  the  court  organized  by  the 
ordinance,  which  inferior  courts  are  never  con- 
stituted of  less  than  two  judges.  Thus  the  suitor 
in  the  territory  is  frequently  driven  to  the  neces- 
sity of  appealing  from  the  judgment  of  two  men 
to  that  of  one.  Rut  this  dilemma  only  constitutes 
part  of  the  solecism  for  the  next  superior  court, 
as  the  other  two  judges  may  overturn  the  prin- 
ciples of  the  decision  of  their  brother  judge  at  the 
preceding  term.  Hence  the  want  of  uniformity 
in  the  decisions  of  the  court  of  the  last  resort. 
Anger  and  warmth  in  the  suitors  and  a  confusion 
in  our  system  of  jurisprudence  is  the  result." 

Prior  to  this  memorial  the  Legislature  had  at- 
tempted to  correct  the  defects,  but  they  lay  be- 
yond its  ])ower.  In  response  to  the  appeal  a  con- 
gressional act  of  February  24,  1815,  provided 
that  there  shotild  serve  at  least  two  judges  of  the 
superior  court. 

First  Banks. — In  1814  the  territorial  legis- 
lature chartered  the  two  first  banking  institutions 
in  the  territory — "The  Farmers'  and  Mechanics' 
liank  of  Indiana,"  at  Madison,  by  an  act  of  Sep- 
tember 6.  and  "The  Bank  of  Vincennes,"  on  Sej)- 
tember  10.  1^he  ])roperty  of  the  former  was  lim- 
ited to  $750,000  and  that  of  the  latter  to  $500,- 
000.  r.olh  charters  were  granted  till  1835.  On 
Jaiuiary  1,  1817,  the  X'incennes  institution  was 
adopted  as  the  State  Bank  of  Indiana  and  it  was 
authorized  to  increase  its  capital  by  a  million  dol- 
lars, to  be  divided  into  ten  thousand  shares  of 
$100.  It  was  also  em])owered  to  adopt  the  Ivirm- 
ers'  and  Mechanics'  Hank  as  one  of  its  branches, 
ik'tore  1821  othei"  l)rauches  were  established  at 
]')rookville,  C'orydcjn  and  \evay.  The  State  Uank 
became  so  dishonest  that  in  1822  the  Legislature 
proceeded  against  it  and  de])ri\ed  it  of  its  fran- 

chises after  proving  sundry  crimes  including  em- 
bezzlement.* ^ 

Industrial  Beginnings.  —  The  remoteness 
from  the  markets  of  the  world  and  poor  trans- 
portation facilities  discouraged  manufacturing 
industries  throughout  the  territorial  period; 
hence  agriculture  was  the  almost  universal  indus- 
try. A  census  of  1810  shows  that  in  a  population 
of  24,520,  there  were  33  grist  mills,  14  saw  mills, 
3  horse  mills,  18  tanneries,  28  distilleries,  3  pow- 
der mills,  1,256  looms  and  1,350  spinning  wheels. 
The  value  of  the  products,  as  estimated,  were : 
"Woollen,  cotton,  hempen  and  flaxen  cloths  and 
mixtures,  $159,052;  cotton  and  wool  spun  in 
mills,  $150;  nails  (20,000  pounds),  $4,000; 
leather,  tanned,  $9,300;  products  of  distilleries 
(35,950  gallons),  $16,230;  gunpowder  (3,600 
pounds),  $1,800;  wine  from  grapes  (96  barrels), 
$6,000;  maple  sugar,  50,000  pounds  manufac- 
tured, value  not  stated"  (Dillon).  Even  this 
modest  showing  must  be  examined  if  we  would 
form  a  true  estimate  of  the  manufacturing  indus- 
tries as  detached  from  the  ordinary  industry  of 
the  people  at  large.  By  far  the  largest  item  given, 
that  of  fabrics  for  clothing,  was  almost  entirely 
the  products  of  the  home  loom  and  spinning 
wheel,  the  mill  products  being  valued  at  $150 
only.  More  or  less  of  the  leather  was  home- 
tanned  ;  many  of  the  nails,  doubtless,  were  the 
output  of  the  village  smithy,  and  the  maple  sugar 
was,  perhaps,  wholly  a  home  article.  It  may  be 
pointed  out  that  the  item  of  liquor  seems  quite 
disproportionate  to  the  population  and  the  other 
industrial  products.  In  fact,  the  first  separate  in- 
dustries to  spring  up  in  the  beginning  of  our  sys- 
tem were  the  grist-mill,  the  saw-mill  and  the  dis- 

Agriculture  was  in  a  primitive  stage.  The  fa- 
cilities were  crude,  the  crops  raised,  few,  and  the 
rude  farms  were  won  slowly  from  the  wilderness 
only  by  vast  labor,  but  farming  was  the  hope  of 
the  country,  and  as  early  as  1809  we  find  in  exist- 
ence the  "\'incennes  Society  for  the  Encourage- 
ment of  Agriculture  and  the  Useful  Arts,"  with 
(iovernor  Harrison  as  its  presiding  officer.  One 
writer  states  that  this  society  was  the  forerunner 
of  the  State  Board  of  x\griculture,  and  that 
within  a  few  months  after  its  organization  it  dis- 

*  For  history  of  liaiiking  see  Esarey's  "History  of  Indiana," 
"The  State  Bank  of  Indiana,"  by  W.  F.  Harding  in  Journal  of 
Political   Economy,   Dec.    1895,  and  chapter  in   Smith's   Hist.    Ind. 




tributed  $400  in  premiums.  In  the  columns  of 
the  only  newspaper,  The  Western  Sun,  we  also 
find  occasional  communications  urging  interest 
in  this  direction.  In  one  of  these  hemp  is  sug- 
gested as  a  crop  so  desirable  that  associations 
ought  to  be  formed  to  promote  its  production. 
Its  value  is  given  as  $110  per  ton  and  its  yield 
as  a  ton  to  two  or  three  acres.  The  raising  of 
sheep  is  also  urged  by  this  paper. 

Educational   Beginnings. — Despite    the    eu- 

isted  from  a  very  early  date,  though  records  con- 
cerning them  are  meager  and  somewhat  conflict- 
ing. The  very  first  one  of  any  kind,  so  far  as 
these  vague  records  indicate,  seems  to  have  been 
an  Indian  school  located  at  a  Delaware  village  on 
White  river  where  it  crosses  the  line  between 
Marion  and  Johnson  counties,  the  solitary  testi 
mony  to  it  being  a  casual  allusion  found  in  John 
Tipton's  journal  of  his  trip  as  a  commissioner  to 
locate  a  site  for  the  State  capital,  in  1820.    This 

The  First  Buildings  of  :    1.  Wabash  College.    2.  Earlham  College.     3.  Hanover.  185v)-4.    4.  Xortliv,  estcrn 
University,  now  Butler  College.    .S.  Franklin  College.    6.  Notre  Dame. 

couraging  policy  of  the  United  States  govern- 
ment from  the  beginning  and  donation  of  school 
lands,  the  difficulties  incident  to  the  pioneer  con- 
dition of  the  country  prevented  the  development 
of  any  system  of  popular  education  during  the 
territorial  period,  though  Governor  Harrison  and 
other  friends  of  education  kept  in  sight  the 
American  policy,  as  voiced  in  the  Ordinance  ot 
1787,  that  "religion,  morality  and  knowledge  be- 
ing necessary  to  good  government  and  the  happi- 
ness of  mankind,  schools  and  the  means  of  edu- 
cation shall  forever  be  encouraged." 

An  uncertain  number  of  private  schools  ex- 

passage,  speaking  of  the  spot  above  mentioned 
says  :  "I  am  told  there  was  once  an  Indian  village 
here.  Win.  Landers,  who  lives  one  mile  back 
from  the  river,  told  me  that  an  Lnlian  said  the 
French  once  lived  here  and  that  the  Indian  went 
to  school  to  a  Frenchman  in  this  i)lace  but  lliey 
left  it  about  the  time  of  Hardin's  campaign  which 
[was]  about  i^  years  ago."*  Hardin's  cam]>aign 
was  in  1789.  a  little  later  than  the  time  indicated 
1)}-   Tipton. 

The  first  white  schools  are  generally  thought 
to  have  l)een  among  the  l-"rench,  and  conducted 

•  Ind.  Guar.   Mag.   Hist.,  vol.  i.  p.    \i. 



by  Catholic  priests.  The  earhest  claims  made 
for  these  was  one  taught  at  Vincennes  by  Father 
Flaget,  in  1792,  and  another  by  Father  Rivet,  in 
1796.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  the  first 
American  schools  dated  back  quite  that  far,  as 
llie  earliest  American  settlements  at  Vincennes 
■  and  at  Clark's  Grant  antedated  those  years.  Ac- 
cording to  Judge  D.  D.  Banta,  who  has  delved 
industriously  in  this  subject,  there  is  evidence  of 
a  school  in  Dearborn  county  prior  to  1802,  and 
there  is  a  claim  for  one  in  Clark's  Grant,  one 
and  a  half  miles  south  of  Charlestown,  in  1803.* 
It  may  be  added  that  as  Clark's  Grant,  three 
years  before  that,  had  929  residents,  twenty  or 
thirty  families  having  come  as  early  as  1784,  it 
is  not  at  all  likely  that  this  school  of  1803  was 
the  first.  Of  course,  these  rude  first  schools 
multi})lied  as  the  population  increased,  though, 
as  implied  above,  there  is  now  no  way  of  ascer- 
taining their  number. 

The  most  notable  educational  step  during  the 
territorial  period  was  the  establishment  of  Vin- 
cennes University  in  1807.  This  was  an  ambitious 
institution  founded  as  the  incorporating  law 
grandiloquently  states,  "for  the  instruction  of 
youth  in  the  Latin,  Greek,  French  and  English 
languages,  mathematics,  natural  philosophy,  an- 
cient and  modern  history,  moral  philosophy, 
logic,  rhetoric,  and  the  law  of  nature  and  na- 
tions." Its  faculty  was  to  be  "a  president  and  not 
exceeding  four  professors"  qualified  to  teach  the 
proposed  academic  branches,  and  the  trustees 
were  authorized  to  establish  a  "library  of  books 
and  experimental  apparatus,"  and  to  elect  "when 
the  progressed  state  of  education  demanded," 
professors  of  divinity,  law  and  physics.  They 
were  further  authorized  to  establish,  when  funds 
j)ermitte(l,  "an  institution  for  the  education  of 
female's,"  and  a  grammar  school  "to  be  connected 
with  and  dependent  upon  the  said  university  for 
the  pur])Osc  of  teaching  the  rudiments  of  the  lan- 
guages." Still  furlher,  the  trustees  were  enjoined 
to  use  their  utmost  endeavors  to  induce  Indians 
to  send  their  children,  to  be  maintained,  clothed 
and  educated  at  the  ex])ense  of  the  institution. 
A  rather  scandalous  feature  of  the  incorporating 
act,  from  thr  viewpoint  of  to-day,  was  the  pro- 
vision that,  tor  tln'  lil)i-arv  ;ui(l  a])paratus,  "there 

"  H.iiit.i,   "Iv.irly   .Scliodls   (if    ]ii(li;iii;i ;"   scries   in    Iiul.    Ouartcrly 
\f.iK.    Hist.,   viil.    ii. 

shall  be  raised  a  sum  not  exceeding  $20,000  by  a 
lottery,"  to  be  managed  by  "five  discreet  per- 
sons." This  serves,  perhaps,  to  emphasize  a  cer- 
tain departure  we  have  made  from  the  moral 
standards  of  those  times,  yet,  curiously  enough, 
in  the  laws  of  the  same  year,  we  find  lotteries 
legislated  against  along  with  other  forms  of  gam- 

The  source  of  maintenance  for  this  institution 
was  a  township  of  land,  comprising  23,040  acres, 
that  had  been  donated  by  the  general  government 
for  a  seat  of  learning.  Despite  the  optimism  and 
the  impressive  announcement  of  its  founders  the 
"University"  began,  in  1810,  as  a  grammar 
school  only  and  continued  to  exist  precariously. 
In  1823  it  virtually  ceased  to  exist,  but  fifteen 
vears  later  was  reorganized.  During  the  terri- 
torial period  there  were  neither  resources  nor 
patronage  to  make  it  succeed  as  an  institution  of 
higher  learning. 

Religious  Beginnings. — The  first  form  of  the 
Christian  religion  to  gain  a  footing  in  Indiana 
was  the  Catholic  faith,  which  was  introduced 
among  the  Indians  very  early  in  the  French 
regime  and  perpetuated  among  the  French  inhab- 
itants. St.  Xavier's  church  was  planted  in  Vin- 
cennes before  Clark's  conquest  and  remains  there 
to  the  present  day.  In  the  early  times  it  was,  as 
described  by  Henry  Cauthorne.  the  historian  of 
V'incennes,  a  rude  structure  made  of  timbers  set 
on  end,  picket  fashion,  without  windows  and 
with  a  dirt  floor. 

Protestanism  was  introduced  among  the  set- 
tlers of  Clark's  Grant  as  early  as  1798  when  a 
Baptist  church  was  founded  in  the  neighborhood 
of  Charlestown.  As  this  denomination  was  the 
very  pioneer  in  the  Protestant  field,  so,  for  some 
years,  did  it  gain  in  strength.  By  1809  it  was  or- 
ganized into  two  associations,  covering,  respect- 
ively, the  Wabash  and  the  Whitewater  districts. 
Methodism  appeared  in  1804,  also  near  Charles- 
town. according  to  the  Rev.  F.  C.  Holliday,  with 
the  proselyting  of  Peter  Cartwright  and  Benja- 
min Lakin,  although  the  Rev.  George  K.  Hester 
gives  1803  as  the  date  of  the  first  organization. 
This  sect  spread  rapidly  and  during  the  terri- 
torial period  circuits  were  organized  pretty  well 
over  the  settled  jiortions  of  the  country.  Tlic 
Presbyterians  founded  the  "Church  of  Indiana" 

Statutes  of  1807,  p.   199. 



in  1806,  "the  service  being  held  in  the  barn  of 
Colonel  Small,  about  two  miles  east  of  Vin- 

The  Quakers,  or  Friends,  built  their  first  meet- 
ing house  on  the  site  of  Richmond  in  1807 
(Young's  Wayne  County)  and  soon  planted  oth- 
ers throughout  the  upper  Whitewater  region. 
Two  other  sects,  both  peculiar  in  character,  ap- 
peared in  Indiana  during  the  period  we  are  cov- 
ering. These  were  the  "Shakers"  and  the  "Rap- 
pites."  The  first  of  these  settled  at  "Shaker- 
town"  on  Busseron  creek,  a  few  miles  north  of 

be  added,  however,  ihal  the  degree  of  their 
growth  when  introduced  interjtrets  to  a  degree 
the  psychology  and  the  status  of  the  people.  This 
is  more  conspicuously  true.  ])erhaps.  of  Quaker- 
ism, Methodism  and  1 'resl)yterianism.  The  atti- 
tude ol  the  Friends,  then  as  now;  was  quite  dis- 
tinctive (m  certain  fundamentals  of  life — on  the 
simplicity  of  life,  on  the  sovereigntv  an<l  dignity 
of  the  individual,  on  justice  between  man  and 
man.  and  on  the  doctrine  of  nonmilitancv.  Meth- 
odism made  its  a])])eal  to  the  emotional  naturt-. 
and  among  those  who   felt   rather  than  rea>oned 

Founding  of  Notre  Dame.  On  November  16,  1842,  at  the  beginning  of  winter,  seven  of  tlie  Brotllcr^  >ct  out 
with  their  Superior  (Father  Sorin)  for  the  St.  Joseph.  For  many  days  they  struggled  on  over  ice  and  snow 
through  the  interminable  forest,  some  on  horseback  and  some  with  the  o.x  team,  wliicli  hauled  their  modest 
store  of  supplies  ...  at  length,  on  November  26,  they  liad  the  happiness  of  standing  on  the  ice-bound 
shore  of  St.  Mary's  Lake  and  looking  out  upon  the  scene  of  tlieir  new  labors. — JikL/c  'riiihUliy  li.  II oi>.\ird . 
in  History  of  Notre  Daiiic. 

Vincennes  some  time  prior  to  the  Tippecanoe 
campaign,  as  John  Tipton  in  his  journal  of  the 
march  mentions  the  place.  The  "Rappites,"  so 
named  from  their  leader,  George  Rapp.  were  a 
German  colony  who  held  to  communism  and 
celibacy.  They  were  the  founders  of  the  present 
New  Harmony  in  Posey  county,  where  they 
dwelt  from  1815  to  1825. 

A  mere  mention  of  these  religious  elements 
and  the  dates  of  their  introduction  is  all  that 
comes  within  the  scope  of  this  section.    It  may 

*  Edson's  "Early  Indiana  Presbyterianisni,"  p.   41. 

in  religious  matters  it  swe])t  the  lield  like  a  con- 
flagration. Presbyterianism.  while  it  showed  no 
lack  of  zeal,  stood  for  intellectualism.  It  stood 
for  learning  and,  a  little  later,  was  the  first 
agency  to  fottnd  a  school  (Hanover  (.ollege) 
which  aimed  to  produce  an  edticated  clergy.  Its 
expounders  were  among  the  first  educators  in  tlie 
new  territor\-  and  the\-.  more  than  any  other  class 
brought  private  libraries  into  the  country.  The 
Baptist  church,  though  at  first  in  the  lead,  de- 
clined in  influence,  ]HMli;ip<  bec.uise  ot  schisms 
arising  from  the  doctrinal  ditterences  that   seem 



to  have  been  particularly  bitter  in  that  church. 
Of  the  several  denominations  mentioned,  Meth- 
odism, as  measured  by  its  growth,  made  the 
greatest  appeal. 

Cultural  Beginnings;  First  Newspapers. — 
Culture  seems  a  rather  strained  term  for  such 
refinements  as  we  can  trace  in  the  territorial  pe- 
riod. In  view  of  the  fact  that  many  of  the  resi- 
dents of  V'incennes  were  persons  of  education 
familiar  with  the  culture  of  the  larger  centers 
whence  they  had  emigrated,  it  is  possible  that 
there  was  an  elegant  side  to  society  in  the  little 
isolated  capital,  and  this  was  also  probably  true 
of  Jef¥ersonville,  Charlestown,  Salem,  Corydon, 
Madison,  Brookville  and  other  towns,  though 
very  little  actual  record  of  it  is  to  be  found.  In 
a  note  by  Mr.  Webster  (Webster's  Harrison,  p. 
296)  on  "Intellectual  Life  at  Vincennes,"  he 
points  out  that  "a  large  number  of  able  lawyers 
made  the  Vincennes  bar  unusually  strong."  He 
also  speaks  of  a  medical  society,  organized  in 
1807,  which  continued  with  vigor  until  long  after 
Statehood ;  of  the  Vincennes  Historical  and 
Antiquarian  Society,  dating  from  1808,  and  of 
the  Vincennes  Library,  founded  the  same  year, 
which  contained  at  the  start  from  3,000  to  4,000 
volumes.  As  early  as  1806  a  dramatic  organiza- 
tion, "The  Thespian  Society,"  made  its  appear- 
ance and  throughout  the  territorial  years  contrib- 
uted to  the  gaiety  of  Vincennes  life. 

The  newspaper,  even  of  those  days,  might  be 
considered  a  cultural  agent  to  a  limited  degree  as 
it  not  only  disseminated  light  in  the  form  of  news 
and  of  political  opinion,  but  afforded  a  certain 
outlet  for  local  literary  aspirants  besides  borrow- 
ing more  or  less  from  the  larger  literary  field  for 
the  education  of  its  readers.  The  first  apostle  of 
ideas  in  this  direction  was  Elihu  Stout  who,  as 
early  as  1804,  brought  to  Vincennes  from  Ken- 
tucky a  printing  outfit  and  launched  The  Indiana 
Gazette.  Not  a  co])y  of  this  paper  is  now  in  ex- 
istence so  far  as  is  known,  as  Stout's  office  was 
destroyed  by  fire,  but,  phenix-like  it  sprang  into 
new  life,  this  time  as  TJie  Western  Sun,  under 
which  name,  after  various  changes  of  title,  it  ex- 
ists to  the  ])resent  day.  Prior  to  and  including 
1816  five  or  six  other  ])apers  are  of  record,  these 
being  The  JVestern  Eagle,  of  Madison,  in  1813; 
The  Corydon  Gazette,  1814;  The  Plaindealer  and 
Gazette,  Brookville,  about  1815;  Tlie  Republican 

Banner,  afterward  the  Indiana  Republican,  Mad- 
ison, 1815,  and  The  Indiana  Register,  Vevay, 
1816.  Copies  of  any  of  these  are  very  rare  or 
entirely  lost,  but  fortunately  files  of  The  West- 
ern Sun  from  1807  have  been  preserved  and  are 
now  among  the  prized  possessions  of  the  State 
Library.  Touching  many  matters  of  territorial 
times  they  are  the  chief  source  of  information 
and  are  valued  accordingly  by  research  students. 
Like  all  pioneer  papers  they  are  provokingly  si- 
lent on  local  alifairs  of  a  social  and  intimate  na- 
ture, but  in  a  literary  way  we  find  home  talent 
fostered,  particularly  in  the  poet's  corner  which 
is  maintained  under  the  happy  title  of  "The  Poet- 
ical Asylum." 

Political  Beginnings. — One  thing  that  these 
files  particularly  reflect  is  the  active  interest  of 
the  people  in  political  afifairs.  both  local  and  na- 
tional. A  sense  of  citizenship  harking  back  to 
the  spirit  of  '76  and  the  principles  of  the  found- 
ers of  the  government  seems  to  have  permeated 
the  rank  and  file  as  it  does  not  to-day.  Another 
conspicuous  quality  that  throws  light  on  the  tem- 
per and  status  of  the  time,  was  the  truculent  ani- 
mosity between  those  who  differed  in  political 
opinions.  Fierceness,  contempt  and  personal 
abuse,  out  of  all  keeping  with  the  provocation, 
and  served  up  according  to  the  talents  of  the  bel- 
ligerent, is  a  common  exhibit  in  the  weekly 
columns.  The  straightforward,  simple  honesty 
and  common  sense  attributed  to  the  pioneers 
must  be  taken  with  a  grain  of  allowance,  espe- 
cially in  matters  political.  From  the  glimpses  we 
get,  log-rolling  and  demagogy  were  quite  as  pro- 
nounced, in  proportion  to  the  forces  at  work,  as 
at  the  present  day,  and  the  successful  politician 
was  he  who  could  truckle  to  the  prejudices  of  the 
people.  The  local  contests  over  such  questions  as 
slavery  in  the  territory  and  the  division  of  the 
territory,  were  rife  with  bitterness  and  acrimony  ; 
the  "people"  and  the  "aristocrats,"  as  they  came 
to  be  classed,  were  arrayed  against  each  other, 
with  little  regard  to  justice,  one  toward  the  other, 
and  bellicose  humanity  was  continually  in  evi- 
dence. In  short,  the  vices  of  popular  government, 
as  we  have  them  to-day,  are  not  an  aftergrowth 
engrafted  ujion  the  jiatriotic  purity  of  earlier 
times,  but  had  their  birth  along  with  popular  gov- 

First  County  Divisions  and  Towns. — During 



the  territorial  period  the  one  large  county  of 
Knox,  originally  as  large  as  the  present  State, 
was  divided  and  re-divided  until  thirteen  coun- 
ties covered  the  various  land  purchases  that  the 
United  States  had  secured  prior  to  1816.  By 
the  re-dividing  process,  these  counties  as  origi- 
nally formed,  had  but  little  correspondence  with 
the  subsequent  divisions  that  continued  to  bear 
the  names  given.  The  formations  in  chronologi- 
cal order  were : 

Clark  county,  detached  from  Knox  by  act  of 
February  3,  1801. 

Switzerland,  out  of  Dearborn  and  Jefferson, 
September  7,  1814.* 

The  chief  towns  that  had  sprung  uj)  and  the 
dates  of  their  founding  were: 

V'inccnncs,  1732  (long  a  disputed  question,  ])ut 
this  date  now  accepted);  Jeft'ersonvillc,  1802; 
Lawrenceburg,  1802;  Brookville,  1807;  Corvdon, 
1808;  Charlestown,  1808;  Salisbury,  1810; 
son,  1812;  New  Albany.  1813;  Vevay,  1813; 
Salem,  1814;  Centcrvillc,  1814;  Rising  Sun, 
1814;  Brownstown,  1815:  Richmond,  1816  (Bas- 
kin  (Is:  b^orstcr  Atlas.  1876).  X'allonia.  Springville, 

Notre  Dame,  Second  College  Building,  1844-65. 

Dearborn,  out  of  Clark,  March  7,  1803. 

Harrison,  out  of  Knox  and  Clark,  October  11, 

Jefferson,  out  of  Clark  and  Dearborn,  Novem- 
ber 23,  1810. 

Franklin,  out  of  Dearborn  and  Clark,  Novem- 
ber 27,  1810. 

Wayne,  out  of  Dearborn  and  Clark,  November 
27,  1810. 

Warrick,  out  of  Knox,  Marcli  9,  1813. 

Gibson,  out  of  Knox,  March  9,  1813. 

Washington,  out  of  Harrison  and  Clark,  De- 
cember 21,  1813. 

Posey,  out  of  Warrick,  September  7,  1814. 

Perry,  out  of  Gibson  and  Warrick.  September 
7,  1814. 

Clarksville  and  other  small  i)laces.  some  of  ihcni 
long  since  extinct,  also  belong  to  this  pcrioil. 


Of  those  who  were  ]irominent  in  territorial  af- 
fairs, some  became  idenlilied  with  the  earlier  his- 
tory of  the  State  and  should  be  noted  chiefly  in 
that  connection.  Others  were  identified  solely 
with  the  questions  that  arose  prior  to  statehood, 
particularly  the  acute  issue  of  tlie  legalizing  of 
slavery.  Of  the  first  grou])  may  l)e  mentioned 
Tonathan  Jennings.  William  Hendricks.  James 
Noble.    Waller    Taylor,    r.eiijamin    Parke.    Isaac 

*  Ind.   Hist.   Soc.   Col.,  V.   iii.   pp.    Ti-4. 




lUackfonl  and  Dennis  Pennington.  Of  the  sec- 
ond group  man}'  more  might  be  named.  The 
major  portion  of  them  are  unknown  to  the  pres- 
ent generation,  but  they  played  their  parts  in  the 
earh'  formative  period  and  were  factors  in  our 

William  Henry  Harrison. — By  far  the  most 
conspicuous  figure  from  1800  to  1812  was  Will- 
iam Henry  Harrison,  the  first  Territorial  gov- 
ernor, and  afterward  President  of  the  United 
States.  Several  duties  and  responsibilities  that 
were  peculiar  to  the  first  years  of  the  future 
State  devolved  upon  Harrison.  During  the  first 
grade  of  government  he  shared  with  three  judges 
the  task  of  choosing  and  compiling  a  code  of  laws 
for  the  Territory.  He  was  invested  with  auto- 
cratic ijowers  that  made  him  a  target  for  the  jeal- 
ous and  suspicious  critics ;  and,  though  history 
accjuits  him  of  any  unfair  exercise  of  those  pow- 
ers, he  did  not  escape  his  harvest  of  enemies. 
One  of  his  great  services  was  a  series  of  treaties, 
whereby  he  secured  from  the  Indians  land 
amounting  to  about  one-third  of  the  Territory. 
His  knowledge  of  Indian  character  and  his  capa- 
bility as  a  military  leader  were  of  incalculable 
value  during  the  danger  period  of  Indian  hostili- 
ties, and  his  victory  over  the  tribes  at  the  battle 
of  Tippecanoe  was  of  vast  importance  and  estab- 
lished a  fame  that  brought  him  into  national 
prominence.  In  1812,  his  ofificial  connection  with 
Indiana  ceased,  he  taking  the  field  as  brigadier- 
general  in  the  second  war  with  England.  Harri- 
son county,  Indiana,  is  named  in  his  honor. 

John  Gibson. — Secretary  of  Indiana  Terri- 
tory from  1800  and  acting  governor  from  Sep- 
lenil)er.  1812.  to  May,  1813,  was  a  soldier  who 
did  good  service  both  during  and  before  the  Rev- 
olutionary war,  on  the  western  frontier.  He  was 
a  brother-in-law  of  Logan,  the  Mingo  chief,  and 
the  inter] )reter  who  received  and  transmitted  to 
Lord  Dunmorc,  in  1774,  the  famous  speech  of 
Logan's,  which  is  a  classic  in  literature  Gibson's 
governorshij)  fell  at  the  most  trying  period — the 
war  period  of  1812,  when  the  Indian  dangers  to 
our  trontier  were  at  their  height,  and  liis  ])ronipt 
and  \ig( irons  measures  stamped  him  as  a  man  of 
aliilit\ .  I  le  left  the  State  in  1816.  Gibson  county 
is  named    foi"  him. 

Thomas  Posey. — Governor  from  1813  to  1816, 
had  a  military  rei)utation  scarcely  second  to  that 

of  Harrison,  being  a  distinguished  Revolutionary 
soldier.  President  Madison  appointed  him  gov- 
ernor of  Indiana  Territory  and  for  three  years 
he  served  in  that  capacity,  though  part  of  the 
time  his  health  was  so  precarious  that  he  was 
obliged  to  live  at  Jefifersonville  for  the  sake  of 
medical  attendance,  while  the  seat  of  government 
was  at  Corydon.  This  somewhat  impeded  public 
business  and  aroused  some  criticism,  but,  never- 
theless, at  the  close  of  his  term,  the  Legislature 
highly  commended  his  administration.  "Many 
evils,"  afifirmed  that  body,  in  its  communication, 
"have  been  remedied,  and  we  particularly  admire 
the  calm,  dispassionate,  impartial  conduct  which 
has  produced  the  salutary  efifects  of  quieting  the 
violence  of  party  spirit,  harmonizing  the  interests 
as  well  as  the  feelings  of  the  dififerent  parties  of 
the  Territory.  Under  your  auspices,  we  have  be- 
come one  people." 

Posey  went  from  Indiana  to  Illinois,  where  he 
died  in  1818.    Posey  county  bears  his  name. 

Other  individuals,  whose  specific  services  arc 
mostly  lost  in  oblivion,  should  be  briefly  men- 
tioned. Jesse  B.  Thomas,  speaker  of  the  first 
Territorial  Legislature,  was  a  Marylander,  who 
came  to  Lawrenceburg  in  1803  and  was  a  lawyer 
there.  He  became  a  professional  politician  and  is 
ranked  in  history  as  one  of  the  kind  that  are  not 
overburdened  with  scruples.  John  Rice  Jones,  a 
Welshman,  member  of  the  first  Legislative  Coun- 
cil and  first  attorney"  general,  was  an  early  citizen 
of  Vincennes.  He  is  credited  with  being  a  lawyer 
of  imusual  ability,  a  man  of  fine  education,  a 
brilliant  speaker  and  a  "perfect  master  of  satire 
and  invective,"  which  latter  talent  he  was  not 
slow  to  exercise  in  the  political  mud-slinging  of 
the  day.  Others  prominent  in  politics  were : 
Thomas  Randolph,  third  attorney  general,  a 
member  of  the  celebrated  Randolph  family  of 
Virginia ;  John  Johnson,  a  Virginian,  of  Vin- 
cennes ;  Samuel  Gwathmey,  a  Virginian,  who 
held  several  Territorial  offices ;  General  Wash- 
ington Johnston,  a  Virginian,  and  also  repeatedly 
an  officeholder ;  James,  John  and  Charles  Beggs. 
three  brothers,  Virginians,  and  residents  of 
Clark's  Grant ;  Luke  Decker,  a  \' irginian,  farmer 
and  slaveholder;  and  James  Dill,  an  Irishman, 
and  a  party  leader  of  Dearborn  county.  Not 
least  in  this  roll  would  be  the  name  of  Elihu 
Stout,    who,   as   owner   and   editor   of   the   only 



newspaper  that  flourished  during  most  of  the 
Territorial  period,  wielded  a  political  influence 
that  was,  perhaps,  second  to  none.* 

This  list,  by  no  means,  pretends  to  include  all 
those  who  were  active  in  public  matters  and  who 
could  be  regarded  as  contributing  to  formative 
influences.  A  political  interest  that  was  lively  to 
the  point  of  activity,  indeed,  was  characteristic  of 
the  period,  though  of  the  names  that  crop  out  in 
connection  with  public  functions,  the  great  ma- 
jority are  unattended  with  any  biographical  data. 

back  was  enclosed  with  a  jjicket  fence  of  locust 
timbers  firmly  planted  in  the  ground.  The  square 
m  front  of  the  mansion,  in  laying  out  Harrison's 
addition,  was  reserved  for  a  park.  The  brick  used 
in  the  construction  of  the  mansion  were  manu- 
factured by  Samuel  Thompson,  who  received  for 
this  work  four  hundred  acres  of  land  about  three 
miles  above  the  city  on  the  Terre  Haute  road." 

This  "mansion,"  the  famous  one  still  standing, 
is  said  by  Cauthonie  to  liave  been  l)uilt  in  1<S(>4. 
According  to   Hubbard  Smith.  an(jlher  local  his- 

PASTOllAI-  ELEGY      ^s. 

Sweet  woodbines  will  rise  round  his  feet, 
And  willows  their  sorrowing  wave; 
Young  hyacinths  freshen  nnd  hloom, 
While  hawthorns  encircle  his  f;rave. 
Each  morn  when  the  sun  gilds  the  east, 
(The  green  grass  bespanc^d  with  dew,") 
lie 'II  cast  his  brieht  beams  oi;  the  west, 
To  charm  the  sad  Caroline's  view. 

3.  O  Corydon  1  hear  the  sad  cries 
or  Caroline,  plaintive  and  %low; 
O  spirit!  look  down  from  thesUies, 
.\iid  pity  thy  mourner  below. 
'Tis  Caroline's  voice  in  the  grove, 
Which  Philomel  hears  on  the  plain. 
Then  striving  the  mourner  to  soothe, 
Wjth  sympathy  joins  in  her  strain. 

4.  Ye  shepherds  so  blithesome  and  young,  5.  And  when  the  still  niiiht  hn«  irnfuri'J 

Retire  from  your  sports  on  the  green, 
Since  Corydou's  i!eaf  to  my  song, 
The  wolves  tear  the  lambs  on  the  t>lain ; 
Each  swain  round  the  forest  will  ?tray. 
And  sorrowing  hang  '^own  his  head, 
His  pipe  then  in  symphony  play 
Some  dirge  to  sweet  Corydou's  shade. 

Her  robes  o'er  the  handt-t  aronnrl. 
Gray  twilight  retires  from  Oie  worl.j, 
A ntf  darkness  er.cumbers  the  fcroumJ. 
I'll  leave  my  own  gloomy  abode, 
To  Corydon's  urn  will  I  fl,^,"»^" 
There  kncelinir  will  b!en  the  iuit  God 
Who  (Iwc.'li  in  bright  mOLifioDi  '-n  high. 

6  Sirce  CoryHon  hears  me  no  more,  In  gloom  let  the  woodlands  appear, 
FU  hie  me  through  mondow  and  lawn,  Thsra  cull  the  bright  flow'rets 

Ye  oceans  be  still  of  your  roar,  f<et  Autumn  extend  around  the  year; 
of  May,  Then  rise  on  the  wings  of  the  morn, And  waft  my  young  ipint  awaf , 

Selection  from  "Missouri  Harmon}',"  from  which  Corydon  Is  Said  to  Have  Derived   It>  Xanu-. 

Many  of  these  names  are  mentioned  in  the  Exec- 
utive Journal  of  Indiana  Territory. f 


"Grouseland." — This  name  was  given  by  Har- 
rison to  his  "plantation,"  near  Vincennes,  long 
since  within  the  city  limits.  It  is  thus  described 
by  Henry  Cauthorne,  in  his  history  of  Vin- 
cennes : 

"The  grounds  around  the  Harrison  mansion, 
extending  to  the  river,  were  artistically  laid  out 
and  filled  with  the  choicest  fruits  and  flowers. 
.  .  .  It  remained  in  good  preservation  as  late 
as  1855.    The  river  front  and  for  some  distance 

*  Of   Jonathan    Jennings,    our    first    State    governor,    there    will 
be   found   a   fuller    sketch   hereafter, 
■i"  Hist.    .Soc.    Col.,   vol.    iii. 

torian,  it   was  contracted   for  in    1805  ami  com- 
pleted in  1806. 

Corydon  Named  from  Song. — ■"When  Will- 
iam Henry  Harrison  was  governor  of  the  Terri- 
tory, he  traveled  from  \'incennes  on  horseback 
to  and  from  Harrison  county,  where  he  owned 
large  tracts  of  land.  On  these  trips  he  often  vis- 
ited the  home  of  Edward  Smith,  who  is  said  to 
have  left  the  P^ritish  army  during  the  Revoki- 
tionar\-  war  and  made  his  wa\-  to  Indiana,  where 
he  married  and  lived  with  his  family  in  a  log 
cabin  in  Harrison  coiiiUy.  (  'n  ibe  occasion  ot 
General  Harrison's  visits,  after  the  evening  meal 
was  tinished,  the  members  of  the  family  and 
their  guest  would  gather  around  the  open  c;ibin 
door  and  sing  the  general's  favorite  songs.  (  )n 
one    of    these    visits,    as    (    I  l.irrison    was 



making  his  departure,  tradition  says  he  remarked  : 
"In  a  few  days  I  expect  to  lay  out  a  town  near 
here  and  would  like  to  have  you  suggest  a  suita- 
ble name  for  it.'  Whereupon  Miss  Jennie  Smith 
asked :  'Why  not  name  it  Cory  don,  from  the 
piece  you  like  so  much  ?'  Her  suggestion  pleased 
the  governor,  and  thus  the  town  is  said  to  have 
derived  its  name.  Mr.  Smith's  cabin  stood  near 
the  present  Fair  Grounds  Spring  at  Corydon." — 
Merica  Hoagland. 

Indiana  Libraries  and  Lottery. — "From  a 
paper  prepared  by  Doctor  Horace  Ellis  when 
president  of  Vincennes  University,  we  learn 
something  of  the  first  circulating  library  organ- 
ized in  Indiana.  In  historic  old  Vincennes,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century,  a  notable  as- 
semblage of  men  gathered  with  purpose  scarcely 
less  exalted  than  that  which  animated  the  found- 
ers of  Harvard  University.  The  central  figure 
of  the  group  was  General  William  Henry  Harri- 
son, whose  face,  bronzed  by  his  Indian  cam- 
paigns, was  now  aglow  with  this  new  patriotism- 
of-peace  plan  to  disseminate  good  literature 
among  the  dwellers  in  this  new  Indiana  country. 
Others,  notable  for  their  participation  in  the 
making  of  Indiana,  were  present  at  the  meeting 
held  at  William  Hay's  home,  July  20,  1806,  when 
a  number  of  citizens  of  Vincennes  and  vicinity 
met  to  promote  the  formation  of  a  circulating  li- 
brary. A  stock  company  was  organized,  called 
'The  Vincennes  Library  Company.'  Shares  of 
stock  were  issued.  On  August  23,  1806,  at  this 
original  'book  shower,'  W.  Buntin  presented  a 
number  of  books,  the  first  probably  offered  for 
circulating  library  purposes  in  Indiana.  The  first 
librarian  was  Peter  Jones,  who  was  also  auditor 
of  the  territory  and  keeper  of  a  tavern.  The 
meetings  of  the  shareholders  were  held  at  'Jones' 

"In  1815,  the  Vincennes  Library  Company, 
emulating  the  Vincennes  University,  arranged  a 
lottery,  when  books  and  clocks  were  offered  as 
l)rizes.  The  progress  of  this  affords  interesting 
reading,  as  human  nature  is  the  same  whether 
concerned    with    aff;iirs    in    early    Vincennes    or 

present-day  Indianapolis.  When  Vincennes  Uni- 
versity was  incorporated  on  November  29,  1806, 
the  Territorial  Legislature  vested  authority  in 
the  trustees  of  the  university  by  means  of  which 
they  might  raise  funds  not  to  exceed  $20,000. 
The  trustees  claimed  this  as  a  vested  right  as  late 
as  1883,  when  the  United  States  Supreme  Court 
rendered  a  decision  that  there  could  be  no  vested 
right  in  a  lottery.  Citizens  of  Indiana  prior  to 
this  decision,  bought  tickets  and  took  chances  as 
freely  as  did  others  in  the  famous  Louisiana  lot- 
tery."— Merica  Hoagland. 

Louisiana  and  Indiana. — When  the  vast  tract 
known  as  the  "Louisiana  Purchase,"  secured 
from  France  in  1803,  came  to  be  organized  it 
was  divided  into  two  districts  and  the  northern 
part  called  the  "District  of  Louisiana,"  a  large 
part  of  it  lying  immediately  west  of  the  Illinois 
country,  was  attached  to  Indiana  for  purposes 
of  government,  though  not  made  a  part  of  our 
territory.  Our  governor  and  judges  established 
several  laws  for  the  District  of  Louisiana  that 
were  separate  and  apart  from  the  laws  for  Indi- 
ana. This  arrangement  was  not  practicable  and 
on  March  4,  1805,  Louisiana  became  a  separate 

Letters  of  Decius. — Like  all  public  men  Gov- 
ernor Harrison  was  subject  to  the  virulence  of 
his  enemies,  and  much  of  the  criticism  leveled  at 
him  is,  by  the  light  of  history,  vicious  and  unwar- 
ranted beyond  excuse.  A  series  of  attacks  on 
him,  which  is  referred  to  so  often  that  it  is  some- 
what famous,  is  known  as  "The  Letters  of  De- 
cius." Decius  was  Isaac  Darneille,  who  in  1805 
published  his  "Letters"  in  "The  Farmer's  Li- 
brary," of  Louisville,  and  afterward  issued  them 
in  a  pamphlet.  These  communications  were  not 
only  criticisms  of  Harrison's  public  acts  and  poli- 
cies, which,  of  course,  might  have  been  quite 
warranted,  but  they  reek  with  a  personal  spite 
which  was  the  fashion  among  critics  at  that  day. 
To  such  extremes  did  "Decius"  go  that  even- 
tually the  editor  of  the  publishing  paper,  J.  \^ail, 
printed  an  apologetic  explanation  discrediting  the 
author  and  giving  his  name. 



Indian  Relations. — From  the  first  invasion 
of  the  whites  to  the  close  of  the  war  of  1812,  in 
which  the  power  of  the  red  man  in  this  region 
was  finally  and  effectually  broken,  constituted 
what  may  be  called  the  danger  period  of  Indiana 
history.  During  those  years  the  frontier  settlers 
were  never  free  from  the  risk  of  savage  warfare, 
and  from  time  to  time  the  smoldering  hostility 
broke  forth  fiercely.  The  causes  of  this  were,  in 
the  first  instance,  the  Indians'  resentment  at  the 
never-ending  encroachment  of  the  white  race, 
and,  in  the  second,  the  unscrupulous  conduct  of 
very  many  of  the  whites  in  their  relations  with 
the  red  men.  The  policy  of  the  government  to- 
ward the  Indians,  in  theory,  at  least,  was  pro- 
tecting and  conciliatory,  but  its  salutary  inten- 
tions were  continually  overriden  by  an  element 
that  had  small  regard  for  an  Indian's  rights.  Gov- 
ernor Harrison,  who  manifested  a  real  interest  in 
the  welfare  of  the  aborigines,  has  testified  to  the 
abuses  they  suffered.  "Their  people,"  he  affirmed, 
"have  been  killed,  their  lands  settled  on,  their 
game  wantonly  destroyed  and  their  young  men 
made  drunk  and  cheated  of  the  peltries  which 
formerly  procured  them  necessary  articles  of 
clothing,  arms  and  ammunition  to  hunt  with. 
The  frontiersman,"  he  said,  "thought  the  killing 
of  an  Indian  meritorious,"  and  he  cited  instances 
of  Indian  murders  that  went  unpunished.  While 
they  bear  this,  as  he  said,  with  patience,  and  at 
that  time  showed  no  disposition  for  war,  he 
feared  their  ready  alliance  with  any  enemy  the 
United  States  might  have.*  The  disposition  of 
adventurous  whites  to  ignore  boundary  lines  and 
to  intrude  upon  the  Indian  lands  could  never  be 
prevented  by  the  government,  though  it  pro- 
claimed that  such  parties  intruded  at  their  own 
risk  and,  in  case  of  Indian  vengeance,  were  be- 
yond the  pale  of  governmental  protection. 

Distribution  and  Territorial  Claims  of  the 
Indians. — When  Indiana  Territory  was  cre- 
ated the  aboriginal  population  was  estimated  at 
one  hundred  thousand  (Webster),  though  we 
find  no  statement  as  to  the  actual  number  within 

the  limits  of  the  present  State.  The  tribes  in 
these  latter  limits  consisted  mainly  of  the  Miami 
Confederacy,  the  Potawatomis  and  the  Dcla- 
wares.  At  the  Greenville  treaty  of  1795,  the 
Miamis,  through  Little  Turtle,  their  spokesman, 
claimed  to  have  held  from  "time  immemorial" 
a  large  territory  that  included  all  of  Indiana. 
Such  other  tribes  as  occupied  any  part  of  that 
region  seem  to  have  done  so  by  invitation  or 
sufiferance  of  the  Miamis.  What  was  known  as 
the  "Miami  federation,"  as  represented  here, 
consisted  of  the  Twightwees,  or  Miamis  proj^er. 
the  Ouiatanons  or  Weas,  the  Eel  Rivers  and  the 
Piankeshaws.  Their  towns  were  mostly  along 
the  Wabash,  from  the  site  of  Fort  Wayne  to 
Vincennes,  each  of  the  various  sub-tribes  having 
its  own  locality.  The  Potawatomis  occujiied  that 
part  of  the  State  lying  north  and  northwest  of 
the  I\Iiami  country,  as  far  eastward  as  the  head 
waters  of  the  Tippecanoe  and  Eel  rivers,  and  the 
Delawares  had  the  White  river  valley,  their  most 
eastern  town  standing  where  Muncie  now  is. 
Other  tribes,  notably  Kickapoos,  Shawnees,  Win- 
nebagos  and  Wyandotte  or  Hurons  had  towns  in 
the  IMiami  country.  The  south  ])art  of  tlie  terri- 
tory east  of  the  Wabash  is  said  to  liave  been  com- 
mon hunting  ground.  \\'e  hear  of  aboriginal  vil- 
lages here  and  there  tlirousj;hout  that  region.  l)Ut 
whether  these  were  in  any  sense  permaneiU  or 
other  than  the  shifting  villages  of  hunting  i>ar- 
ties  is  not  established. 

The  vagueness  of  the  Indian  claims  and  their 
loose  validity  is  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  the 
Potawatomis  and  Delawares,  though  said  to  have 
been  occupying  ]\lianii  territory,  yet  figured  in 
the  treaties  for  land  sales  and  shared  in  the 
money  and  goods  that   were  paid.*      ( >ne  thing 

*  Harrison's  letter  to  secretary  of  war  in   1801. 

*  In  the  .American  state  papers  (Public  Lands,  vol.  iii.  p. 
373)  is  a  petition  to  congress  under  date  of  February  24.  1820, 
from  the  "Muhheaknunk  or  Stockbriilge  nations  of  Indians," 
otherwise  the  Mohicans,  in  which  the  petitioners  claim  that  ante- 
cedent to  the  Revolutionary  War  the  Miamis  had  granted  to 
them  and  to  the  Delawares  ami  Munsccs  a  tract  of  land  situated 
on  the  waters  of  White  river  (in  Indiana)  equal  to  100  miles 
square.  These  Mohicans,  under  the  second  article  of  the  Fort 
Wayne  treaty  of  September  30,  180<),  claimed  to  be  the  "lawful 
proprietors  of  an  equal  and  nn.Hvided  share  of  the  Delaware 
territory  and  asked  for  a  shar,  ■  '  'i'.  o.vcrnment  p.aymcnts 
made  therefor." 





that  contributed  to  this  vagueness  was  the  shift- 
ing westward  of  the  Ohio  Indians  by  Wayne's 
treaty  of  1795,  leaving  those  tril^es  without  any 
clearly  defined  lands  of  their  own.  General 
Wayne  was  asked  to  apportion  the  territory  re- 
maining to  the  Indians  l)y  "fixing  the  bounds  of 
every  nation's  rights,"  but  dechned  the  delicate 
task.*  Naturally,  then,  all  the  resident  tribes 
came  to  regard  themselves  as  having  a  right  in 
the  lands  they  occupied,  and  when  these  lands 
came  to  be  sold  made  their  claims  accordingly. 

Conditions  In  First  Decade. — During  the 
first  decade  of  Indiana  Territory,  the  United 
States  government  was  nominally  at  peace  with 
the  Indians  north  of  the  Ohio.  That  is,  there 
were  no  campaigns  and  not  much  armed  demon- 
stration, and  the  series  of  land  treaties  during 
that  period  bespoke  friendly  relations.  This 
seeming  friendliness,  however,  is  belied  by  the 
straggling  chronicles  we  have  of  attacks  and  re- 
prisals between  the  frontiersmen  and  marauding 
war  parties  of  savages.  A  repeated  source  of 
aggravation  was  the  land  question  and  the  fact 
that  the  chiefs  who  signed  away  the  various 
tracts,  one  after  the  other,  did  not  represent  the 
sentiment  of  all  the  Indians  who  conceived  that 
they  had  rights  in  the  land.  This,  as  will  be  re- 
lated elsewhere,  was  the  ]:)rime  cause  of  the  trou- 
ble that  culminated  in  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe. 
There  was  also,  doubtless,  the  deep-seated  feel- 
ing that  the  government,  with  all  its  professions 
of  fairness,  was  exercising  the  merciless  power 
of  a  dominant  race.  As  a  matter  of  fact  in  the 
policy  of  the  government  it  was  a  foregone  con- 
clusion that  the  white  man  was  to  possess  the 
land — the  boundaries  of  future  States  were  es- 
tablished before  any  of  it  had  been  purchased; 
and  when  the  time  came  he  bought  prett\-  much 
on  his  own  terms.  What  kind  of  terms  these 
were  may  be  seen  from  a  letter  of  Harrison's  to 
Jefi'erson  which  stated  that  the  ])urchase  of  1805 
amounted  to  about  one  cent  per  acre,  but  that  he 
"hoped  to  get  the  next  cession  enough  cheaper 
to  bring  down  the  average."  In  connection  with 
this  purchase  he  also  said  that  a  knowledge  of  the 
value  of  land  was  fast  g.aining  ground  among  the 
Indians. +  in  brief  there  existed  in  connection 
with  the  land  purchases  ;in  undercurrent  of  dis- 

satisfaction that  played  its  part  in  making  the 
early  years  a  "danger  period ;"  and  the  further 
fact  that  hunters,  invading  the  Indian  lands  in 
search  of  pelts,  had  almost  exterminated  the 
larger  game,  kept  the  young  men  of  the  tribes 
on  the  verge  of  warfare.  William  M.  Cock- 
rum,  in  his  "Pioneer  History  of  Indiana,"  has 
rescued  from  this  obscure  period  some  accounts 
of  Indian  adventures  that  savor  of  the  annals  of 
Kentucky's  "dark  and  bloody  ground." 

Ranger  Service  of  1807. — Mr.  Cockrum,  in 
the  work  above  mentioned,  also  published  certain 
valuable  papers  of  a  Captain  William  Hargrove 
which  revealed  that  in  1807  the  troubles  were  so 
acute  that  a  ranger  service  was  organized  to 
patrol  the  frontier.  This  body  was  formed  into 
three  divisions,  one  taking  the  country  from  the 
Wabash  eastward  to  the  neighborhood  of  the 
French  Lick  springs ;  another  from  that  point  to 
the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  third  from  the 
falls  to  Lawrenceburg.  The  commander  of  one 
of  these  divisions  was  Captain  Hargrove,  and 
the  papers  mentioned,  being  letters  of  instruction 
to  him  from  John  Gibson,  secretary  of  the  ter- 
ritory, throw  considerable  light  on  that  particular 
period  and  its  dangers.* 

Tecumtha  and  the  Prophet. — A  factor  in  our 
Indian  troubles  that  became  historic  was  the  in- 
fluence of  the  Shawnee  chief,  Tecumtha  (often 
w'ritten  Tecumsehf)  and  his  brother,  known  as 
the  "Prophet,"  and  the  part  that  influence  played 
in  precipitating  important  issues.  These  two  re- 
markable Indians  first  appeared  in  Indiana  his- 
tory in  1805,  among  the  Dela wares  on  White 
river,  where  the  Prophet  fomented  a  witchcraft 
craze  which  resulted  in  the  murder  of  several 
victims  accused  by  him,  and  which  had  somewhat 
the  complexion  of  a  crusade  of  vengeance  against 
those  who  were  friendly  to  the  whites  and  who 
had  sanctioned  the  sales  of  land.  In  1808  the 
two  appeared  among  the  Potawatomis  and  es- 
tal)lished  themselves  at  the  mouth  of  Tippe- 
canoe river  a  few  miles  above  the  site  of  Lafay- 
ette. Here  they  drew  about  them  Indians  of 
various  tribes  and  the  place  became  known  as 
the  Prophet's  Town.  The  Prophet  was  a  re- 
ligious teacher  whose  propaganda  was  a  strange 
mingling  ot    ethics,   wisdom   and   gross   supersti- 

*  iJunii's   "'I'riU'    liuli,-m    ^ 
t  .Sec   Webster's   " 
Indiana    Territory;"    an     e> 
Hist.   .Sue.   pnhlii-alioiis. 

nrni>     I 
.■client     11 

.\ilniinisli-atinn    of 
in     vol.     iv,     Ind. 

•  Cockrnin's   "I'ioneer   History   of    Indi 
t  The    form    "Tecnintha"   seems   to   be 
dian    authorities. 

I."  pp.    202-29. 
ipted   by    the    be 

^t    In- 



tion.  He  claimed  to  be  a  divine  spokesman  and 
to  have  supernatural  vision,  and  this  seems  to 
have  been  the  great  source  of  his  power  among 
his  followers.  This  power  he  exercised  in  the 
furtherance  of  the  plans  conceived  by  his  brother, 

Tecumtha  was  one  of  the  most  notable  Indians 
of  history,  being  an  aboriginal  orator,  patriot  and 
statesman.  Foreseeing  the  ultimate  destruction 
of  his  race,  the  effort  of  his  life  was  to  stop  the 
advancing  host  of  the  white  invaders,  and  to  this 
end  he  planned  and  worked  to  federate  the  red 
tribes  and  thus  create  a  power  that  could  hope 
to  stem  the  oncoming  tide.  The  heterogeneous 
gathering  at  the  Prophet's  Town  was  but  a  nu- 
cleus of  the  federation  that  was  hoped  for.  He 
took  a  bold  and  consistent  stand  against  the 
selling  of  lands  to  the  United  States  government, 
maintaining  that  many  of  the  Indians  concerned 
did  not  agree  to  these  sales,  and  that  they  were 
not  valid  without  the  consent  of  all  the  tribes. 
The  claim  of  the  Shawnees  was  based  on  the 
fact  that  when,  by  the  treaty  of  1795,  the  whites 
took  Ohio  and  the  Ohio  Indians  were  all  pushed 
back  into  the  Miami  territory  in  Indiana,  they 
too  became  part  owners  of  that  territory  (Dunn). 
When,  in  1809,  a  new  treaty  cut  off  about  three 
million  acres  more  from  the  Indians'  holdings 
and  carried  the  boundary  line  far  up  the  Wabash, 
Tecumtha's  opposition  became  threatening.  In 
1810  he  visited  Vincennes  with  his  retinue  for  a 
council  with  Governor  Harrison,  and  expressed 
his  views  with  such  plainness  that  a  clash  was 
narrowly  averted.  His  final  assurance  at  this 
memorable  conference  was  that  if  the  whites 
crossed  the  old  boundary  line  with  their  sur- 
veyors there  would  be  bad  consequences. 

After  this  Tecumtha  went  on  a  tour  among  the 
tribes  of  the  south  to  spread  his  doctrine  of  In- 
dian federation  and  during  his  absence  the  de- 
cisive battle  of  Tippecanoe  was  fought,  ending 
his  dreams  of  a  successful  resistance.  \\'hen  the 
war  of  1812  broke  out  he  joined  the  British  and 
was  killed  in  the  battle  of  the  Thames. 

After  the  battle  of  Tippecanoe  the  Prophet, 
who  had  precipitated  that  battle  and  urged  his 
followers  on,  assuring  them  that  the  bullets  of 
the  enemy  could  not  harm  them,  fell  into  disre- 
pute among  his  people,  and  after  living  in  "a 
sort  of  disgrace"  among  various  bands,  died  be- 
yond the  Mississippi  in  1834. 

I  he  battle  of  Tijjpecanoe,  the  most  important 
clash  of  arms  that  ever  occurred  on  Indiana  soil, 
if  we  except  the  storming  of  Vincennes  by  George 
Rogers  Clark,  was  directly  brought  about  by  the 
land  troubles  spoken  of  above.  As  said,  these 
became  more  acute  after  the  purchase  of  a  large 
tract  in  1809,  largely  by  reason  of  the  protests 
of  Tecumtha  and  the  influence  of  the  Proi)het. 
Besides  the  danger  of  incursions  ])v  irrcsjKjusi- 

Tlie  Plan  of  the  Battlefield  of  Tippecanoe  and  Route  of 
Harrison's  Army.— Courtesy  of  State  I.ihnirian  D.  C. 


ble  hostile  bands,  serious  hostility  was  evi<lently 
brewing  among  the  tribes,  with  the  Prophet's 
Town  as  source  and  center,  though  the  fomentcrs 
of  it  avowed  peaceful  iiUentions.  Governor  Har- 
rison repeatedly  sent  messengers  not  only  to  the 
Tippecanoe  town  but  to  other  villages  of  the 
various  tribes  to  promote  amity  and  to  warn 
them  against  the  danger  of  hostility  to  the  L'niled 
States,  but  the  situation  was  not  mended  and 
the  predatory  raids  on  the  frontier  conliinie<i 
until,  on  July  31,  1811,  the  citizens  of  Knox 
countv.  at  a  public  meeting,  declared  that  there 
could  be  no  safetv  until  the   Prophet's  conibina- 



tion  was  broken  up  by  prompt  and  decisive 
measures,  and  such  measures  were  recommended 
to  the  governor  and  the  president.  Harrison  and 
those  who  knew  Indian  character  best  shared  the 
belief  that  a  vigorous  threat,  backed  by  an  actual 
show  of  power  to  enforce  it,  was  the  only  de- 
pendable remedy,  and  the  outcome  of  the  situa- 
tion was  the  mobilizing  of  a  little  army  of  about 
nine  hundred  men  consisting  of  United  States 
troops  and  Indiana  militia  with  about  sixty  volun- 
teers .  from  Kentucky  (Dillon).  The  purpose 
of  this  force  w^as  not  to  actually  attack  the  In- 
dians, unless  circumstances  made  it  necessary, 
but  to  establish  a  military  post  within  the  terri- 
tory that  was  the  immediate  source  of  trouble, 
thence  to  proceed  to  the  Prophet's  Town  by  way 
of  a  demonstration  and  awe  the  troublesome 
tribesmen  there  into  compliance  with  demands 
that  had  been  made  upon  them. 

The  expedition  left  Vincennes  September  26, 
1811,  and  on  October  3  reached  a  favorable  spot 
for  the  proposed  post,  on  the  high  ground  above 
the  site  of  Terre  Haute.  Here  the  force  re- 
mained until  the  last  of  the  month,  building  the 
fort,  which  was  named  in  honor  of  the  governor, 
then  resumed  the  march,  arriving  at  Tippecanoe 
on  November  6.  Indian  messengers  met  the 
whites  for  a  parley  and,  after  Harrison's  assur- 
ances that  the  first  intention  was-  not  an  attack 
but  a  conference,  he  was  directed  by  them  to  a 
camping  place  on  high  ground,  where  wood  and 
water  were  procurable.  Here  the  army  en- 
camped, expecting  the  conference  on  the  mor- 
row, but  Harrison's  familiarity  with  Indian 
methods  forbade  reliance  on  Indian  honor,  and, 
prudently,  the  men  slept  on  their  arms,  prepared 
to  meet  any  contingency  at  a  moment^s  notice. 
The  precaution  was  fortunate,  for  before  day- 
light the  following  morning  an  attack  was  made 
by  a  large  Ijody  of  Indians  so  sudden  and  fierce 
that  the  assailants  were  fairly  in  the  camp  before 
many  of  the  soldiers  could  get  out  of  their  tents. 
The  conflict  lasted  from  about  a  quarter  past  four 
tdl  daylight  and  only  ])reparedness  and  desperate 
fighting  saved  the  army  from  rout  and  massacre. 
When,  after  the  foiled  and  beaten  Indians  were 
driven  from  the  field,  the  whites  took  stock  of 
their  losses  they  found  that  thirty-seven  of  their 
number  were  slain  and  a  hundred  and  fifty-one 
of  them  wounded.  How  many  Indians  were  en- 
gaged  is   not   accurately   known,  but   they   have 

been  estimated  at  from  six  hundred  to  eight  hun- 
dred. Their  loss  was  also  unknown  but  ex- 
ceeded that  of  the  whites,  as  thirty-eight  were 
found  dead  and  others  were  carried  off.  The 
defeated  savages  abandoned  their  town  and  the 
victors  burned  it  to  the  ground. 

A  trial  by  arms  at  this  time  was  contrary  to 
the  plans  of  Tecumtha,  who  was  then  in  the 
south.  The  Prophet  was  responsible  for  it.  His 
power  over  his  followers  was  such  that  he  made 
them  believe  the  enemy's  bullets  could  not  harm 
them,  and  during  the  fight  he  stood  aloof  urging 
them  on  by  singing  his  mysterious  incantations 
in  a  voice  so  stentorian  that  from  it  he  took  his 
name  of  La-lu-e-tsee-ka,  or  the  "Loud  Voice" 
(Dunn).  With  his  defeat  his  influence  was  de- 
stroyed and  he  became  a  sort  of  outcast. 

Harrison's  army  was  composed  of  nine  com- 
panies of  regulars,  six  companies  of  Indiana  mi- 
litia (infantry),  five  companies  of  riflemen,  two 
companies  of  dragoons  and  a  company  of  scouts 
and  spies.  About  one- fourth  of  the  force  were 
mounted  (Dunn). 

Importance  of  Tippecanoe. — W^hi'e  the  bat- 
tle of  Tippecanoe  did  not  put  an  end  to  Indian 
hostilities  it  was,  nevertheless,  a  fight  of  such 
importance  as  to  merit  the  term  "decisive." 
Probably  it  decided  to  no  small  degree  the  fu- 
ture of  Indiana,  for  whereas  it  efifectually 
checked  the  political  plans  of  Tecumtha  and  de- 
stroyed the  dangerous  influence  of  the  Prophet, 
Indian  victory  would  doubtless  have  accelerated 
these,  and  what  the  frontier  would  have  suffered 
with  its  protecting  army  defeated  is  beyond 
guessing,  especially  when  we  consider  the  fast- 
following  war  with  England. 

The  impress  it  left  on  the  minds  of  the  peo- 
ple was  strong  and  abiding.  No  less  than  half- 
a-dozen  counties  in  the  State  were  afterward 
named  for  heroes  of  Tippecanoe.  It  made  for 
Tiovernor  Harrison  a  military  reputation  which 
opened  the  way  to  conspicuous  service  in  the  war 
of  1812  and  which  as  late  as  1840  carried  him 
to  the  presidential  chair  of  the  United  States 
after  the  most  enthusiastic  political  campaign 
the  country  has  ever  had.  The  spot  where  the 
conflict  occurred  is  to-day  the  one  battlefield 
which  Indiana  owns  and  fittinglv  preserves  as 
a  memorial  of  those  who  fought  and  fell  there. 
The  ground  was  jiresented  to  the  State  in  1835 
by  General  John  Tipton,  who  was  a  participant 



THE  WAR  OF   1812 

in  the  battle.  An  obscure  account  that  has  never 
found  its  way  into  the  histories  is  to  the  effect 
that  on  the  21st  of  November,  1830,  the  bones 
of  those  killed  on  the  field  nineteen  years  before 
were  collected  and  interred  "by  a  large  concourse 
of  people  with  due  gravity  and  respect,"  the  re- 
mains being  put  in  one  large  coffin  on  the  hd  of  Americans  of  the  territory  wrung  from  her 
vvhich,  formed  of  brass  nails,  was  the  inscription,  (ieorgc  Rogers  Clark,  and  it  is  an  csialjlis' 
"Rest,  Warriors,  Rest."     General  Harrison,  who      charge  in  our  histories  tliat.  even  (hiring  tlie 

One  factor  in  our  ln<han  troubles  frum  the 
ginning  was  the  encouragement  offered  the  < 
ages   by   the   British   in    Canada.      I-jigland 
never  reconciled  herself  to  the  occui)ancv  bv 


Views  Near  the  State  SokKers'  Home.  Latavette.  No.  1— Tippecanoe  Battleground.  1  lie  .spot  .>;ho\vn  I'^Te  i- 
where  the  battle  raged  fiercest  on  November  7,  1811.  No.  2— Prophet's  Rock,  near  the  1  ippecanoc  Battle- 
ground, from  which  point  it  is  said  a  prophet  directed  the  Indian  warriors  and  witnessed  their  deteat. 
No.  3— Old  bark  wigwam  at  "Tecumseh  Trail."     No.  4— Old  log  cabin  on  '■lecunKch    1  rail. 

was  to  have  been  the  leading  figure  on  this  occa-  riod  of  i)eace  between  the  iiaiions.  the  Indians  of 
sion,  was  kept  away  by  illness  and  General  John  the  northwest  received  their  arms  and  aiiimum- 
Tipton  took  his  place.  tion    from   our   old-time    toe   and    were   >ecrell> 

Apropos  to  this  interment,  it  is  further  stated      backed  up  in  their  hostilities.     W  ben  ilie  brew- 
that  after  Harrison's  troops  had  buried  their  dead      ing  troubles  between  America  and  I-Jighuul  cul- 
and  withdrawn  from  the  field  after  the  battle, 
the    Indians    returned,    dug   up   the   bodies    and 
scalped  them,  leaving  them  unburied.* 

*Ind.   Journal,   Nov.    3,    1830;    Ind.    Democrat,   Sept.    23,    1S30; 
Niles'  Register,   Nov.   27,   1830. 

minated  in  a  declaration  of  war  in  June.  1S12, 
the  latter  nation  found  ready  allies  among  the 
red  ])eople  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  as  late 
as  May  of  that  year,  at  ;i  gran<l  council  on  the 
Mississinewa,    the   majority    oi   the    tribes    there 



professed  a  desire  for  peace  with  the  United 
States.  That  summer  there  was  httle  hostile 
demonstration,  but  during  that  time  Enghsh  suc- 
cesses emboldened  the  tribes  and  in  early  Sep- 
tcmljer  there  occurred  in  two  places  widely  sep- 
arated one  of  the  fiercest  assaults  and  the  worst 
massacre  in  the  history  of  the  State. 

Attack  on  Fort  Harrison. — The  assault 
mentioned  was  that  on  Fort  Harrison  on  the 
fourth  of  September,  1812.  This  post,  built  by 
Harrison  in  his  Tippecanoe  campaign  the  year 
before,  guarded  the  frontier  farthest  north  and 
the  river  approach  to  \'incennes,  some  sixty 
miles  below.  At  this  time  it  was  commanded  by 
Captain  Zachary  Taylor  (afterward  president  of 
the  United  States)  and  garrisoned  by  a  small 
force  so  enfeebled  by  fever  and  ague  that,  by 
Taylor's  account,  there  were  not  more  than  ten 
or  fifteen  able-bodied  men.  On  the  4th  the  com- 
mandant had  warning  of  the  proximity  of  In- 
dians and  so,  fortunately,  was  on  his  guard.  Nev- 
ertheless one  of  about  600  warriors  that  quietly 
surrounded  the  fort  that  night,  managed,  under 
the  cover  of  darkness,  to  drag  himself  to  the 
walls  of  one  of  the  buildings  with  a  bundle 
of  combustibles  on  his  shoulders  and  the  first 
intimation  the  sentinels  had  of  an  attack  was 
when  the  walls  were  ablaze.  The  barracks 
caught  fire  and  not  only  the  women  and  children, 
of  whom  there  were  nine,  but  the  men  themselves 
were  thrown  into  panic  and  despair.  Taylor's 
])resence  of  mind  saved  the  situation.  He  saw 
that  by  throwing  ofif  the  roof  of  the  barracks 
building  and  saturating  the  walls  with  water  the 
flames  could  be  combated  with  promise  of  suc- 
cess, and  when  he  ordered  the  men  to  this  task 
they  fell  to  with  a  will,  led  by  a  Doctor  Clark, 
the  post  surgeon,  though  a  galling  fire  was  di- 
rected u])on  them  by  the  skulking  savages  from 
the  woods.  At  this  hazardous  work  one  man  was 
killed  and  two  wounded,  but  the  blaze  was  sub- 
dued and  a  barricade  of  pickets  ])ut  up  across 
the  gap  in  the  stockade  caused  l)y  the  fire.  Mean- 
while the  rest  of  the  garrison,  by  the  glare  of 
the  flames,  were  pouring  their  fire  into  such  of 
the  Indians  as  dared  venture  into  the  open,  and 
thus  managed  to  hold  them  oft'  until  daylight. 
\\hen  the  besiegers  wilbdrew,  driving  with  them 
(juanlities  of  live  stock/'' 

Des])ite  the  seemingly  o\er\\helniing   force  of 

the  assailants  Taylor  lost  only  three  men,  besides 
two  or  three  wounded.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
attack  two  men  got  over  the  stockade  for  the 
purpose  of  escaping  but  one  was  killed  and  die. 
other  one,  wounded,  returned  to  the  gate  and 
begged  to  be  let  in.  He  was  obliged  to  lie  there 
hidden  until  morning.  The  Indians  who  made 
the  attack  were  supposed  to  have  been  Pota- 
watomis,  Kickapoos,  Winnebagos  and  Miamis. 

When  word  of  the  assault  traveled  to  Vin- 
cennes  troops  were  sent  and  the  place  reinforced, 
but  the  Indians  never  returned. 

Pigeon  Roost  Massacre. — Almost  simulta- 
neous with  the  Fort  Harrison  attack  occvu"red 
the  most  diabolical  event  in  our  Indian  history — 
the  "Pigeon  Roost"  massacre.  What  was  known 
as  the  Pigeon  Roost  Settlement  consisted  of  sev- 
eral families  that  made  a  little  community  in 
what  is  now  Scott  county.  This  settlement, 
founded  in  1809,  was  separated  from  any  other 
by  several  miles,  and  was  confined  to  about  a 
square  mile  of  territory  (Dillon,  p.  492).  On 
the  third  of  September,  1812,  this  settlement  was 
attacked  by  a  band  of  about  a  dozen  marauders, 
said  to  have  been  Shawnees,  who,  scouring  the 
locality  and  going  from  cabin  to  cabin,  mur- 
dered within  a  space  of  an  hotir,  twenty-two  per- 
sons, sixteen  of  them  being  children  and  five  of 
them  women.  Prior  to  this  general  killing,  two 
men,  Jeremiah  Payne  and  Isaac  Coffman.  were 
shot  in  the  woods.  Most  of  the  cabin  homes  were 
burned  down.  The  victims,  besides  Payne  and 
Coffman,  were  Mrs.  Jeremiah  Payne  and  her 
eight  children,  Mrs.  Richard  Collings  and  seven 
children,  Henry  Collings  and  his  wife,  Mrs.  John 
Morris,  her  only  child,  and  her  mother-in-law.* 

A  spirited  fight  at  the  house  of  William  Col- 
lings, in  which  three  Indians  were  killed,  prob- 
ably prevented  a  greater  slaughter,  as  the  check 
to  the  savages  enabled  the  rest  of  the  settlement 
to  escape  to  blockhouses  that  stood  within  a  few 
miles.  Some  of  these  escapes  were  attended  with 
risks  and  horrors  equal  to  any  to  be  foiuid  in 
the  Indian  annals  of  Kentucky.  The  wife  of 
John  Biggs,  fortunately  for  her,  had  gone  into 
the  woods  to  look  for  their  cow,  having  with  her 
their  three  children,  one  a  babe  in  arms.  On  her 
way  home  she  discovered  the  savages  about  the 
em]itv  cabin  and  took  flight  toward  one  of  the 

*  Taylor's  official  rcfiort. 

*  Dillon,    p.    492.      Dunn's    account 
varies   slightly    from   this. 

'True    Indian    Stories" 



blockhouses,  but  the  ludians,  Ijeheving  the  miss- 
ing family  was  in  the  vicinity,  began  searching 
the  adjacent  forest.  At  one  time  they  passed  so 
near  Mrs.  Biggs  that  their  footsteps  were  audi- 
ble. At  this  critical  moment  the  baby  began  to 
cry  and  to  check  it  she  was  obliged  to  press  her 
shawl  over  its  mouth.  When  the  searchers  had 
passed  she  made  the  dreadful  discovery  that  the 
infant  had  been  smothered  to  death.  With  the 
dead  child  in  her  arms  and  the  two  living  ones 
clinging  to  her  she  spent  the  night  in  the  wilder- 
ness,  arriving  at  the  blockhouse  about  daybreak. 
A  Dr.  John  Richie  took  his  sick  wife  on  his 
back,  and  together  they  spent  the  night  in  the 
woods,  as  did  Mrs.  Beal  and  her  two  children, 
who  hid  in  a  sinkhole  until  after  dark,  then  made 
their  way  to  one  of  the  protecting  strongholds 
which  they  reached  at  two  o'clock  next  morning. 

The  news  of  the  massacre  was  carried  to 
Charlestown,  Clark  county,  and  by  two  o'clock  in 
the  afternoon  of  September  4  a  body  of  two 
hundred  armed  men  reached  the  scene  of  the 
tragedy,  where  only  one  house  remained  stand- 
ing, and  in  and  about  the  ruins  of  the  charred 
cabins  lay  the  mutilated  remains  of  women  and 
children.  The  trail  of  the  savages  was  taken  up 
and  followed  till  dark,  but  they  never  were 
overtaken,  and  to  the  present  day  it  is  a  matter 
of  considerable  doubt  as  to  what  Indians  were 
guilty  of  the  atrocity. 

Two  children  were  carried  away  as  prisoners 

Fort  Harrison,  Near  Terre  Haute.    Frected  in  ISU. 
— From  an  old  t'iVw.* 

from  this  raid.  One,  a  little  girl  three  years  of 
age,  named  Ginsey  McCoy,  was  a  niece  of  the 
Indian  missionary,  the  Rev.  Isaac  McCoy.  Years 

*  See  "Blockhouses,"  p.   64. 

after  Mr.  McCoy  himself  found  her  west  of  the 
Mississippi  river  as  the  wife  of  an  Indian  chief 
and  the  mother  of  several  children.  She  re- 
turned to  Indiana  for  a  visit  to  her  relatives  but 
soon  went  l)ack  to  her  Indian  home.  The  other 
ca].tive,  a  boy  named  Teter  iluttman.  was  sold 
to   some   other    Indians   and    carried   to   ("anada. 

McKnight  Fort.  This  is  one  of  fifteen  forts  tliat  were 
built  in  W'asliington  county  as  protection  against  the 
Indians  in  1812.  The  McKniglit  Fort  was  converted 
into  a  dwelling  by  William  McKnight,  who  lived 
in  it  until  his  death.  It  was  occupied  by  his  son  and 
grandson  later  and  was  used  as  a  residence  until  the 
spring  of  1898.  It  was  torn  down  in  1911.— C'cKr/.-jy 
of  Orra  Hopper. 

His  whereabouts  and  i(lentit\  were  discoverefj 
after  much  pains  and  trouble,  and  he  was  re- 
turned to  Indiana  in  1824;  Imt  he.  too.  was 
wedded  to  the   Indian   life  and   returned   lo   it.* 

The  spot  where  the  victims  of  the  massacre 
were  buried  was  for  manv  \ears  marked  by  an 
immense  sassafras  tree.  In  190,-?  an  appropria- 
tion of  $2,000  for  a  nionuinetit  was  made  by  the 
Legislature,  and  a  shaft  of  Bedford  limestone, 
fort^'-fotir  feet  in  height,  was  dedicated  <  October 
1,  1904,  "nuiteh-  calling  to  meninry  the  most 
fearful  Indian  tragedy  that  was  e\er  known  to 
ihe  soil  of   Indian;!." 

Frontier  Defense. —  The  ciMidiiinns  in  indi- 
;nia  Ijefore  the  declaration  of  war  on  June  L^ 
1S12,  were  such  as  to  call  forlh  from  (  lovernor 
llarrison  a  niilil;irv  circul;ir  which  gi\'es  us  ;i 
glimj:)se  of  the  times  and  of  the  steps  t.iken  to 
meet  its  dangers.  It  is  dated  U)lh  .\pril.  1812. 
and  tinder  the  heading  of  "Cieneral  (  )rders  lor 
the  Militia"  the  reails: 

••.As  the  late  murders  ui)on  the  frontiers  of  this  and 
tlie  neighboring  Territories  leave  us  little  to  hoi)c  of 
our  being  able  to  avoid  a  war  with  the  neighboring 
tribes  of  Indians,  the  commander-in-chief  directs  that 
the   colonels   and    other   conunandants   of   corp.s   should 

*  Dunn's  "True   Indian   .St.irii-.<." 



take  immediate  measures  to  put  their  commands  in  the 
best  possible  state  for  active  service.  Tlie  field  officers 
who  command  battalions  will  visit  and  critically  inspect 
the  several  companies  which  compose  them  and  make  a 
report  in  detail  of  their  situation,  particularly  noting 
the  deficiencies  in  arms,  ammunition  and  accoutrements, 
and  sucli  measures  as  the  laws  authorize  must  be  im- 
mediately taken  to  remedy  those  deficiencies.  The 
commander-in-chief  informs  the  officers  that  the  most 
prompt  obedience  and  the  most  unremitting  attention 
to  their  duty  will  he  required  of  them — the  situation  of 
the  country  calls  for  exertion  on  the  part  of  the  militia, 
and  the  officers  must  set  the  example  to  their  men.  If 
there  are  amongst  them  any  who  have  accepted  appoint- 
ments for  the  mere  motive  of  gratifying  their  vanity 
by  the  possession  of  a  commission  to  which  a  title  is 
annexed,  without  having  the  ability  or  the  inclination 
to  encounter  arduous  service,  in  justice  to  their  country 
and  to  their  own  fame  they  should  now  retire  and  not 
stand  in  the  way  of  those  who  are  more  able  or  more 
willing  to  encounter  the  fatigue  and  dangers  incidental 
to  actual  service  in  the  Indian  war.  From  the  specimen 
which  the  commander-in-chief  has  had  of  their  conduct 
in  the  field  he  has  every  reason  to  be  proud  of  them, 
nor  does  he  believe  that  there  are  better  militia  officers 
to  be  found  anywhere  than  those  of  Indiana,  but  in  a 
crisis  like  the  present  they  should  be'  all  good. 

"The  field  officers  are  to  see  that  proper  places  are 
appointed  for  the  rendezvous  of  the  companies  upon  an 
alarm  or  the  appearance  of  danger,  and  will  give  orders 
relatively  to  the  mode  of  their  proceeding  in  such  exi- 
gencies as  the  situation  of  the  companies  respectively 
call  for.  When  mischief  is  done  by  the  Indians  in  any 
of  the  settlements,  they  must  be  pursued,  and  the  officer 
nearest  to  the  spot,  if  the  number  of  men  under  his 
command  is  not  inferior  to  the  supposed  number  of  the 
enemy,  is  to  commence  it  as  soon  as  he  can  collect  his 
men.  If  his  force  should  be  too  small  he  is  to  send  for 
aid  to  the  next  officer  to  him,  and  in  the  meantime  to 
take  a  position  capable  of  being  defended,  or  watch  the 
motions  of  the  enemy,  as  circumstances  require.  The 
pursuit  must  be  conducted  with  vigor,  and  the  officer 
commanding  will  be  held  responsible  for  making  every 
exertion  in  his  power  to  overtake  the  enem}'.  Upon  his 
return,  whether  successful  or  not,  a  particular  account 
of  his  proceedings  must  be  transmitted  to  the  com- 
mander-in-chief and  a  copy  of  it  to  the  colonel  of  the 

"The  commander-in-chief  recommends  it  to  the  citi- 
zens on  the  frontiers  of  Knox  county,  from  the  Wabash 
eastwardly  across  the  two  branches  of  the  White  river, 
those  on  tlie  northwest  of  the  Wabash  and  those  in  the 
Driftwood  settlement  in  Harrison,  to  erect  blocked 
houses  or  picketed  forts.  It  will  depend  upon  the  dis- 
position of  the  Delawares  whether  measures  of  this 
kind  will  be  necessary  or  not  upon  the  frontiers  of 
Clark,  Jefferson,  Dearl)orn,  Franklin  or  Wayne.  Means 
will  be  taken  to  ascertain  this  as  soon  as  possible  and 
the  result  communicated.  The  Indians  who  profess  to 
be  friendly'  have  been  warned  to  keep  clear  of  the  set- 
tlements, and  the  commander-in-chief  is  far  from  wish- 
ing that  tlie  citizens  should  run  any  risk  liy  admitting 
any  Indians  to  come  amongst  them  whose  designs  are 
in  the  least  cciuivocal."  He  recommends,  however,  to 
those  settlements  which  the  Delawares  have  frequented 
as  much  forI)earances  as  possible  toward  that  tribe,  l)e- 
cause  they  have  ever  performed  with  punctuality  and 
good  faith  their  engagements  witli  the  United  States, 
and  as  yet  there  is  not  the  least  reason  to  doubt  their 
fidelity.  It  is  also  certain  that  if  they  should  be  forced 
to  join  the  other  tribes  in  war,  from  their  intimate 
knowledge  of  tlie  settlements  upon  the  frontiers  they 
would  lir  I'nabled  to  do  more  mischief  than  anv  other 

"1j\'  tlie  conimander-in-chief. 

"A  Hurst,  Aide-de-camp." 

Blockhouses. — As  the  war  came  on  and  the 
dangers  became  more  threatening,  a  great  many 
of  the  settlers  forsook  their  farms  and  betook 
themselves  to  more  protected  territory.  Others 
remained,  however,  and  Dillon  tells  us  that  "in 
the  course  of  the  spring  and  summer  of  the  year 
1812  blockhouses  or  picketed  forts  were  erected 
throughout  the  Indiana  Territory."  The  follow- 
ing year  more  were  built  by  the  military  authori- 
ties. Of  many  of  these  no  specific  record  re- 
mains but  in  various  local  chronicles  a  number 
are  mentioned  and  the  localities  of  some  of  them 
given.  The  very  outpost  of  them  all,  if  we  ex- 
cept Fort  Wayne,  which  was  entirely  isolated 
from  the  frontier,  was  Fort  Harrison.  In  Sul- 
livan county  there  was  one  about  midway  be- 
tween New  Lebanon  and  Carlisle,  and  one  near 
the  Wabash  river  some  distance  above  Meroni. 
In  Knox  county,  we  are  told,  forts  were  erected 
in  every  neighborhood,  and  five  are  specified  in 
Widner  township.  In  Daviess  county  ten  are 
mentioned,  and  in  Jackson  three,  one  of  them  at 
Vallonia.  In  the  north  part  of  Union  were  two 
and  in  Wayne  three  or  four,  one  of  these  being 
about  four  miles  west  of  Richmond  and  another 
a  mile  north  of  Washington.  We  also  find  tradi- 
tion of  several  in  Jefiferson  county. 
■  An  anecdote  or  two  will  show  that  amid  these 
preparations  for  grim  war  the  American  sense 
of  humor  was  not  wanting.  One  of  the  stockades 
in  Knox  county  was  known  as  "Fort  Petticoat." 
because,  the  men  being  absent  in  the  army,  its 
defense  depended  chiefly  upon  the  women.  In 
Jackson  county  when  one  of  the  forts  was  build- 
ing four  or  five  practical  jokers,  pretending  to  be 
Indians,  tried  to  scare  a  green  "Dutchman"  in 
the  woods  but  he  showed  fight  in  such  deadly 
earnest  that  the  jokers  ignominiously  fled. 

The  Rev.  W.  C.  Smith,  a  settler  of  the  \Miite- 
water  region,  father  of  the  historian  W.  H. 
Smith,  describes  in  an  interesting  book  of  rem- 
iniscences ("Indiana  Miscellany")  the  old  log 
forts.  The  stockade  consisted  of  "two  rows  of 
split  timber,  twelve  to  fourteen  feet  long,  planted 
in  the  ground  two-and-a-half  or  three  feet  deep. 
The  timbers  of  the  second  row  were  so  placed 
as  to  cover  the  cracks  of  the  first.  Small  cabins 
were  erected  inside  of  the  stockades  for  the  ac- 
commodation of  the  faiuilies.  Usually  one 
l)lockhouse  was  built  in  each  fort.  The  block- 
houses  were  two  stories  high,  the  upper  story 



projecting  over  the  lower,  say  two  feet,  with 
portholes  in  the  floor  of  the  projection  so  that 
the  men  could  see  to  shoot  the  Indians  if  they 
succeeded  in  getting  to  the  walls  of  the  block- 
house." Sometimes  two  of  these  blockhouses 
were  built  at  opposite  corners  of  the  stockade  in 
such  a  manner  that  the  projecting  story  of  each 
commanded  two  of  the  outer  walls.  Many  of 
the  blockhouses,  built  for  temporary  refuge  in 
emergencies,  had  no  stockade  but  were  simply 
two-story  buildings  with  portholes  and  the  second 
story  overhanging.  Many  of  the  residence 
cabins,  also,  were  provided  with  portholes  and 
built  strongly  for  defense. 

Rangers  of  1813, — In  1813  Acting-Governor 
John  Gibson  called  into  service  several  com- 
panies of  mounted  rangers  each  consisting  of 
about  one  hundred  men.  These  were  in  the  em- 
ploy of  the  United  States.  The  accoutrement 
consisted  of  a  rifle,  knife  and  tomahawk  and  each 
man  carried  with  him  his  own  supply  of  pro- 
visions (Dillon).  The  office  of  these  rangers 
was,  seemingly,  the  same  as  that  of  the  frontier 
patrol  of  1807,  described  in  another  place. 


Attack  on  Ft.  Wayne. — After  the  attack  on 
Fort  Harrison  and  the  Pigeon  Roost  Massacre 
there  were  several  oft'ensive  campaigns  directed 
against  the  hostile  tribes  of  northern  Indiana.  Be- 
fore the  two  events  mentioned  about  five  hundred 
warriors  surrounded  Fort  Wayne,  which  was 
garrisoned  with  something  less  than  a  hundred 
men,  under  a  Captain  Rhea.  The  Indians  ar- 
ranged for  a  conference  inside  the  fort,  their 
object  being  treachery,  but  they  were  frustrated. 
Then  they  laid  siege  to  the  place  and,  aided  by 
some  ingenious  British,  made  a  "blufl:"  of  having 
artillery  by  constructing  two  wooden  cannon,  re- 
inforced by  hoopiron,  which  promptly  burst  when 
fired.  ]\Ieanwhile  General  Harrison,  who  had 
relinquished  his  civil  duties  for  military  service. 
was  advancing  northward  with  an  army  of  more 
than  a  thousand  men  (Dunn),  and  this  force 
reached  Fort  Wayne  on  September  12,  raising 
the  siege.  Detachments  of  these  troops  scoured 
the  surrounding  country,  and  destroyed  several 
deserted  Indian  villages  besides  quantities  of  food 
supplies  growing  in  the  cultivated  places. 

Hopkins'    Expedition. — Early   in    November 

General  Samuel  Hopkins,  after  a  previous  at- 
tempt at  a  campaign  in  Illinois  which  resulted  in 
mutiny  and  a  premature  return,  started  up  the 
Wabash  with  three  regiments  of  Kentucky  mili- 
tia and  one  company  each  of  regulars,  rangers 
and  scouts,  the  objective  being  the  old  "Prophet's 
Town"  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tippecanoe  and  va- 
rious villages  in  that  locality.  The  town  named, 
which  was  destroyed  after  the  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe, had  been  rebuilt  and  now  consisted  of 
about  forty  huts.  This  and  two  other  towns  of 
the  Kickapoos  and  Winnebagos,  were  destroyed, 
along  with  what  corn  was  found,  leaving  the 
Indians,  at  the  beginning  of  winter,  without 
shelter  or  provisions.  This  expedition  continued 
its  operations  throughout  November,  and  the 
chief  loss  sufi^ered  was  that  of  sixteen  men  killed 
in  an  ambuscade. 

Mississinewa  Expedition. — The  most  notable 
expedition  of  this  period  as  estimated  by  results 
w'as  that  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Campbell  with 
about  six  hundred  mounted  men  against  the  Mi- 
ami villages  on  the  Mississinewa  river.  This 
campaign  was  conducted,  virtually,  in  the  heart 
of  winter,  the  troops  moving  from  Dayton,  Ohio, 
on  December  14,  1812.  After  three  days  of  hard 
riding  one  of  the  villages  was  surprised,  eight 
warriors  killed,  forty-two  prisoners  taken  and 
the  place  burned.  Following  this  three  other 
villages  were  destroyed.  Campbell  then  debated 
the  advisability  of  returning  without  further  of- 
fensive operations,  owing  to  the  hardships  to 
which  the  men  were  subjected,  the  weather  being 
severe,  and  at  four  o'clock  on  the  morning  of 
the  18th  had  convened  liis  officers  for  a  con- 
ference, when  they  were  suddenly  and  furiously 
attacked  by  a  body  of  Indians.  The  fight  that 
followed,  by  Campbell's  ofticial  report,  was  well- 
nigh  as  fierce  and  stubbornly  contested  as  was 
that  at  Tijipecanoe.  After  an  hour's  engagement 
the  assailants  drew  ofi'.  leaving  lifleen  of  their 
dead  on  the  ground  and,  probably,  carrying  others 
oft"  with  them.  Of  the  whiles,  eight  were  killed 
and  forty-two  wounded.  The  exact  number  of 
the  attacking  Indians  was  never  known,  though 
Campbell  in  his  official  report  estimates  them  at 
"not  less  than  three  hundred."  'I'his  engage- 
ment, known  as  the  T.attle  of  The  Mississinewa. 
occurred  within  the  bounds  of  the  present  Grant 
county,  on  the  hank  of  the  Mississinewa  river, 
about  a   mile   from   the   village  of  Jalapa.     The 



field  is  privately  owned  and  is  unmarked  by  any 

Bartholomew's  White  River  Expedition. — 
During  the  earlier  part  of  the  war  the  Delaware 
Indians  on  White  river  professed  to  be  friendly 
to  the  United  States,  and  were  so  regarded,  but 
in  the  numerous  forays  made  against  the  settlers 
in  1813  there  was  evidence  that  this  tribe  at 
least  harbored  hostile  bands.  In  March  of  1813 
J(jlin  Tiptcjn,  then  in  command  of  militia  that  was 
guarding  the  frontier  of  Harrison  and  Clark 
counties,  pursued  a  party  of  marauders  that  had 
killed  one  man  and  wounded  three  others  near 
Vallonia,  Jackson  county.  At  an  island  on  the 
Driftwood  river  he  overhauled  the  band  and  after 
a  "smart  skirmish"  killed  one  and  routed  the 
rest.  In  April  he  pursued  another  party  that 
had  killed  two  men  and  stolen  some  horses  and 
recovered  the  horses  and  "other  plunder."  Tip- 
ton was  convinced  that  these  miscreants  made 
directly  for  the  Delaware  towns.  He  expressed 
the  opinion  that  "while  the  government  is  sup- 
porting one  part  of  that  tribe  the  other  part  is 
murdering  our  citizens,"  and  added  that  "those 
rascals,  of  whatever  tribe  they  may  be  harboring 
about  those  towns,  should  be  routed.* 

In  June  of  that  year  a  force  of  about  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty-seven  mounted  men  under  Col. 
Joseph  Bartholomew  rode  to  the  Delaware  towns 
to  discover  and  surprise,  if  possible,  hostile  In- 
dians who,  it  was  believed,  operated  from  there. 
By  Bartholomew's  report  these  towms  all  seem 
to  have  been  deserted  and  three  of  them  had  been 
already  burned,  though  why  or  by  whom  is  not 
recorded.  Considerable  corn  was  found  and  some- 
thing like  eight  lumdred  or  one  thousand  bushels 

Russell's  Expedition. — Following  hard  upon 
Bartholomew's  raid  a  much  larger  force  under 
Col.  William  Russell  circled  the  Indian  country 
with  an  expedition  covering  upward  of  five  hun- 
dred miles.  Russell  started  from  Vallonia,  as  did 
Bartholomew  the  month  before,  with  five  hun- 
dred seventy-three  men  (Dillon),  and  his  route 
took  in  the  Delaware  towns  on  White  river, 
the  Mississinewa  towns,  and  all  those  on  the  Wa- 
bash below  the  Mississinewa,  bringing  up  at 
Fort  Harrison,  on  the  northwestern  frontier.  No 
encounters   are   spoken   of   in    Colonel    Russell's 

*  Tipton's  report  to   Governor  Gibson. 

t  Bartholomew's   report   to   Governor   Posey. 

report  of  this  long  march.  It  was  a  campaign  of 
destruction  based  on  the  theory  (or  knowledge) 
that  the  surest  way  to  prevent  depredations  on 
the  borders  was  to  break  up  the  nesting  places 
of  those  who  committed  the  depredations. 

End  of  Indian  Hostilities. — Colonel  Russell's 
expedition  was  the  last  one  against  the  Indians. 
These  drastic  visitations  of  vengeance  reduced 
the  victims  of  them  to  destitution  and  starvation, 
and  when  a  series  of  American  successes,  cul- 
minating in  the  defeat  of  the  British  and  Indians 
in  the  battle  of  the  Thames,  still  further  dis- 
couraged them,  they  were  ready  to  sue  for  peace 
on  pretty  much  any  terms.  In  January  of  1814 
something  like  a  thousand  starving  Miamis  as- 
sembled at  Fort  Wayne  for  food  and  ammuni- 
tion for  hunting,  from  the  government ;  these 
were  soon  followed  by  the  Potawatomies,  and  the 
United  States  was  in  a  position  to  dictate  terms, 
so  far,  at  least,  as  the  Indiana  tribes  were  con- 
cerned. For  a  year  after,  indeed,  the  border  was 
not  entirely  safe  from  depredations  from  de- 
tached, irresponsible  bands,  but  these  were  not 
serious  and  threatening  enough  to  stem  the  re- 
turning tide  of  settlers  who  began  to  fill  up  the 
new  country. 

Intemperance  Among  the  Indians. — Gover- 
nor Harrison  repeatedly  deplored  the  disastrous 
eftects  of  intoxicating  liquor  among  the  Indians 
and  its  continual  introduction  by  unscrupulous 
traders.  In  a  letter  to  the  Secretary  of  War.  un- 
der date  of  July  15,  1801,  he  states  that  "the  In- 
dian chiefs  complained  of  the  enormous  quantity 
of  whisky  introduced  by  the  traders,"  there  be- 
ing, according  to  report,  upward  of  six  thousand 
gallons  brought  annually  among  the  Indians  of 
the  Wabash,  who  numbered  perhaps  six  hundred 
warriors.  The  result  w^as  that  the  Piankeshaws, 
Weas  and  Eel  river  tribes  had  almost  exter- 
minated their  chiefs  by  murder.  Little  Beaver, 
a  Wea,  was  killed  by  his  own  son,  and  another 
chief.  Little  Fox,  was  slain  by  his  own  people  in 
the  streets  of  Vincennes.  The  drunken  savages 
so  terrorized  the  citizens  of  Vincennes  that  Har- 
rison solicited  a  garrison  at  Fort  Knox  for  pro- 
tection. In  the  letter  the  Governor  says:  "1 
can  at  once  tell  by  looking  at  an  Indian  whom  1 
chance  to  meet  whether  he  belongs  to  a  neigh- 
boring or  a  more  distant  tribe.  The  latter  is 
generally  well-clothed,  healthy  and  vigorous  ;  the 
former  half-naked,  filthv  and  enfeebled  with  in- 




toxication,  and  many  of  them  without  arms  ex- 
cept a  knife  which  they  carry  for  the  most  vil- 
lainous purposes."  The  chiefs  earnestly  desired 
the  prevention  of  the  evil.  Some  of  these  wished 
the  introduction  among  their  people  of  agricul- 
tural implements  and  domestic  animals. 

In  his  message  to  the  first  general  assembly 
(1805)  the  governor  said  :  "The  interests  of  your 
constituents,  the  interests  of  the  miserable  In- 
dians, and  your  own  feelings  will  sufficiently  urge 
you  to  take  it  into  your  most  serious  considera- 
tion and  provide  the  remedy  which  is  to  save 
thousands  of  our  fellow  creatures.  You  are 
witnesses  to  the  abuses ;  you  have  seen  our  towns 
crowded  with  furious  and  drunken  savages ;  our 
streets  flowing  with  their  blood ;  their  arms  and 
clothing  bartered  for  the  liquor  that  destroys 
them,  and  their  miserable  women  and  children 
enduring  all  the  extremities  of  cold  and  hunger. 
So  destructive  has  the  progress  of  intemperance 
been  among  them  that  whole  villages  have  been 
swept  away.  A  miserable  remnant  is  all  that  re- 
mains to  mark  the  names  and  situations  of  nianv 

Map  of  Indiana  at  Time  of  Admission  in  1816. 
—By  E.  V.  Shock  ley. 

numerous  and  warlike  tribes.  In  the  energetic 
language  of  one  of  their  orators,  it  is  a  dreadful 
conflagration  which  spreads  misery  and  desola- 

tion  throughout   the   counlry   and    threatens   the 
annihilation  of  the  whole  race." 

At  one  time  a  law  existed  forljidding  the  sale 
of  li(|uor  to  savages,  but  no  law  and  no  appeal 



JOHN  MtU4M  IN  *» 

The  First  Puhlished  Map  uf  Indiana  State,  1S17.  The 
same  territorj'  is  occupied  as  at  tlie  time  of  the  ad- 
mission, but  by  this  date  seven  more  countie*  were 
created  by  subdivision. 

was  sufficient  to  counteract  the  cupidity  of  those 
who  floin"ished  1)V  the  traffic. 

The  Passing  of  Governor  Harrison. —  I'or 
twelve  years  Governor  Flarrison  sustained  a  most 
intimate  relation  to  the  aft'airs  of  Indiana  Terri- 
tory, he  being  by  far  the  most  conspicuous  figure 
of  that  period  of  our  history.  By  virtue  of  his 
nfilitar\-  experience  and  ability  he  K)gically  be- 
came a  leader  in  the  western  country  when  the 
outbreak  of  war  threatened  the  frontier.  In 
August,  1812,  he  was  asked  by  Keninckx  to  take 
chief  command  of  all  the  troojis  raised  there,  and 
this,  in  view  of  the  military  talent  and  ;unbilion 
existing  in  Kentucky.  Harrison  regarded  as  tlie 
most  flattering  appointment  he  lia<l  ever  re- 

.-\uto1)iographical    letter. 



A  little  later  he  was  made  a  brigadier-general 
in  the  United  States  army  and  on  September  17, 
1812,  he  was  appointed  to  the  command  of  the 
whole  army  of  the  northwest  with  large  discre- 
tion as  to  his  military  plans  and  movements.  This 
ended  his  civil  relation  to  Indiana,  Secretary 
John  Gibson  succeeding  him  as  acting-gover- 
nor until  the  appointment  of  Governor  Posey  in 
February  of  1813.  The  part  he  subsequently 
played  in  the  war,  culminating  in  the  brilliant 
victory  at  the  Thames  which  secured  safety  to 
the  northwest,  belongs  to  the  larger  history  of 
the  country.  He  retired  from  military  service  in 
1814  and  became  a  citizen  of  Ohio. 

Militarism. — In  this  chapter  it  has  been 
shown  that  during  the  first  twelve  or  thirteen 
years  of  the  territory's  existence  the  element  of 
danger  and  violence  from  without  was  a  factor 
in  the  territorial  life.  This  danger,  arising  from 
tlie  hostility  of  the  Indians,  and  which  culmi- 
nated in  the  war  of  1812,  was  a  deterrent  to  set- 
tlement and  growth,  especially  in  the  war  period, 
when  many  who  were  already  on  the  ground 
temporarily  forsook  their  homes.  This  situation, 
following  the  militarism  of  the  revolutionary 
times,  kept  alive  the  question  of  a  militia  system 
for  self-defense.  This  was  Governor  Harri- 
son's most  famous  hobby.  In  his  advocacy  of 
schools  for  popular  education,  he  pleaded  that 
military  branches,  to  be  connected  with  such 
schools,  be  not  forgotten.  His  theory  was  that 
even  the  masters  in  the  lower  schools  should  be 
obliged  to  qualify  themselves  to  give  instructions 
in  military  evolutions,  while  the  Vincennes  Uni- 
versity should  have  a  professor  of  tactics,  "in 
which  all  the  sciences  connected  with  the  art  of 
war  may  be  taught"  (Dillon).  He  also  recom- 
mended, at  another  time,  that  camps  of  discipline 
be  established  "for  instructing  those  who  are  al- 
ready capable  of  bearing  arms  ;"  that  there  should 
be  ])n)fcssors  of  tactics  in  all  seminaries,  and 
that  "even  the  amusements  of  the  children  should 
resemble  the  Gymnasia  of  the  Greeks,  that  they 
may  grow  up  in  llie  ])ractise  of  those  exercises 
which  will  enable  them  to  bear  with  the  duties  of 
the  camp  and  the  lalxirs  of  the  field."* 

*  Harrison's   letter  to   Governor   .Scott,   of   Kentncky. 

The  first  statutes  passed  in  the  territory  (1807) 
include  an  elaborate  militia  law  covering  thirty- 
eight  pages.  By  its  provisions,  every  able-bodied 
white  male  citizen  (with  certain  exemptions),  be- 
tween the  ages  of  eighteen  to  forty-five  years, 
was  compelled  to  be  of  the  militia  and  to  provide 
himself  with  "a  good  musket,  a  sufficient  bayonet 
and  belt,  or  a  fusee,  two  spare  flints,  a  knap-sack 
and  a  pouch,  with  a  box  therein,  to  contain  not 
less  than  twenty-four  cartridges  ...  or  a 
good  rifle,  knapsack,  pouch  and  powder-horn, 
with  twenty  balls  suited  to  the  bore  of  his  rifle, 
and  a  quarter  of  a  pound  of  powder."  A  dragoon 
was  to  furnish  his  own  horse,  saddle  and  bridle, 
and  holster  with  pistol.  Officers  were  to  have  a 
sword  or  hanger  and  "espontoons,"  and  to  wear 
"some  cheap  uniforms  at  musters."  The  militia 
equipment  was  exempt  from  seizure  in  cases  of 
debt.  Company  musters  were  to  be  held  every 
two  months ;  battalion  musters  once  a  year,  and 
regimental  musters  once  a  year.  For  failure  to 
attend  these  musters,  officers  were  subject  to  a 
fine  of  two  to  twenty  dollars  and  privates  to  one 
that  might  range  from  one  to  six  dollars,  though 
these  could  be  remitted  for  good  cause  shown. 
The  fines  were  to  be  applied  to  the  purchase  of 
drums,  fifes  and  colors  and  to  the  pay  of  offi- 
cers. The  military  training  was  to  be  by  "the 
rules  and  instructions"  of  Baron  Steuben,  the 
famous  drill-master  of  Revolutionary  days.  The 
exempts  from  this  militia  service  were  the  judges 
and  clerk  of  the  Supreme  Court,  the  attorney- 
general,  ministers  of  the  gospel,  keepers  of  jails 
and  "such  other  persons  as  are  exempt  by  the  law 
of  the  United  States."  By  the  incorporation  act, 
establishing  Vincennes  University,  the  faculty 
and  students  of  that  institution  were  exempted. 

Notwithstanding  Governor  Harrison's  views 
as  to  the  importance  of  military  training,  and  the 
aim  at  efficiency  implied  by  the  long  law  cited 
and  others  that  were  passed,  the  people  did  not 
run  to  military  zeal.  During  the  war  with  Eng- 
land, indeed,  the  spur  of  necessity  developed  the 
military  spirit,  but  prior  to  that  crisis,  the  status 
of  the  militia  fell  far  below  the  governor's  ap- 
proval, and  after  the  period  of  actual  danger 
passed  the  whole  system  dwindled  in  eft'ectiveness 
until  it  became  a  laughing-stock. 



I      General  Conditions  in  1815. — When,  on  the 
1 14th  of  December,  1815,  the  Territorial  Legisla- 
ture laid  before   Congress   a   memorial  praying 
-  that  the  way  be  opened  for  its  admission  into  the 
'  Union  of  States,  it  had  a  population  of  63,897, 
I  distributed  over  thirteen  counties.     There  were 
I  arguments  for  and  against  statehood,  the  ques- 
tion of  an  increased  tax  upon  the  citizens  being 
[an  offset  to  the  advantages  of  independent  self- 
I  government,  and  the  memorial  was  not  a  direct 
request  for  admission  but   for  a  convention  of 
delegates  from  the  several  counties,  to  be  elected 
:by  order  of  Congress,  such  convention  to  deter- 
;  mine  "whether  it  will  be  expedient  or  inexpedient 
to   go   into   a    State   government,"    and   be    em- 
i  powered  to  form  "a  Constitution  and  frame  of 
government"  if  deemed  expedient. 

The  Enabling  Act. — The  result  of  this  re- 
quest was  an  act  of  Congress,  known  as  the  "En- 
abling Act."  As  no  existing  history  of  Indiana 
includes,  to  our  knowledge,  the  text  of  this  im- 
portant and  formative  instrument,  we  here  pre- 
sent it  in  full : 

[  "An  act  to  enable  the  people  of  the  Indiana  Territory 
ito  form  a  Constitution  and  State  government,  and  for 
the  admission  of  such  State  into  the  Union  on  equal 
footing  with  the  original  States.  (Approved  April  19, 

"Section  1.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House 
[of  Representatives  of  the  United  States  of  American 
•  Congress  assembled,  That  the  inhabitants  of  the  Terri- 
itory  of  Indiana  be,  and  they  are  hereby  authorized,  to 
i  form  for  themselves  a  Constitution  and  State  govern- 
ment, and  to  assume  such  name  as  they  shall  deem 
'  proper ;  and  the  said  State  when  formed  shall  be  ad- 
mitted into  the  Union  upon  the  same  footing  with  the 
.original  States,  in  all  respects  whatsoever. 
;  "Sec.  2.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  said 
j  State  shall  consist  of  all  the  territory  included  within 
the  following  boundaries,  to-wit :  Bounded  on  the  east 
by  the  meridian  line  which  forms  the  western  boundary 
jof  the  State  of  Ohio;  on  the  south,  by  the  river  Ohio, 
from  the  mouth  of  the  Great  Miami  river  to  the  mouth 
of  the  river  Wabash  ;  on  the  west,  by  a  line  drawn  along 
the  middle  of  the  Wabash,  from  its  mouth  to  a  point 
: where  a  due  north  line  drawn  from  the  town  of  Vin- 
cennes  would  last  touch  the  northwestern  shore  of  the 
said  river;  and  from  thence,  by  a  due  north  line,  until 
the  same  shall  intersect  an  east  and  west  line  drawn 
through  a  point  ten  miles  north  of  the  southern  extreme 
of  Lake  Michigan;  on  the  north,  by  the  said  east  and 
west  line,  until  the  same  shall  intersect  the  first  men- 
tioned meridian  line,  which  forms  the  western  boundary 
of  the  State  of  Ohio;  provided,  that  the  convention 
hereinafter  provided  for,  when  formed,  shall  ratify  the 
boundaries  aforesaid  ;  otherwise,  they  shall  be  and  re- 
iHiain  as  now  prescribed  by  the  ordinance  for  the  govern- 

'  69 

ment  of  the  territory  northwest  of  the  river  Ohio-  pro- 
vided also,  that  the  said  States  shall  have  concurrent 
jurisdiction  on  the  river  Wabash,  with  the  Statu  to  be 
tormed  west  thereof,  so  far  as  the  said  river  sliall  form 
a  common  boundary  to  both. 

;'Sec.  3  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  all  male 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  who  shall  have  arrived 
at  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  and  resided  within  the 
said  territory  at  least  one  year  previous  to  the  dav  of 
election,  and  shall  have  paid  a  county  or  territorial  tax  • 
and  all  persons  having  in  otiicr  respects  the  legal  quali- 
hcations  to  vote  for  representatives  in  the  General  As- 
sembly of  the  said  Territorv,  be.  and  they  are  hereby 
authorized  to  choose  representatives  to  form  a  conven- 
tion, who  shall  be  apportioned  amongst  the  several 
counties  within  the  said  Territorv,  according  to  the  ap- 
portionment made  by  the  Legislature  thereof,  at  their 
last  session,  to-wit:  From  the  countv  of  Wayne  four 
representatives;  from  the  countv  of  Franklin,  five  rep- 
resentatives; from  the  county  of  Dearborn,  three  rep- 
resentatives; from  the  countv  of  Switzerland,  one 
representative;  from  the  countv  of  Jefferson,  three  rep- 
resentatives ;  from  the  county  of  Clark,  five  representa- 
tives ;  from  the  county  of  Harrison,  five  representatives  ; 
from  the  county  of  Washington,  five  representatives; 
from  the  county  of  Knox,  five  representatives;  from 
the  county  of  Gibson,  four  representatives;  from  the 
county  of  Posey,  one  representative;  from  the  countv 
of  Warrick,  one  representative,  and  from  the  county 
of  Perry,  one  representative.  And  the  election  for 
the  representatives  aforesaid  shall  be  holden  on  the 
second  Monday  of  May,  one  thousand  eight  hundred 
and  sixteen,  throughout  the  several  counties  in  tiie  said 
Territory,  and  shall  be  conducted  in  the  same  manner 
and  under  the  same  penalties,  as  prescribed  by  the  laws 
of  said  Territory,  regulating  elections  therem  for  the 
members  of  the  House  of  Representatives. 

"Sec.  4.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  tlie  mem- 
bers of  the  convention,  thus  duly  elected,  be.  and  they 
are  hereby  authorized  to  meet  at  the  seat  of  the  govern- 
ment of  the  said  Territory,  on  the  second  Monday  of 
June  next;  which  convention,  when  met,  shall  first  de- 
termine, by  a  majority  of  the  whole  numlier  elected, 
whether  it  be  or  be  not  expedient  at  that  time  to  form 
a  Constitution  and  State  government  for  the  peojile 
within  the  said  Territory;  and  if  it  be  deemed  more 
expedient,  the  said  convention  shall  provide  by  ordi- 
nance for  electing  representatives  to  form  a  Constitu- 
tion or  frame  of  government,  which  said  representatives 
shall  be  chosen  in  such  manner,  and  in  such  proportion, 
and  shall  meet  at  such  time  and  jilace,  as  shall  be  pre- 
scribed l)y  the  said  ordinance  ;  and  shall  then  form,  for 
the  people  of  said  Territory,  a  Constitution  and  State 
government :  Provided,  That  the  same,  wlieiu-ver 
formed,  shall  I)e  re])ublican  and  not  repu.miaut  to  tlmsc 
articles  of  the  ordinance  of  the  thirteenth  of  July,  one 
thousand  seven  hundred  and  eighty-seven,  which  are 
declared  to  be  irrevocable  between  the  original  States 
and  the  people  of  the  States  of  the  territory  northwest 
(if  the  river  Ohio;  excei)ting  so  much  of  said  articles 
as  relates  to  the  boundaries  of  the  States  therein  to  be 

"Sec.  5.  .Ind  be  it  further  cihulcd.  Tiiat  until  the 
next  general  census  sliall  he  taken,  the  said  State  shall 
be  entitled  to  one  Representative  in  the  House  of  Rep- 
resentatives of  the  United  States. 

"Sec.  6.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  follow- 
ing propositions  be,  and  the  same  are  hereby  offered  to 



the  convention  of  the  said  Territory  of  Indiana,  when 
formed,  for  their  free  acceptance  or  rejection,  which, 
if  accepted  by  the  convention,  shall  be  obligatory  upon 
the  United  States  : 

"First.  That  the  section  numbered  sixteen,  in  every 
township,  and  when  such  section  has  been  sold,  granted, 
or  disposed  of,  other  lands,  equivalent  thereto,  and  most 
contiguous  to  the  same,  shall  be  granted  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  such  township  for  the  use  of  schools. 

"Second.  That  all  salt  springs  within  the  said  Ter- 
ritory, and  the  land  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  same, 
together  with  such  other  lands  as  may,  by  the  President 
of  the  United  States,  he  deemed  necessary  and  proper 
for  working  the  said  salt  springs,  not  exceeding  in  the 
whole  tiie  quantity  contained  in  thirty-six  entire  sec- 
tions, shall  be  granted  to  tiie  said  State,  for  the  use  of 
the  people  of  the  said  State,  the  same  to  be  used  under 
such  terms,  conditions  and  regulations  as  the  Legisla- 
ture of  the  State  shall  direct:  Provided,  The  said 
Legislature  shall  never  sell  or  lease  the  same,  for  a 
longer  period  than  ten  years  at  any  one  time. 

"Third.  That  five  per  cent,  of  the  net  proceeds  of 
the  lands  lying  within  the  said  Territory,  and  which 
shall  be  sold  by  Congress  from  and  after  the  first  day 
of  December  next,  after  deducting  all  expenses  incident 
to  the  same,  shall  be  reserved  for  making  public  roads 
and  canals,  of  which  three-fifths  shall  be  applied  to 
those  objects  within  the  said  State,  under  the  direction 
of  the  Legislature  thereof,  and  two-fifths  to  the  making 
of  a  road  or  roads  leading  to  the  said  State  under  the 
direction  of  Congress. 

"Fourth.  That  one  entire  township,  which  shall  be 
designated  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  in 
addition  to  the  one  heretofore  reserved  for  that  pur- 
pose, shall  be  reserved  for  the  use  of  a  seminary  of 
learning  and  vested  in  the  Legislature  of  the  said  State, 
to  be  appropriated  solely  to  the  use  of  such  seminary  by 
the  said  Legislature. 

"Fifth.  That  four  sections  of  land  be,  and  the  same 
are  hereby  granted  to  the  said  State,  for  the  purpose  of 
fixing  their  seat  of  government  thereon,  which  four  sec- 
tions shall,  under  the  direction  of  the  Legislature  of  said 
State,  be  located  at  any  time  in  such  township  and 
range  as  the  Legislature  aforesaid  may  select,  on  such 
lands  as  may  hereafter  be  acquired  by  the  United  States 
from  the  Indian  tribes  within  said  Territory :  Pro- 
vided, That  such  location  shall  he  made  prior  to  the 
public  sale  of  the  lands  of  the  United  States,  surround- 
ing such  location  :  And,  provided  always,  That  the  five 
foregoing  propositions  herein  offered  are  on  the  condi- 
tions, that  the  convention  of  the  said  State  shall  provide 
by  an  ordinance  irrevocable,  without  the  consent  of  the 
United  States,  that  every  and  each  tract  of  land  sold  by 
the  United  States,  from  and  after  the  first  day  of  De- 
cember next,  shall  be  and  remain  exempt  from  any  tax, 
laid  by  order  or  under  any  authority  of  the  State, 
whether  for  State,  county  or  township,  or  any  other 
purpose  whatever,  for  the  term  of  five  years  from  and 
after  the  day  of  sale." 

Analysis. — A  comparison  between  the  En- 
abling Act  and  the  Ordinance  of  1787  is  not  with- 
out interest,  as  both  instruments  establish  certain 
relations  between  the  State  and  the  Nation.  The 
(  )r(iinance  determines  for  all  time  the  general 
form  r)f  government,  the  civil  rights  of  citizens 
and  ;in  echicalional  iiohoN',  and  il  defines  certain 
boundaries  for  States  that  may  be  carved  out  of 
the  Northwest  Territory.  The  b'n.abling  Act 
lixes  the  Ixiundaries  of  the  proposed  ."^tate,  mod- 

ifying in  two  instances  the  delinition  as  set  forth 
in  the  Ordinance.  The  latter  made  the  west 
boundary  the  Wabash  river  from  the  Ohio  to 
Vincennes  and  a  straight  north  and  south  line 
beginning  at  Vincennes.  As  by  this  the  mean- 
ders of  the  river  northward  from  Vincennes  were 
west  of  the  line,  a  long,  irregular  tract,  broadest 
in  Sullivan  and  Vigo  counties  was  thrown  into 
Illinois.  The  modification  was  that  this  line,  in- 
stead of  extending  to  Vincennes,  begins  at  the 
river  at  a  point  in  Vigo  county  where  it  finally 
leaves  the  line,  thus  making  the  stream  the  bound- 
ary from  that  point  to  the  Ohio. 

On  the  north  the  Ordinance  had  designated  the 
southern  extremity  of  Lake  Michigan  as  the  lat- 
itude for  the  dividing  east  and  west  line  should 
a  State  to  the  north  be  erected.  The  later  act 
fixed  this  dividing  line  ten  miles  farther  north. 
The  reason  for  this,  doubtless,  was  for  the  pur- 
pose of  giving  this  State  the  opportunity  of  lake 

The  good  will  of  the  ordinance,  which  stipu- 
lated that  "schools  and  the  means  of  education 
shall  forever  be  encouraged,"  was  substantially 
and  generously  backed  by  the  act  which  donated 
outright  one-thirty-sixth  of  all  the  land  in  the 
Territory  for  the  general  use  of  schools,  besides 
one  entire  township  for  a  seminary  of  higher 
learning.  It  also  donated  all  the  salt  springs  with 
certain  adjacent  lands,  and  four  sections  for  a 
site  for  the  capital.  Finally,  it  donated  five  per 
cent,  of  the  proceeds  from  the  sale  of  all  lands, 
to  be  applied  to  the  building  of  roads  and  canals. 
On  the  whole,  it  looks  like  a  pretty  liberal  dower, 
and  the  chief  return  exacted  was  that  the  lands 
sold  by  the  government  should  be  tax-free  for 
five  years. 

Ordinance  of  Acceptance. — The  convention 
authorized  by  this  act  decided  that  the  contem- 
plated statehood  was  "expedient,"  and  under  date 
of  June  29,  1816,  it  submitted  to  Congress  the 
following  ordinance  of  acceptance  : 

"Be  it  ordained  by  the  Representatives  of  the  people 
of  the  Territory  of  Indiana,  in  convention  met  at  Cory- 
don,  on  Monday,  the  tenth  day  of  June,  in  the  year  of 
our  Lord  eighteen  liundred  and  sixteoi.  That  we  do,  for 
ourselves  and  our  posterity,  agree,  determine,  declare 
and  ordain  that  we  will,  and  do  hereby,  accept  the  prop- 
ositions of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  as  made 
and  contained  in  their  act  of  the  nineteenth  day  of 
April,  eighteen  hundred  and  sixteen,  entitled.  'An  act  to 
enable  tlie  people  of  the  Indiana  Territory  to  form_  a 
State  government  and  Constitution,  and  for  the  admis- 



sion  of  such  state  into  the  Union,  on  an  equal  footing 
with  the  original  States.' 

"And  we  do,  further,  for  ourselves  and  our  posterity, 
hereby  ratify,  confirm  and  establish  the  boundaries  of 
the  said  State  of  Indiana,  as  fixed,  prescribed,  laid  down 
and  established  in  the  Act  of  Congress  aforesaid;  and 
we  do  also,  further,  for  ourselves  and  our  posterity, 
hereby  agree,  determine,  declare  and  ordain,  that  each 
and  every  tract  of  land  sold  by  the  United  States,  lying 
within  the  said  State,  and  which  shall  l^e  sold  from  and 
after  the  first  day  of  December  next,  shall  be  and  re- 
main exempt  from  any  tax  laid  by  order,  or  under  any 
authority  of  the  said  State  of  Indiana,  or  by  or  under 
the  authority  of  the  general  assembly  thereof,  whether 
for  State,  county  or  township,  or  any  other  purpose 
whatsoever,  for  the  term  of  five  years  from  and  after 
the  day  of  sale  of  any  such  tract  of  land;  and  we  do, 
moreover,  for  ourselves  and  our  posterity,  hereby  de- 
clare and  ordain  that  this  ordinance,  and  every  part 
thereof,  shall  forever  be  and  remain  irrevocable  and  in- 
violate, without  the  consent  of  the  United  States,  in 
Congress  assembled,  first  had  and  obtained  for  the 
alteration  thereof,  or  any  part  thereof. 

"Jonathan  Jennings. 
President  of  the  Convention. 

"Attest : 

"William  Hendricks,  Secretarv. 

"June  29,  1816." 

The  State  was  formally  admitted  to  the  Union 
December  11,  1816,  though  the  State  government 
actually  began  with  the  qualifying  of  the  State 
officers  on  November  7. 

Federal  Acts  Relating  to  Indiana. — The  Fed- 
eral acts  relating  to  the  territory  now  including 
Indiana,  up  to  the  Enabling  Act,  which  concerns 
Indiana  alone,  were,  the  Ordinance. of  1787;  two 
supplementary  acts  respecting  the  governmeni, 
passed  in  1789  and  1792;  an  act  to  divide  the 
territory  in  1800,  and  another  for  further  divi- 
sion in  1809;  and,  finally,  the  Enabling  Act.  The 
Ordinance  of  1787  was  the  great  formative  in- 
strument of  the  whole  territory,  out  of  which  five 
States  were  made.  The  acts  of  1789  and  1792 
are  of  minor  historical  importance.  The  acts  of 
division  have  a  historical  bearing  of  interest  to 
one  who  wishes  to  trace  the  preliminary  stages 
through  which  we  have  passed.  The  Enabling 
Act  is  distinctive  as  revealing  the  attitude  and 
policy  of  the  nation  toward  statehood.  Th<T  full 
text  of  these  and  of  Virginia's  acts  relative  to 
the  cession  of  the  territory  to  the  United  States 
may  be  found  in  the  "Legislative  and  State  Man- 
ual for  1899-1900."  For  some  reason,  pi-obably 
oversight,  the  legislative  memorial  asking  for  the 
Enabling  Act  is  not  included  in  this  volume,  but 
it  may  be  found  in  large  part  in  Dillon,  p.  554. 
These  references  are  given  because  more  acces- 
sible than  the  Federal  and  State  documents. 


Members  of  the  Convention. —  ihe  spectacle 
in  history  of  a  grou[)  of  men  entrusted  to  create 
an  instrument  that  is  to  give  shape  and  direction 
throughout  the  future  to  a  sovereign  State,  is 
an  interesting  one.  F'or  the  purpose  of  framing 
a  constitution  (if  deemed  desirable)  Indiana 
elected  forty-three  delegates  from  the  thirteen 
counties  that  were  stretched  across  the  southern 
part  of  the  State  from  Knox  to  W'.iyne.  These 
delegates  represented  a  mixed  ])opulation  of 
about  64,000,  hailing  from  a  numljer  of  State> 
east  and  south.     Like  the  jjoimlaiion,  the  dele- 

Seal  of  the  State.     (See  page  193.) 

gates  were  also  of  mixed  character.  At  least  a 
few  of  them  were  men  of  education  and  notable 
ability;  of  the  major  ])art  of  them  we  know  but 
little  todav,  and  some,  we  know,  were  vniedu- 
cated,  but  men  of  sturdy  intelligence  and  good 
sense.  The  most  trustworthy  characterization  of 
them  that  we  have  is  by  John  1'..  l^illon.  who, 
when  be  wrote,  was  more  than  a  half  ceniurv 
nearer  to  that  generation.     He  says: 

"The  con\enlion  that  formed  tlie  lirst  consti- 
tution of  the  State  of  Indiana  was  composed, 
mainlv,  of  clear-minded,  unpretending  men  ot 
common  sense,  whose  i)atriotisin  was  un(|uestion- 
able  and  who.-^e  morals  were  fair.  Their  faniil- 
iaritv    with   the   theories   of   the    Declaration    of 



American  Independence,  their  territorial  experi-  returns  in  1815).  This  brought  Corydon,  the 
ence  under  the  provisions  of  the  Ordinance  of  capital,  near  the  center  of  population,  but  a  little 
1787,  and  their  knowledge  of  the  principles  of      to  the  west,  there  being,  not  counting  Harrison 

the  Constitution  of  the  United  States  were  suf^- 
cient,  when  combined,  to  lighten  materially  their 
labors  in  the  great  work  of  forming  a  constitu- 
tion for  a  new  State."''' 

A  list  of  these  men  and  the  representation  of 
the  various  counties  may  iiere  be  given : 

Wayne  county,  four  members — Jeremiah  Cox, 
Patrick  1  laird.  Joseph  Holman  and  Hugh  Cull. 

Franklin  county,  five  members — William  H. 
Eads.  James  Brownlee,  Enoch  McCarty.  Robert 
Hanna,  jr.,  and  James  Noble. 

Dearborn  county,  three  members — James  Dill, 
Solomon  Manwaring  and  Ezra  Ferris. 

Switzerland  county,  one  member  —  W' illiani 

Jefferson  county,  three  members — David  H. 
Maxwell,  Samuel  Smock  and  Nathaniel  Hunt. 

Clark  county,  five  members — Jonathan  Jen- 
nings, James  Scott,  Thomas  Carr,  John  K.  Gar- 
ham  and  James  Lemon. 

Harrison  county,  five  members — Dennis  Pen- 
nington, Davis  Floyd,  Daniel  C.  Lane,  John 
Boone  and  Patrick  Shields. 

Washington  county,  five  members — John  De- 
Pauw,  Samuel  Milroy,  Robert  Mclntire,  William 
Lowe  and  William  Graham. 

Knox  county,  five  members — John  Johnson, 
John  Badollet,  William  Polke,  Benjamin  Parke 
and  John  Benefiel. 

Gibson  county,  four  members — David  Robb, 
James  Smith,  Alexander  Devin  and  Frederick 

Warrick  county,  one  member — Daniel  Grass. 

Perry  county,  one  member — Charles  Polke. 

Posey  county,  one  member — Dann  Lynn.f 

Jonathan  Jennings,  delegate  from  Clark 
county,  was  chosen  president  of  the  convention, 
and  William  Hendricks,  of  Jefferson  county,  not 
a  dele-gate,  was  made  secretary. 

Distribution  of  Population. —  lliis  representa- 
tion indicates  tin-  distribution  of  ])0]^ulation  in 
the  State.  In  round  figures  this  was  as  follows : 
Knox,  8.068;  TM-rniklin.  7.v370:  Washington, 
7,.'^17;  Clark,  7.150;  Harrison,  6,975;  Wayne, 
6.407;  Gibson.  5,.^.¥);  Dearborn,  4,424;  Jefferson. 
4,270;  Switzerland,  1,8,^2;  Perry,  1.720;  Gibson. 
1.619;    Warrick.     1.415;    total' 6.^.895     (offfcial 

*  Dillon,  p.   5.S9.       t  Ih.,   p.    556. 

county  itself,  25,469  to  the  westward  and  31,451 

Elements  of  the  Constitution. — The  elements 
that  were  to  enter  into  the  constitution  are  in- 
dicated by  the  various  questions  that  were  re-    • 
ferred  to  a  dozen  or  more  special  committees, 
these  questions  being  relative  to 

1.  A  bill  of  rights. 

2.  The  distribution  of  the  powers  of  govern- 

3.  The  legislative  department  of  the  govern- 

4.  The  executive  department. 

5.  The  judicial  department. 

6.  Impeachments. 

7.  General  provisions. 

8.  Revision  of  Constitution. 

9.  Change  of  government  from  territorial  to 
State,  preservation  of  laws  already  existing, 
court  questions,  etc. 

10.  Education.  * 

11.  Militia.  I 

12.  Elective  franchise  and  elections.  P 
To  this  list  of  committees  appointed  by  Pres- 
ident Jennings  at  the  beginning  of  the  convention, 
was  added,  later,  one  on  prisons  and  another  on 
general  revisions.  ■ 

Glancing  over  the  completed  constitution,  cer- 
tain features  may  be  noticed.  The  bill  of  rights 
is  but  a  re-statement  of  principles  that  are  the 
sacred  inheritance  of  all  Americans  and  which 
appear  in  numerous  instruments.  The  "rights" 
as  they  are  set  forth  in  the  Ordinance  of  1787 
here  reappeared  in  an  amplified  form.  Liberty 
of  conscience  and  freedom  from  all  religious 
domination  ;  the  right  of  trial  by  jury  ;  the  rights 
of  the  individual  to  security  of  person  and  prop- 
erty against  "unreasonable  searches  and  seiz- 
in-es" ;  freedom  of  the  press  and  free  communi- 
cation of  thoughts  and  opinions  ;  the  right  to  full 
and  fair  hearing  in  the  coinis ;  the  right  to  "as- 
semble together  in  a  peaceable  manner"  and  to 
be  heard  of  the  governing  powers  when  griev- 
ances exist  are  the  chief  guards  against  encroach- 
ments on  the  free  status  of  the  citizen. 

The  separation  of  the  government  into  three 
distinct  departments,  the  legislative,  the  execu- 
tive and  the  judicial ;  the  division  of  the  legisla- 



tive  authority  into  two  branches,  a  Senate  and 
a  House  of  Representatives ;  a  Governor,  with 
a  wide  range  of  powers,  a  Lieutenant-Governor, 
and  a  Secretary,  Treasurer  and  Auditor  of  State 
as  the  chief  executive  officers  ;  the  division  of  the 
judiciary  into  Supreme,  Circuit  and  inferior 
courts — in  brief  the  general  framework  of  gov- 
ernment— was  in  conformity  with  an  estabhshed 

A  provision  that  became  a  dead  letter  in  the 
days  of  this  constitution,  although  it  was  also 
inserted  in  the  one  of  1851,  was  compulsory  mi- 
litia service  by  all  free,  able-bodied  white  citizens 
between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five  years, 
barring  certain  exempts. 

The  franchise,  which  in  the  territorial  period 
had  been  restricted  to  freeholders,  was  extended 
to  "every  white  male  citizen  of  the  United  States, 
of  the  age  of  twenty-one  years  and  upwards,  who 
has  resided  in  the  State  one  year." 

In  the  educational  provision  it  was  enjoined 
upon  the  General  Assembly  "to  provide  by  law 
for  the  improvement  of  such  lands  as  are  or 
hereafter  may  be  granted  by  the  United  States 
to  this  State  for  the  use  of  schools,  and  to  apply 
any  funds  which  may  be  raised  from  such  lands 
or  from  any  other  quarter  to  the  accomplishment 
of  the  grand  object  for  which  they  are  or  may 
be  intended."  Also,  "the  General  Assembly  shall, 
from  time  to  time,  pass  such  laws  as  shall  be  cal- 
culated to  encourage  intellectual,  scientifical  and 
agricultural  improvement  by  allowing  rewards 
and  immunities  for  the  promotion  and  improve- 
ment of  arts,  sciences,  commerce,  manufactures 
and  natural  history,  and  to  countenance  and  en- 
courage the  principles  of  humanity,  honesty,  in- 
dustry and  morality."  That  the  framers  of  the 
instrument  were  progressive  and  far-sighted  in 
this  direction  is  especially  shown  by  this  section  : 
"It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  General  Assembly, 
as  soon  as  circumstances  will  permit,  to  provide 
by  law  for  a  general  system  of  education,  as- 
cending in  regular  gradation  from  township 
schools  to  a  state  university,  wherein  tuition  shall 
be  gratis  and  equally  open  to  all."  Provision  was 
also  made  for  public  county  libraries,  the  funds 
for  the  same  to  be  derived  from  the  sales  of  town 
lots  in  county  seats,  not  less  than  ten  per  cent, 
to  be  reserved  from  such  sales. 

A  notable  departure  from  certain  drastic  crim- 
inal laws  that  had  previously  existed  was  a  pro- 

vision for  a  penal  code  "founded  on  the  princi- 
ples of  reformation  and  not  of  vindictive  justice." 
and  another  step  in  the  direction  of  humaneness 
was  the  provision  for  poor  farms  as  asylums 
where  the  unfortunate  might  "find  employment 
and  every  reasonable  comfort,  and  lose  by  their 
usefulness  the  degrading  sense  of  dependence." 
The  question  of  slavery  was  set  finally  at  rest  by 
the  declaration  that  "there  shall  be  neither  slav- 
ery nor  involuntary  servitude  in  this  State,  other- 
wise than  for  the  punishment  of  crimes,  whereof 
the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted."  Fi- 
nally, the  possible  inadequacy  of  this  constitution 
to  the  future  needs  of  the  State  was  clearly  rec- 
ognized and  it  provided  that  every  twelfth  year 
thereafter  the  question  of  a  new  constitutional 
convention  should  be  submitted  to  the  people. 

All  in  all,  the  constitution  of  1816  was  an  ad- 
mirable starting  point  for  a  State  that  was 
headed  in  the  direction  of  civil  and  humanitarian 
progress  and  much  credit  is  due  to  the  intelli- 
gence and  enlightenment  of  the  men  who  laid 
this  foundation,  particularly  in  the  moral  provi- 


First  Election;  The  Machinery  Set  in  Mo- 
tion.— On  the  first  Monday  .in  August.  1816, 
the  time  being  set  by  the  constitution,  a  general 
election  was  held  and  Jonathan  Jennings,  per- 
haps the  most  conspicuous  man  in  the  State  at 
that  time,  was  chosen  governor  over  Thomas 
Posey,  his  only  competitor.  Jennings  load  been 
the  territorial  delegate  to  Congress  and  Posev 
was  the  last  territorial  governor.  Christopher 
Harrison  was  made  lieutenant-governor  and 
William  Hendricks  was  elected  congressman. 
Harrison  was  one  of  the  picturc'Sf|uc  characters 
of  our  history  who,  prior  to  his  advent  into  po- 
litical life,  had  dwelt  in  hermit  solitude  in  his 
cabin  on  the  hills  of  the  Ohio,  near  where  Han- 
over stands.  William  Hendricks,  afterward  gov- 
ernor, is  regarded  as  one  of  the  ablest  men  of 
early  Indiana. 

The  Legislature,  consisting  of  ten  senators  and 
twenty-nine  representatives,  convened  on  No- 
vember 4.  1816.  with  John  Paul,  of  Madison, 
presiding  over  the  Senate  and  Isaac  Blackford, 
of  \'incennes,  as  Speaker  of  the  House.  The 
governor's  message  was  general  in  character  and 
a  reflection  of  the  principles  set  forth  in  the  con- 



stitution,  revealing  no  particular  initiative.  I  he 
Legislature  elected  James  Noble  and  Waller  Tay- 
lor United  States  Senators;  Robert  New,  Sec- 
retary of  State;  William  H.  Lilley,  Auditor,  and 
Daniel  C.  Lane.  Treasurer,  and  with  this  person- 
nel the  ship  of  State  was  launched. 

Conditions  and  Needs  as  Shown  by  Jennings' 
Messages. — Jennings,  during  his  tenure  as 
Governor,  delivered  six  messages  to  the  Legisla- 
ture. .\  review  of  these  as  an  index  to  the  con- 
dition and  needs  of  the  State  shows  that  the 
questions  up])erniost  were  :  Revenue  and  finances, 
internal  improvement,  education  and  the  State 

Of  the  first  item  he  says  in  his  message  of 
December  7,  1819:  "The  system  under  which  the 
revenue  is  assessed  and  collected  requires  a  thor- 
ough change  to  insure  an  impartial  collection,  as 
well  as  prompt  payment  into  the  treasury,"  and 
adds:  "The  embarrassed  situation  of  our  circu- 
lating medium  has  produced  effects  distressing 
to  the  community,  especially  to  the  farming  in- 
terest and  those  who  are  in  debt  to  the  United 
States  for  the  purchase  of  lands" ;  the  particular 
explanation  of  this  being  that  national  bank  pa- 
])er  only  was  received  at  par  by  the  government, 
whereas  the  circvdating  medium  that  came  to 
hand  was  a  depreciated  paper  ctu'rency.  and  this, 
when  paid  for  lands,  was  at  a  loss  of  from  5 
to  10  per  cent.  The  explanation  given  of  pre- 
vailing hard  times  was  that  the  war  with  England 
had  thrown  upon  the  cotmtry  "a  greater  quantity 
of  circulating  medium  than  we  have  been  acctis- 
tomed  to  witness,"  with  the  result  that  there  had 
followed  much  speculation  and  debt,  while  the 
susi)ension  ol  s])ecie  payment  had  given  rise  to 
speculation  in  l)ank  paper,  which  had  been  "prac- 
ticed upon  the  unwary  and  unadvised  to  an  enor- 
mous extent."  In  his  message  of  1820  he  speaks 
ot  the  difficulty  in  collecting  taxes  and  states 
thai  the  average  annual  revenue  from  taxation 
since  1816  had  been  $1.^,000,  whereas  the  ex- 
penditures had  averaged  $17,000,  and  it  had  ])een 
necessary  to  meet  the  deficit  ])y  making  loans, 
while  for  the  yi'ar  ])ast  $5,000  remained  unpaid. 
In  1821  the  Legislature  was  convened  a  month 
earlier  than  the  set  time  on  account  of  fmancial 
troubles,  the  bank  of  X'incennes,  from  which  the 
money  h;id  been  borrowed,  making  a  demand  for 
the  p:iyment  of  ,$20.(KK)  of  the  public  debt,  to- 
gt-ther   with   inlere>t    due  on    llir    wliok'   de])l    for 

that  vear.  This  institution  had,  in  1817,  been 
made  the  State  bank,  from  which  the  State  was 
to  secure  its  loans,  but  its  mismanagement  was 
such  that  the  Legislature  of  this  year  (1821-2) 
authorized  legal  proceedings  to  cancel  its  charter. 

In  the  matter  of  internal  improvements,  the 
first  necessity  was  for  more  roads,  but  as  early 
as  1817  the  Governor  urged  the  importance  of 
a  canal  at  the  falls  of  the  Ohio,  and  the  next 
vear  he  indulged  the  "flattering  hope  of  a  speedy 
commencement"  of  that  enterprise,  the  Ohio 
Canal  Company  having  been  incorporated.  For 
revenue  he  advocated  the  selling  of  a  township 
of  land  known  as  "French  Lick,"  which  had  been 
"reserved  and  vested  in  the  State  for  the  use  of 
a  saline,"  but  which  had  proved  of  no  value  for 
salt.  In  this  message  we  find  the  first  germ  of 
the  idea  for  an  internal  improvement  system.  It 
was  in  the  power  of  the  Legislature,  he  argued, 
"to  lay  the  foundation  of  a  system  of  internal 
improvement  co-extensive  with  the  State."  The  3 
per  cent,  fund  if  judiciously  saved  and  invested 
might,  he  maintained,  come  to  yield  $30,000  an- 
nually for  the  making  of  roads  and  canals,  and 
he  stiggested  "substantial  leading  roads"  from 
the  permanent  capital  that  was  to  be  established 
to  "important  points  on  the  limits  of  the  State." 

In  the  message  of  1819  we  find  the  first  sug- 
gestion for  the  institution  that  afterward  became 
Indiana  University.  The  constitution  stipulated 
that  it  should  be  the  duty  of  the  General  Assem- 
bly to  apply  the  funds  from  all  school  lands  to 
school  purposes,  and  the  plan  contemplated  a 
system  of  ascending  from  township  schools  to 
a  state  tiniversity.  In  accordance  with  this,  the 
governor  expressed  the  view  that  "the  seminary 
township,  situated  in  Monroe  county,  would  af- 
ford a  site  combining  the  advantages  of  fertility 
of  soil  with  a  healthy  climate,  as  well  as  a  posi- 
tion sufficiently  central  to  the  various  sections  of 
the  State."  The  enabling  act  of  1816  had  given 
a  township  for  a  State  seminary.  When  the  Con- 
stitutional Convention  was  in  session  a  committee 
was  ai)])ointed  to  select  the  township  and  the 
one  in  the  ])resent  Monroe  county  was  chosen. 
Fhe  law  establishing  the  seminary  was  passed 
January  20,  1820. 

Contemporary  Legislation. — Rexiewing  the 
legislation  that  followed  these  several  messages, 
we  find,  virtually,  the  same  questions  directly 
dealt  with.     (  )ne  of  the  first  laws  of  interest  sets 



the  schedule  of  official  salaries  for  that  day.  The 
governor  was  allowed  $1,000  per  year,  to  be  paid 
quarterly;  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court  and 
the  presidents  of  the  circuit  courts  received  $700 
each:  members  of  the  General  Assembly  were 
given  $2  per  day  for  each  and  every  day's  attend- 
ance, and  $2  for  each  twenty-five  miles  traveled 
by  "the  most  usual  road,"  the  same  being  allowed 
the  president  of  the  Senate  and  the  speaker  of 
the  House.  The  secretary  of  the  Senate  was  to 
have  $4  per  day,  and  the  clerks  of  the  House 
$3.75.  Doorkeepers'  pay  was  $2,  and  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Constitutional  Convention,  important 
as  their  services  would  seem  to  be,  were  allowed 
no  more  than  the  doorkeepers  plus  $2  for  each 
twenty-five  miles  traveled. 

In  the  matter  of  internal  improvements,  there 
was  legislation  on  the  Ohio  Falls  canal,  the  "Ohio 
Canal  Company"  being  incorporated  the  first  leg- 
islative session.  An  act  of  January  22,  1820,  em- 
bodied an  elaborate  scheme  for  permanent  roads, 
which  are  specified  as  follows :  Madison  to  Ver- 
non ;  Lawrenceburg  to  Brookville,  thence  to  Con- 
nersville,  Waterloo,  Centerville  and  Winchester ; 
from  the  Ohio  line  to  Brookville,  thence  to  seat 
of  government  (the  permanent  capital,  presum- 
ably, though  not  yet  located)  ;  Lawrenceburg  to 
Napoleon,  thence  to  seat  of  government ;  New 
Albany  to  Salem ;  McDonald's  Ferry  to  Browns- 
town  ;  Bethlehem  to  Brownstown ;  Rising  Sun  to 
Versailles ;  Brownstown  to  Bloomington,  Madi- 
son to  Brownstown ;  Rockport  to  Vincennes ; 
Corydon  to  Salem ;  New  Albany  to  Corydon. 
thence  to  Mount  Sterling  and  Princeton ;  Madi- 
son to  Versailles ;  Vevay  to  Versailles ;  Evans- 
ville  to  Princeton,  thence  to  White  river ;  Poke 
Patch  through  Boonville  and  Springfield  to  Har- 
mony ;  the  Ohio  line  to  Richmond,  Salisbury  and 
Centerville  to  west  boundary  of  Wayne  county  ; 
Charlestown  to  Corydon  ;  Brookville  to  Versailles 
and  \"ernon  ;  New  Albany  to  Charlestown,  thence 
to  seat  of  justice  of  Scott  county  and  to  Vernon  ; 
New  Albany  through  Palestine  to  Bloomington  ; 
New  Albany  to  Fredericksburg,  Paoli  and  Hin- 
dostan  ;  the  Ohio  line  to  Fairfield  and  Conners- 
ville,  thence  to  seat  of  government :  New  Lon- 
don to  seat  of  Scott  county. 

Education  was  not  forgotten,  though  the  con- 
ditions were  unfavorable  to  the  development  of 
anything  like  a  system,  one  great  obstacle  being 
a  lack  of   funds  to  build  schoolhouses  and  pay 

teachers.  As  said  above,  the  State  Seminary  was 
established  in  1820.  The  same  year  the  Madison 
Academy  was  incorporated,  and  provisions  made 
for  sundry  county  libraries.  During  the  first 
four  years  several  laws,  indeed,  were  passed  for 
the  incorporation  of  academies,  seminaries  and 
library  associations.  As  early  as  1816  steps  were 
taken  to  judiciously  administer  the  school  sec- 
tions, these  being  section  16  of  each  township. 
Superintendents   were   appointed   to   lease   these 

Map  of  Indiana  in  1820,  showing  first  county  organiza- 
tion of  the  purchase  of  1818. 

lands  and  each  lessee  was  required  to  increase 
their  value  by  setting  out,  each  year,  twenty-five 
apple  and  twenty-five  peach  trees,  until  one  hun- 
dred of  each  had  been  planted.  In  1821  a  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  draft  a  l)ill  for  a  general 
system  of  education,  being  instructed  to  guard 
particularly  against  "any  distinction  between  the 
rich  and  the  poor."  This  bill  did  not  appear  in 
the  statutes  until  1824. 

The  system  of  land  assessment  and  taxation 
at  first  adopted  was  essentially  dift'erent  from 
that  adopted  later.  The  assessment  was  so  much 
per  acre,  and  the  adjustment  to  values  was  made 
by  dividing  the  lands  into  fi  second  and  third 



classes.  The  rate  of  assessment  was  very  low, 
running,  in  different  years,  from  80  cents  to  $1.50 
per  hundred  acres  on  first-class  land,  and  from 
40  to  62)-4  cents  on  the  poorer  classes. 

The  legislation  in  a  moral  direction  aimed  at 
various  evils.  There  was  a  law  against  dueling, 
and  one  against  gambling,  directed  against  cer- 
tain games  and  gaming  appliances,  even  forbade 
the  bringing  of  playing  cards  into  the  State  as 
merchandise  under  penalty  of  $3  fine  and  for- 
feiture of  the  cards.  A  drastic  law  against  may- 
hem was  aimed  at  the  brutal  fighting  so  much  in 
vogue  with  the  rougher  element.  Some  of  the 
criminal  laws  retain  the  severity  of  the  territorial 
statutes.  For  rape  or  commerce  with  a  girl  un- 
der ten  years  of  age,  the  penalty  was  death.  For 
sodomy  the  maximum  penalty  was  $500,  impris- 
onment for  five  years  and  one  hundred  stripes  on 
the  bare  back,  besides  which  the  culprit  was  ren- 
dered "infamous  and  incapable  of  giving  evi- 
dence." Barratry  incurred  a  fine  not  exceeding 
$500  and  imprisonment  not  exceeding  three 
months,  a  "barrator"  being  defined  as  one  who 
"frequently  excites  and  stirs  up  suits  and  quar- 
rels, between  citizens  of  this  State,  at  law  or  oth- 
erwise." An  act  for  establishing  a  State  prison 
at  Jeffersonville,  with  an  appropriation  of  $3,000 
for  a  building,  was  passed  January  9,  1821,  and 
a  poor  law  of  the  second  session  (1817-18)  pro- 
vided for  overseers  of  the  poor,  and  for  the 
"farming  out  of  the  poor"  at  public  vendue  or 
outcry!  The  brutal  feature  of  this  is  somewhat 
relieved  when  we  reflect  that  in  the  absence  of 
poorhouses  the  only  other  thing  was  to  place  pau- 
pers, at  public  expense,  with  those  who  would 
assume  their  charge.  They  were  handed  over  to 
the  lowest  bidders,  who  were  entitled  to  the  la- 
bor of  the  able-bodied,  but  jirovisions  were  made 
against  ill-treatment,  and  in  case  of  suit  the  poor 
were  to  be  defended  gratis. 

A  law  of  the  second  session  (Special  Acts, 
1817-18)  alsi)  established  medical  districts  and 
a  board  of  medical  censors  to  be  a])pointed  "for 
the  ])in-])()se  of  examining  and  licensing  physi- 
cians to  ])ractise  in  the  State;"  and  in  1819  the 
".State  Medical  Society  of  Indiana"  was  author- 
ized, with  "])()wer  to  settle  finally  all  difiVrences 
l)etween  llie  distrirt  medical  societies  and  also 
between  individuals  and  the  respective  societies, 
in  cases  of  appeal,  and  to  assign  to  each  district 
society   their  ge()gra])hical   limits." 

An  act  to  authorize  the  choosing  of  a  site  for 
the  permanent  capital  was  enacted  in  1820.  One 
of  January  9,  1821,  authorized  the  survey,  in  con- 
nection with  Illinois,  of  the  line  between  the  two 

A  census  of  1820  showed  that  the  population  of 
the  State  had  increased  within  four  years  from 
about  64,000  to  147,178,  and  the  inhabitants  of 
the  new  State  "began  to  open  new  farms,  to 
found  new  settlements,  to  plant  new  orchards,  to 
erect  schoolhouses  and  churches,  to  build  hamlets 
and  towns,  and  to  engage,  with  some  degree  of 
ardor,  in  the  various  peaceful  pursuits  of  civ- 
ilized life.  A  sense  of  security  pervaded  the 
minds  of  the  people.  The  hostile  Indian  tribes, 
having  been  overpowered,  humbled  and  impov- 
erished, no  longer  excited  the  fears  of  the  pioneer 
settlers,  who  dwelt  in  safety  in  their  plain  log 
cabin  homes,  and  cultivated  their  small  fields 
without  the  protection  of  armed  sentinels.  The 
numerous  temporary  forts  and  blockhouses, 
which  were  no  longer  required  as  places  of  ref- 
uge for  the  pioneers,  were  either  converted  into 
dwelling  houses  or  suffered  to  fall  into  ruins" 

The  New  Purchase. — Perhaps  the  most  im- 
portant event  that  occurred  during  the  Jennings 
administration  was  the  acquisition  of  territory 
that  virtually  doubled  the  area  for  settlement. 
This  was  the  tract  since  known  as  the  "New-  Pur- 
chase," though  formerly  the  Harrison  purchase 
of  1809  was  called  by  that  name.  It  was  secured 
by  several  treaties  with  different  tribes  held  at 
St.  Mary's,  Ohio,  in  October,  1818,  with  Jona- 
than Jennings,  Lewis  Cass  and  Benjamin  Parke 
as  the  purchasing  commissioners.  The  Miamis, 
Dela wares  and  Potawatomies  were  the  chief 
tribes  treated  with  and  the  lands  they  relinquished 
comprised  the  central  and  choicest  portion  of  the 
.State,  extending  from  the  old  frontier  to  a  line 
north  and  northwest  of  the  fertile  Wabash  val- 
ley.* The  land  thus  gained  has  been  estimated 
as  about  eight  million  acres,  out  of  which  has 
since  l)een  carved  more  than  a  score  of  coun- 
ties. The  amount  paid  for  it  was,  to  the  Miamis, 
as  chief  owners,  a  perpetual  amiuity  of  $15,000. 
the  building  of  a  grist  and  sawmill,  the  support- 
ing of  a  blacksmith  and  a  gunsmith,  the  provid- 
ing of  such  implements  of  agriculture  "as  the 
proper  agent  may  think  necessary,"  and  one  hun- 

See  map  of  Indian  land  cessions,  p.  31. 



dred  sixty  bushels  of  salt  annually.  Out  of  the 
tract  twenty-one  grants,  amounting  in  all  to  forty- 
nine  sections,  were  granted  in  fee  simple  to  as 
many  Indians,  and  there  were  six  reservations, 
the  largest,  afterward  known  as  the  "Miami  re- 
serve," containing  approximately  one  thousand 
square  miles.  To  the  Delawares,  who  laid  claim 
to  the  White  river  valley,  was  allowed  other  ter- 
ritory west  of  the  Mississippi  river,  the  "value  of 
their  improvements,"  one  hundred  twenty  horses, 
enough  pirogues  to  transport  the  tribe,  together 
with  provisions  for  their  journey,  and  $4,000 
perpetual  annuity.  To  the  Potawatomies,  for 
a  tract  of  about  sixteen  hundred  square  miles 
northeast  of  the  Wabash  and  the  relinquishment 
of  all  the  claims  they  might  have  to  the  rest  of 
the  total  purchase,  was  given  a  perpetual  annuity 
of  $2,500.  It  may  be  of  interest  to  note  that  these 
annuities  in  the  aggregate  equaled  3  per  cent,  in- 
terest on  about  $717,000.  All  the  other  items, 
liberally  estimated,  would  bring  the  total  cost  well 
within  the  $800,000  mark,  or  about  10  cents  per 
acre.  As  the  government  subsequently  sold  the 
land  for  $1.25  per  acre  it  can  be  seen  that,  con- 
sidered as  a  transaction  in  real  estate,  it  was  by 
no  means  bad.* 

The  statement  is  made  by  various  local  histori- 
ans that  the  Delaware  Indians  reserved  the  right 
to  continue  in  possession  of  the  country  until 
1820  or  1821.  The  authority  for  this  we  are  un- 
able to  trace,  there  being  no  such  provision  in 
any  of  the  treaties  above  mentioned.  As  a  mat- 
ter of  fact,  the  first  surveys  were  made  in  1819. 
As  early  as  January,  1820,  the  new  territory  was 
organized,  parts  of  it  along  the  southern  and 
eastern  edge  being  attached  to  the  counties  of 
Jennings,  Jackson,  Franklin,  Fayette,  Wayne  and 
Randolph,  all  the  rest  being  formed  into  two  large 
new  counties,  Delaware  and  Wabash.  The  older 
counties  above  named  were  given  "concurrent 
jurisdiction"  in  civil  cases  in  Delaware  county, 
and  Vigo,  Owen  and  Monroe  were  given  like 
jurisdiction  over  W^abash  county.     An  interest- 

*  One  of  the  rare  documents  in  the  State  library  is  the  parch- 
ment copy  of  the  treaty  made  with  the  Miamis.  This  was  the 
duplicate  instrument  that  was  given  to  Chief  Richardville  for  the 
tribe.  In  course  of  time  it  came  into  the  hands  of  Mr.  Charles 
B.  Lasselle,  of  Logansport,  who  was  a  zealous  collector  of  relics 
relating  to  the  history  of  the  Wabash  valley.  Attached  to  the 
parchment  are  the  signatures  of  thirteen  representatives  of  the 
United  States  besides  the  three  commissioners,  and  sixteen  Mi- 
ami chiefs  (by  mark).  Among  the  former  are  Joseph  Barron, 
William  Conner  and  Antoine  Bondie,  as  interpreters.  The  treaty 
bears  the  date  of  October  6,  1818. 

ing  item  among  the  laws  of  1820-21  is  the  ap- 
pointment of  John  Vawter  to  take  the  census  of 
"all  the  white  male  inhabitants  above  twenty-one 
years  of  age  within  said  counties  of  Wabash  and 
Delaware,  and  return  a  list  of  the  same  to  the 
ofifice  of  Secretary  of  State,  on  or  before  the  sec- 
ond Monday  in  November  next." 

Search  through  the  legislative  documents  fails 
to   disclose   any    further   reference   to   this   first 

Map  of  Indiana  in  1824,  When  the  Capital  Was  Moved 
to  Indianapohs. — By  E.  V .  Shocklcx. 

census  of  the  New  Purchase,  which  was  prob- 
ably ordered  in  anticipation  of  the  influx  of  immi- 
gration that  would  follow  the  locating  of  the 

The  Squatter  Population. — The  Xcw  Pur- 
chase was  organized  and  provision  made  for 
"civil  cases"  (as  noted  above)  a  year  and  a  half 
before  the  first  land  sales  were  made.  Whether 
or  not  this  had  any  reference  to  the  unauthorized 
"squatter"  occupancy  of  ihe  territory,  such  occu- 
pancy existed,  just  as  it  had  existed  throughout 
the  southern  part  of  the  State  before  the  various 
land  purchases  by  the  government.  The  lirst 
permanent  white  settler  in  central  Indiana  of 
whom  we  have  record  was  William  Conner,  who 
in  1802  established  a  trading  post  on  White  river. 



about  four  miles  l)clo\v  llie  present  site  of  No- 
blesville.  In  1819  a  little  colony,  led  by  John 
Finch,  settled  on  a  small  prairie  beside  the  river, 
nearly  opposite  the  Noblesville  site.  This  spot, 
afterward  known  as  the  "Horseshoe  Prairie," 
from  a  curve  of  the  river  at  that  point,  was,  in 
August  of  the  year  nientiDiied,  taken  ])OSsession 
of  by  seven  or  eight  families,  an  advance  party 
having  the  jjrevious  spring  put  in  crops  and  built 
houses.*  Another  group  was  located  at  the 
"BlufYs"  of  White  river,  wdiere  the  village  of 
Waverly  now  stands,  abotit  eighteen  or  twenty 
miles  below  Indianajjolis.  Jacob  Whetzel,  a 
brother  of  Louis  Whetzel,  the  famous  Indian 
fighter  of  X'irginia.  located  here  in  March,  1819, 
having,  the  }ear  before,  employed  his  son  Cyrus 
and  four  other  axmen  in  cutting  out  a  rude  road- 
way between  the  Bluffs  and  Franklin  county, 
which  was  afterward  known  as  the  "Whetzel 
Trace."  ( )ther  families  joined  the  Whetzels,  and 
before  the  opening  of  the  lands  there  seems  to 
have  been  quite  a  settlement  at  that  point. f  Also, 
about  fifteen  families,  most  of  wdiom  are  said 
to  have  come  from  the  Whitewater  valley,  settled 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  mouth  of  Fall  creek,  where 
several  Indian  trails  converged,  and  where,  ac- 
cording to  J.  H.  B.  Nowland,  a  sandbar  deposited 
by  the  waters  of  the  creek  formed  a  much-used 
fording  ])lace  in  the  river.  The  extent  of  the 
squatter  occupancy  beyond  these  settlements  is 
probably  greater  than  is  generally  supjjosed  from 
the  records  that  exist.  John  Tipton,  one  of  the 
commissioners  to  locate  the  capital,  speaks  of 
people  up  and  down  the  river,  giving  the  impres- 
sion that  there  were  scattered  residents.  Judge 
Banta  giws  tlic  names  of  men  who  located  within 
the  present  ])ounds  of  Shelby,  Bartholomew  and 
Johnson  counties  before  the  lands  were  jnit  on 
the  market,  some  of  them  as  eaidv  as  1818;  and 
if  Ibis  were  true  of  the  localities  I'.anta  knew  of 
it  was  doubtless  true-  over  a  wider  area. 

Locating  the  Capital. —  I'.y  an  act  of  Januarv 
11.  1820,  the  (  ienei-al  Assen)l)]y  api)ointed  a  com- 
mission ol  trn  mm  fi-oni  as  man\'  dilTeix'nl  conn- 
tii's  to  seU'ct  tlu'  four  sections  of  land  th;it  had 
])vvu  don.itcd  i]i  tlu-  c'li.-ibling  act  for  a  permanent 
*"'''l'''''l  "I  'be  Statt'.  The  commissioners  were: 
(leorge    lluiil,   ol"    \\';ivne   counl\-;   John    Conner, 

*  I'lir  tust  acioiiiit  <if  this  .scllUim-iU  see  "Runinisciuccs  of 
JiuIrc    l"incli,"   in    Ind.    M;ig.   Hist.,    December,    1911. 

•t   n.    I).    H.,„i:,'s   ■■Uistniic.Ll    Sketih   „f   Jolins,..)    Counlv."   p.    9. 

of  Fayette ;  Stephen  Ludlow,  of  Dearborn  ;  John 
Gilliland,  of  Switzerland  ;  Joseph  Bartholomew, 
of  Clark;  John  Tipton,  of  Harrison;  Jesse  B. 
Durham,  of  Jackson;  Frederick  Rapp,  of  Posey; 
William  Prince,  of  Gibson,  and  Thomas  Emmer- 
son,  of  Knox.  They  were  to  meet  on  a  specified 
day  at  the  house  of  William  Conner  (the  trad- 
ing post  on  White  river)  and,  after  due  oath,  to 
"proceed  to  view,  select  and  locate  among  the 
lands  of  the  United  States  which  are  unsold  a 
site  which  in  their  opinion  shall  be  most  eligible 
and  advantageous  for  the  permanent  seat  of  gov- 
ernment of  Indiana,  embracing  four  sections,  or 
as  many  fractional  sections  as  will  amount  to 
four  sections."  Provision  was  made  for  a  clerk 
"who  shall  keep  a  fair  record  of  their  proceed- 
ings herein,  which  shall  be  signed  by  each  and 
every  of  them,  and  attested  by  their  clerk,  a 
copy  of  which  they  shall  file  in  the  of^ce  of 
Secretary  of  State."  If  this  "record  of  proceed- 
ings" was  ever  kept  and  filed  as  ordered  it  has 
gone  the  w^ay  of  other  vahiable  documents,  due, 
perhaps,  to  the  criminal  carelessness,  or  at  least 
culpable  stupidity,  which  led  an  irate  citizen, 
ninety  years  ago,  to  denounce  certain  otificials 
who  had  cleared  the  old  Corydon  state  house  of 
"useless  papers,"  as  "no  more  fit  for  their  busi- 
ness than  hogs  for  a  parlor."  At  any  rate,  the 
only  record  we  have  of  the  work  of  the  commis- 
sion, aside  from  the  bare  report  of  restdts.  is 
the  private  journal  of  John  Tipton,  the  member 
from  Harrison  county.  This  document,  which 
may  be  found  in  full  in  the  Indiana  Magazine  of 
History,  vol.  i,  pp.  9  and  74,  is  here  given  in  brief. 
The  writer  states  that  on  Wednesday,  the  17th 
of  May,  1820,  he  set  out  from  Corydon  in  com- 
j^any  with  Governor  Jennings  to  meet  with  the 
other  commissioners  in  the  New  Ptirchase.  They 
had  with  them  a  black  servant  boy,  a  tent  and 
"plenty  of  baken  and  coffy."  At  Vallonia  they 
picked  tip  two  other  members  of  the  commission. 
Colonel  Durham  and  General  Bartholomew,  and 
also  two  unofficial  persons  wdio  were  "going  out 
to  look  at  the  country."  On  ]\Ionday.  the  22d, 
after  five  days'  traveling,  they  reached  William 
Conner's,  the  prescribed  meeting  ])lace,  which  is 
described  as  a  ])rairie  of  about  two  htindred  fifty 
acres  of  the  White  river  bottom,  with  a  number 
of  Indian  huts  near  the  house.  By  noon  of  the 
next  day  all  the  commissioners  except  William 
Prince,  of  Gibson  county,  were  present,  and  they 



proceeded  with  their  work.  The  probabihties  are 
that  they  viewed  Conner's  prairie  as  a  possible 
site,  and  also  the  Finch  settlement,  three  miles 
above.  The  Journal  does  not  say  so,  but  Fabius 
M.  Finch,  in  the  "Reminiscences"  cited  above, 
states  that  they  visited  his  father's  place.     From 

Old  Constitutional  Elm  Tree  at  Corydon,  still  standing. 
Under  this  tree  it  is  said  the  first  constitution  of 
Indiana  was  adopted,  on  June  29,  1816. 

Conner's  they  followed  the  river  down  to  the  set- 
tlement at  the  mouth  of   Fall  creek,   and  after 
viewing  that  place,  passed  on  down  to  the  Whet- 
zel  settlement.    The  commissioners  and  the  visit- 
ing members  of  the  party,  of  whom  there  were 
several  besides  Governor  Jennings,  seem  to  have 
prospected  to  and   fro  between  these  points  in 
separate  groups,  but  finally  they  all  met  again  on 
Saturday,  the  27th,  at  the  cabin  of  John  McCor- 
mick,  which  stood  below  Fall  creek  on  the  high 
ground  just  above  where  Washington  street  meets 
the  river,  and  agreed  upon  the  Fall  creek  location. 
As  the  government   survey  was  not  completed, 
i  however,  the  tract  could  not  be  specifically  de- 
j  scribed.     Judge  William   B.   Laughlin,  the   sur- 
!  veyor,  was  sent  for  to  finish  his  work,  and  after 
:  a  delay   of   eleven   days  the  commissioners   fin- 
i  ished  theirs. 

j  The  statement  that  has  been  made  and  re- 
peated that  only  five  commissioners  voted  on  the 
question  of  location  and  that  two  of  those  voted 
for  the  "Bluffs,"  and  the  oft-repeated  newspaper 
i  story  that  the  commissioners  visited  and  consid- 
jered  the  site  of  Strawtown,  above  Noblesville, 
has  not  the  slightest  documentary  support.  The 
reasons  for  the  selection  that  was  made  are  given, 
in  a  brief  and  general  way,  in  the  commissioners' 

report  to  the  Legislature  on  June  7.  1820,  which 
reads : 

"The  undersigned  have  endeavored  to  connect 
with  an  eligible  site  the  advantages  of  a  navi- 
gable stream  and  fertility  of  soil,  while  they  have 
not  been  unmindful  of  the  geographical  situation 
of  the  various  portions  of  the  State ;  to  its  politi- 
cal center  as  regards  both  the  present  and  future 
population,  as  well  as  the  present  and  future  in- 
terest of  the  citizens."*  This  is  signed  by  all  the 
commissioners  except  William  Prince. 


Sketch  of  Governor  Jennings. — As  Indiana's 
first  executive.  Governor  Jonathan  Jennings  de- 
serves, perhaps,  a  consideration  that  we  can  not 
give  to  his  successors  in  the  gubernatorial  office. 
Jennings  came  from  Pennsylvania  to  Indiana 
Territory  in  1806,  settling  first  at  Jeft'ersonville, 

Old  State  Mouse  at  Corydon. + 

then  at  \'incennes,  where  he  was  adniitled  lo  the 
bar  and  began  the  practise  of  law  in  1807.  The 
"practise,"    however,    seems    \n   have   been    little 

•  House  Jour.,   1820-21,  p.  25. 

•;- This  structvire,  erected  in  1811-12.  ns  luarly  as  can  be  de- 
tcrniined,  was  built  by  Dennis  Pennington  for  the  Harrison 
county  courthouse.  It  was  never  owned  liy  the  State,  but  was 
rented  for  legislative  use.  For  documentary  research  into  this 
question  by   Miss   Ethel   Cleland   see   Ind.    Mag.    Hist.,   vol.   ix. 



more  than  nominal,  as  he  drifted  into  clerical 
work  in  connection  with  the  territorial  Legis- 
lature, and  this  employment  turned  him  in  the 
direction  of  politics.  His  first  appearance  in  the 
political  field  w^as  as  a  candidate  for  the  office  of 
territorial  delegate  to  Congress  in  1809.  The 
issue  on  which  the  campaign  was  waged  was 
that  of  admitting  slavery  into  the  territory,  and 
Jennings,  as  the  anti-slavery  candidate,  was 
elected  after  a  bitter  contest.  During  the  rest  of 
the  territorial  period  he  remained  in  Congress, 
as  he  was  returned  in  1811  and  1813,  and  this 
fact,  doubtless,  contributed  greatly  to  the  anti- 
slavery  movement  which  in  1816  succeeded  in 
bringing  in  the  State  free.  It  was  Jennings  who 
laid  before  Congress  the  memorial  asking  for  an 
act  to  enable  the  Territory  to  become  a  State, 
and  with  the  passing  of  that  act  and  the  subse- 
quent Constitutional  Convention,  he  w^as  chosen 
president  of  that  body,  being  also  a  delegate  from 
Clark  county.  In  the  subsequent  campaign  for 
State  officers  he  ran  for  governor  against  Thomas 
Posey,  the  territorial  governor,  and  won  by  a 
large  majority. 

Of  his  peculiar  task  as  the  first  governor  one 
of  his  biographers  (Woollen)  says:  "The  mak- 
ing and  putting  into  motion  of  the  machinery  of 
a  new  State  requires  ability  of  a  high  order.  Rev- 
enue is  to  be  created,  laws  for  the  protection  of 
life  and  property  to  be  drawn  and  passed,  and 
divers  other  things  to  be  done  that  the  founda- 
tions of  the  government  may  be  properly  laid. 
The  governor  proved  himself  equal  to  the  task." 
It  must  be  said  that  this  latter  laudation  is  not 
too  strongly  put.  Jennings  was  one  of  the  com- 
missioners who,  at  the  treaty  of  St.  Marys,  Ohio, 
secured  fr(jni  the  Indians  the  large  tract  of  terri- 
tory, covering  the  central  part  of  the  State,  after- 
ward known  as  the  "New  Purchase,"  and  in 
1820  he  personally  accomi)anied  the  commission- 
ers who  had  been  appointed  to  select  a  site  for 
the  permanent  capital.  In  1822  he  was  elected  a 
rei)resentalive  to  Congress  and  resigned  the  gov- 
ernorship to  acce])t  that  oftice,  the  remainder  of 
his  term  being  filled  out  by  Ratliff  Boon.  He  re- 
mained in  Congress  eight  years,  then,  being  de- 
feated in  the  race  for  another  term,  retired  to 
I'l'ivatc'  hie.  I  lis  ,,nc  other  public  service  was 
as  a  coniniissioiuT,  in  IS.^2,  to  treat  with  the  In- 
dians tor  lands  in  noiihern  Indiana  and  southern 
Michigan.     IK-  died  July  26.  18.U.  at  his  home 

about  three  miles  west  of  Charlestown,  and  lies 
buried  in  the  Charlestown  cemetery,  where,  for 
many  years,  his  grave  lay  neglected  and  un- 
marked, though  it  now  has  a  fitting  granite  mon- 

In  an  appreciation  of  Jennings  written  by  John 
H.  B.  Nowland,  who  knew  him  personally,  he  is 
described  as  a  man  of  great  personal  magnetism, 
free-handed,  generous  of  nature  and  kind  of 
heart,  with  much  simplicity  of  character.  During 
his  service  in  Congress,  Mr.  Nowland  says,  "No 
letter  w^as  ever  addressed  to  him  on  the  most 
trivial,  as  well  as  important  matter,  that  was  not 
promptly  answered  and  his  business  attended  to ;" 
and  the  biographer  further  adds  that  the  honest 
discharge  of  every  official  duty  entrusted  to  him 
won  for  him  wide  esteem. 

Throughout  his  political  career,  Jennings  had 
his  bitter  enemies,  who  were  unescapable  then  as 
now,  but  many  of  the  fulminations  against  him 
are  at  this  day  their  own  condemnation.  For 
example.  Waller  Taylor,  a  pro-slavery  opponent 
of  territorial  days,  tried  to  provoke  him  to  a  quar- 
rel and  a  duel  for  no  particular  reasons  except 
political  ones,  and  disgustedly  dubbed  him  a  cow- 
ard because  he  persisted  in  being  amiable  and 
friendly.  In  1816,  Elihu  Stout,  editor  of  The 
Western  Sun,  and  a  coterie  of  Harrison  sup- 
porters, raged  because  he  was  back  of  a  (to  them) 
nefarious  scheme  to  introduce  a  rival  news- 
paper. The  Centinel,  in  Vincennes.  The  humor 
of  this  did  not  seem  to  strike  them. 

According  to  Mr.  Nowland,  Governor  Jen- 
nings' salary  of  $1,000  per  year  was  paid  in  treas- 
ury notes  w^orth  about  $600,  and  his  expenditures 
more  than  doubling  this  depreciated  salary,  left 
him  involved  in  debts  which  he  never  got  free 

The  Jennings-Harrison  Incident. — During 
the  administration  of  Governor  Jennings  occurred 
an  incident  that  is  unique,  at  least  in  the  history 
of  this  State.  In  1818  President  Monroe  ap- 
l)ointed  Jennings  one  of  three  commissioners  to 
negotiate  a  treaty  with  the  Indians  for  a  new 
tract  of  territory.  This  placed  Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Christopher  Harrison  in  the  position  of 
acting  governor.  The  constitution  contained  the 
provision  that  "no  member  of  Congress,  or  per- 

*  For  fuller  sketches  of  Jennings,  see  W^oollen's  "Biographical 
and  Historical  Sketches,"  Nowland's  "Prominent  Citizens"  and 
Dunn's  "Indiana." 



son  holding  any  office  under  the  United  States, 
or  this  State,  shall  exercise  the  office  of  governor 
or  lieutenant-governor."    As  Harrison  rather  in- 
geniously construed  this,  Jennings,  by  accepting 
a  commission  from  the  United  States,  had  abdi- 
cated his  office  as  governor  and  the  lieutenant- 
I  governor  had  become  governor  instead.    Wool- 
\  len    ("Biographical    and    Historical    Sketches") 
:  thus  describes  the  situation : 

"Governor  Jennings  refused  to  accept  this  in- 
terpretation of  the  law  and  demanded  possession 
of  the  executive  office.     The  lieutenant-governor 

committee  which  may  be  appointed  on  the  part 
of  the  House  of  Representatives  to  wait  on  the 
lieutenant-governor,  and  late  acting  governor, 
and  inform  him  that  the  two  houses  of  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly  have  met,  formed  a  (juorum,  and 
are  now  ready  to  receive  any  communications 
which  he  may  please  to  make  relative  to  the  exec- 
utive department  of  government,  and  request  a 
similar  committee  be  appointed  on  the  part  of 
the  House  of  Representatives,  and  that  on  the 
part  of  the  Senate  Messrs.  Boon  and  De  Pauw 
were  appointed  that  committee.'  " 

Indianapolis,  "The  Capital  in  the  \\  oods,"  in  1820. — From  an  ideal  painting  by  Alois  E.  Sinks. 

left  the  room  he  had  been  occupying,  and,  taking 
with  him  the  State  seal,  opened  an  office  else- 
where. The  State  officers  were  in  a  quandary 
what  to  do.  Two  men  were  claiming  to  be  gov- 
ernor, and  they  did  not  know  which  to  recognize. 
Such  was  the  condition  of  afifairs  when  the  Leg- 
islature of  1818  convened.  On  the  10th  of  De- 
cember of  that  year  Ratliff  Boon,  then  a  senator 
from  the  county  of  Warrick,  appeared  upon  the 
floor  of  the  House  and  said : 

"  'Mr.  Speaker,  I  am  directed  by  the  Senate  to 
inform  this  House  that  the  Senate  has  appointed 
a  committee  on  their  part  to  act  with  a  similar 

The  requested  committee  was  formed  in  the 
House,  and  the  joint  committee  waited  on  Harri- 
son, but  was  told  that  he  had  no  communication  to 
make  unless  it  was  to  be  received  as  coming  from 
the  governor.  Then  came  a  committee  to  investi- 
gate the  troubles  in  the  executive  department,  and 
this  committee  reported  as  their  opinion  "that  His 
Excellency,  Gov.  Jonathan  Jennings,  did,  in  the 
months  of  September  and  October  last,  accept  an 
appointment  under  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  by  virtue  of  which  he.  together  with  oth- 
ers, did  repair  to  St.  Marys,  and  then  and  there 
did  negotiate  and  conchidc  a  treaty  with  various 



tribes  of  Indians  in  behalf  of  the  United  States; 
and  that  he  did  sign  said  treaty  as  the  agent  or 
officer  of  the  United  States,  and  he  did  thereto 
subscribe  his  name  with  others."  The  next  step 
in  the  solemn  red-tape  process  was  Governor  Jen- 
nings' notification  as  to  the  investigation,  and  a 
request  that  he  appear  before  the  committee  in 
his  own  defense ;  but  he  declined  to  do  so  in  per- 
son, appointing,  instead,  Charles  Dewey  to  rep- 
resent him  as  counsel.  The  upshot  of  it  all  was 
that  after  the  committee  had  taken  the  testimony 
of  various  persons  to  prove  that  Jennings  had 
acted  as  a  United  States  commissioner  (which, 
of    course,    evervbody    knew    beforehand),    and 

after  this  was  duly  reported  to  the  Legislature, 
that  body  passed  a  resolution  that  it  was  '"inexpe- 
dient to  further  prosecute  the  inquiry  into  the 
existing  difficulties  in  the  executive  department 
of  the  government  of  the  State,"  thereby  recog- 
nizing Jennings  as  the  rightful  governor.  This 
resolution,  however,  was  carried  by  only  two 
votes  and  our  first  administration  came  just  that 
near  to  a  sudden  and  rather  ignominious  ending. 
Lieutenant-Governor  Harrison  resigned  his  of- 
fice in  a  pique,  and  in  the  next  gubernatorial  cam- 
paign ran  for  the  governorship  against  Jennings, 
but  received  less  than  a  fifth  of  the  total  vote 

(jreasy  Creek,  Brown  County. — rholocjraph  by  fnvik  M.  1 1 oliciibcrgcr. 



i  Explanation  of  This  Period. — Any  division 
'  of  the  State's  history  into  distinct  periods  is  apt 
:  to  be  more  or  less  arbitrary.  Some  division,  how- 
ever, facilitates  grouping  of  the  elements  to  be 
dealt  with,  and  helps  to  an  understanding  of  the 
social  development  and  the  chronological  order. 
The  period  between  the  admission  to  the  Union 
and  the  year  1836  may  for  these  purposes  be  con- 
sidered as  a  distinct  chapter  in  the  development, 
because  the  growth  of  activities  up  to  that  date 
are  a  continuous  and  normal  unfolding,  and  be- 
cause the  internal  improvement  law  of  1836  in- 
augurated a  new  departure  and  introduced  an- 
other very  distinctive  chapter. 

General  Character  of  Period. — The  period 
comprised  the  administrations  of  Governors 
Jonathan  Jennings  (1816-1822)*,  William  Hen- 
dricks (1822-1825),  James  B.  Ray  (1825-1831), 
and  part  of  that  of  Noah  Noble,  who  served 
from  1831  to  1837.  This  span  of  our  history, 
offering  little  that  is  spectacular  or  conspicuous, 
has  not  particularly  invited  the  researches  of  the 
historian,  and  hence  it  is  rather  an  obscure  pe- 
riod and  the  source  material  is  limited.  Finances, 
a  taxing  system,  internal  improvements,  educa- 
tion and  local  politics  were  the  questions  that 
engaged  public  attention,  and  the  dealing  with 
these  were  noticeably  in  the  experimental  stage. 

The  various  messages  of  the  governors  and  the 
contemporary  legislation  afford  us  glimpses  of 
conditions  and  of  questions  that  were  uppermost. 
As  late  as  1825  there  was  complaint  of  serious 
financial  depression.  Governors  Hendricks  and 
Ray  agree  in  attributing  the  condition  to  the  re- 
cent war  with  England.  The  extensive  consump- 
tion of  European  goods  and  the  want  of  a  market 
for  surplus  produce,  says  Hendricks,  "has  put 
the  balance  of  trade  largely  against  the  western 
country  and  produced  general  and  individual  dis- 

Ray  On  Hard  Times. — Governor  Ray,  at 
the  close  of  1825,  gives  a  graphic  explanation  of 
the  trying  times  the  young  State  had  been  pass- 

*  Jennings  went  to  Congress  before  the  expiration  of  his  term, 
which  was  filled  out  by  Ratliff  Boon. 

ing  through.  "In  consequence  of  the  war,"  he 
affirms,  "large  disbursements  of  public  money 
were  made  by  the  general  government  in  every 
part  of  the  country;  a  general  rage  for  specula- 
tion was  excited ;  numerous  banks  with  fictitious 
capital  were  established;  immense  issues  of  pa- 
per were  made  and  the  circulating  medium  of  the 
country  was  increased  fourfold  in  the  course  of 
two  or  three  years.  A  natural  consequence  of 
this  great  increase  of  what  was  then  deemed 
equivalent  to  money  was  that  a  fictitious  vakie 
was  placed  upon  labor  and  every  species  of  prop- 
erty. .  .  .  Money,  as  it  was  then  called,  was 
easily  acquired,  and  the  people  too  generally  and 
too  easily  indulged  in  visionary  dreams  of  wealth 
and  splendor.  Then  the  extraordinary  flow  of 
money  from  our  treasury  was  discontinued;  our 
army  was  reduced ;  the  newly  created  banks  be- 
gan to  fail ;  specie  disappeared ;  the  fictitious  cir- 
culating medium  of  the  country  became  trash  in 
the  bands  of  the  people ;  wages  and  every  species 
of  property  suffered  an  unprecedented  depres- 
sion in  their  value,  and  the  industry  of  the  coun- 
try suff"ered  a  shock  from  which,  in  many  places, 
it  has  not  yet  recovered."  In  addition,  he  says 
that  the  lack  of  markets  for  surplus  produce 
"operates  as  a  dead  weight  upon  the  industry  and 
enterprise  of  the  State." 

The  State's  Revenue;  Taxing  System. — 
.Mong  with  this  general  depression  went  the  dif- 
ficulties of  raising  the  State's  revenues.  The 
country  was  poor,  taxables  few,  and  the  taxing 
system  crude.  Hendricks  speaks  of  the  methods 
of  collecting  the  taxes  as  "attended  with  uncer- 
tainty and  delay"  and  practically  every  message 
refers  to  the  difficulties  in  this  line.  The  manner 
of  collecting  was  for  the  sheriff'  or  his  deputy  to 
advertise,  giving  ten  days'  notice  of  the  time 
when  he  would  be  present  at  the  place  of  elec- 
tion in  each  township  for  the  purpose  of  receiv- 
ing the  taxes.  If  the  taxpayer  failed  to  attend  at 
the  time  set  and  pay,  then  he  was  to  discharge  his 
debt  at  the  house  of  the  sheriff  or  deputy  on  or 
before  the  1st  of  September  of  that  year,  under 
penalty  of  having  his  property  levied  on.     The 




indications  arc  that  very  many  failed  to  meet  the 
collector,  either  at  the  advertised  place  or  at  his 
house,  for  Ray,  in  his  first  message,  alludes  to 
accumulated  delinquencies  amounting  to  $12,CXX), 
out  of  which,  it  was  thought,  the  treasurer  might 
realize  $3,000.  In  1825  the  law  was  modified  by 
the  provision  that  the  collector  call  at  "the  most 
usual  and  best  known  place  of  residence"  of  the 
citizen,  but  too  much  was  not  expected  of  this, 
evidently,  for  of  the  $40,000  income  that  was  due 
that  year  it  was  calculated  that  there  would  be  a 
shrinkage  from  delinquency  and  commissions,  of 
$8,000.  The  poll  tax  of  50  cents  per  head  was 
so  unpopular  that  Ray  advised  its  reduction  "be- 
cause a  poll  tax  seems  to  be  most  odious  to  the 
people,  being  often  viewed  in  no  better  light  than 
as  a  remaining  badge  of  British  vassalage." 

Tax  Schedule. — The  tax  and  revenue  prob- 
lem was  the  subject  of  repeated  legislation.  The 
law  as  it  stood  in  1824  appraised  first-class  land 
at  $1.50  per  hundred  acres;  second-class  at  $1, 
and  third-class  at  75  cents ;  lands  to  be  rated  ac- 
cording to  quality,  local  advantages  and  contigu- 
ity to  towns  and  navigable  rivers,  etc.  Each  $100 
in  bank  stock  was  assessed  25  cents,  and  there 
was  a  poll  tax  of  50  cents  on  each  male  over 
twenty-one  years  of  age  who  was  sane  and  not 
a  pauper.  This  was  the  State  tax.  For  county 
revenue  every  horse,  ass  or  mule  over  three  years 
old  was  assessed  not  to  exceed  37^/^  cents;  a 
stallion  was  rated  at  the  price  at  which  he  served  ; 
work  oxen,  not  over  18^  cents ;  two-wheeled 
pleasure  carriages,  $1 ;  four-wheeled  carriage, 
$1.50;  brass  clock,  $1;  gold  watch,  $1;  silver 
watch,  25  cents ;  license  for  retailing  spirituous 
li(|uors,  not  less  than  $5,  nor  more  than  $25  ; 
license  to  vend  foreign  merchandise,  not  less  than 
$10  nor  more  than  $50;  ferry  privileges,  not  less 
than  $2  nor  more  than  $20 ;  each  original  suit  or 
complaint  commenced  and  prosecuted  in  the  cir- 
cuit cuurts,  50  cents. 

Increase  of  Revenue  from  Lands. — Lands 
sold  by  the  United  States  were  exempt  from  tax- 
ation for  five  years  after  purchase,  and  one  grow- 
ing source  of  income  was  the  increase  of  taxable 
acreage  as  the  five-year  limit  expired.  .Accord- 
ing tu  kay's  estiniaU-  in  1825,  the  following  year 
would  see  500,000  acres  added  to  the  State's  tax- 
ables.  and  elsewhere  we  find  it  estimated  that  the 
ainuial  average  increase  of  taxable  .imounied 
to  4(K).{KK)  acres.      I'.y   the   treasurer's   report    of 

1822  and  1830,  respectively,  the  State's  annual 
income  increased  in  the  eight  years  from  $41,- 
085.29  to  $65,344.48. 

Banking. — During  most  of  the  third  decade 
Indiana  had  no  system  of  banks,  though  the  early 
twenties  saw  the  close  of  an  interesting  chapter 
of  banking  history.  During  the  territorial  period 
money  affairs  were  chaotic;  private  "wildcat" 
banks  prevailed,  along  with  the  dangers  incident 
to  those  irresponsible  institutions.  In  1814  the 
Legislature  took  steps  toward  helping  the  situa- 
tion by  chartering  the  Bank  of  Vincennes  and 
the  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Bank,  of  Madison. 
In  1817  the  Legislature  made  the  Bank  of  Vin- 
cennes a  State  institution,  in  which  the  State  was 
a  stockholder,  and  which  was  to  have  fourteen 
branches  in  as  many  districts.  The  capital  stock 
was  increased  from  $500,000  to  $1,500,000.  This 
extensive  scheme  was  quite  out  of  proportion  to 
the  wealth  and  circulating  requirements  of  the 
State,  and  only  three  branches  organized.  The 
Vincennes  bank,  under  the  State's  wing,  had 
its  vicissitudes,  was  fraudulently  managed,  and 
finally,  in  1822,  went  out  in  a  blaze  of  disrepute 
that  stirred  up  the  State.  The  Madison  bank, 
which  was  to  have  been  included  in  the  State's 
branch  scheme,  but  declined  the  alliance,  made 
a  reputable  record  for  itself,  but  it  also  had  its 
difficulties  and  ceased  business  some  time  after 
the  collapse  of  the  Vincennes  bank.  From  then 
until  the  inauguration  of  a  new  banking  era  in 
1834  the  circulation  of  the  State  was  supplied 
chiefly  by  the  Bank  of  the  LTnited  States. 

State  Bank  of  1834. — The  Legislature,  by  an 
act  that  was  signed  January  28,  1834,  created  the 
State  Bank  of  Indiana.  It  was  chartered  for 
twenty-live  years  with  a  capital  stock  of  $1,600,- 
000,  of  which  the  State  took  one-half,  assuming 
supervisory  powers  and  retaining  the  right  to 
select  some  of  the  more  important  olTicers.  The 
institution  was,  in  reality,  a  system  consisting  of 
ten  branches,  to  be  afterward  added  to  and  lo- 
cated at  different  points  in  the  State.  These 
branches  were  more  or  less  independent,  but  sub- 
ject to  a  certain  supervisory  control  by  a  central 
board  consisting  of  a  president  and  four  members 
chosen  by  the  Legislature,  besides  one  member 
chosen  by  each  of  the  branches.  This  board  and 
the  branches  were  re([uired  to  make  an  ainuial 
report  to  the  Legislature,  which  retained  full 
l^owers  of  investigation  at  an\-  time.     The  orig- 



iiial  branches  were  located  at  Indianapolis,  Law- 
renceburg,  Richmond,  Madison,  New  Albany, 
Evansville,  Vincennes,  Bedford,  Terre  Haute  and 
Lafayette.  In  1835  another  branch  was  estab- 
lished at  Fort  Wayne,  and  in  1838  two  more  at 
South  Bend  and  Michigan  City,  respectively.  On 
January  1,  1835,  the  loans  were  $520,843.75 ;  cir- 
culation, $456,065;  deposits,  $127,236.30;  specie, 
$751,083.29,  and  capital  paid  in  $800,000.  In 
1836  the  capital  stock  was  increased  to  $2,500,000, 
and  this  was  divided  equally  among  the  various 
branches.  For  two  or  three  years  this  institution 
prospered;  then  with  the  panic  of  1837  and  in 
the  financial  distress  brought  on  the  State  by  the 
sorry  collapse  of  the  internal  improvement 
scheme,  it  suffered  with  things  generally.  Recov- 
ering from  this  period  of  adversity  it  prospered 
again  from  about  the  middle  forties  to  the  expira- 
tion of  its  charter  in  1859.* 

Population. — The  population  of  the  State 
grew  from  about  63,000  in  1816  to  147,178  in 
1820  and  341,582  in  1830.  The  tide  of  immigra- 
tion swelled  particularly  throughout  the  latter 
half  of  the  twenties,  and  in  1829  Ray  wrote : 
"For  months  past  we  have  daily  seen  from  twenty 
to  fifty  wagons,  containing  families,  moving 
through  this  single  metropolis  (Indianapolis), 
most  of  whom  have  fixed  their  abodes  in  the 
White  river  country  and  in  that  bordering  upon 
the  Wabash."  By  the  census  tables  of  1830, 
showing  the  distribution  of  population  through- 
out the  sixty-three  counties  then  existing,  Wayne 
was  far  in  advance  of  all  the  others  with  23,344 
inhabitants.  Dearborn  followed  with  14,573, 
and  Washington,  Jefiferson,  Clark,  Harrison  and 
Franklin  came  in  the  order  named,  this  being  the 
total  number  of  those  running  over  10,000.  Knox, 
once  the  most  populous,  Avas  now  but  6,557.  By 
this,  certain  of  the  older  southern  and  eastern 
counties  still  held  the  ascendency  and  as  yet  had 
not  suffered  by  the  pressure  northward  in  search 
[of  new  lands.  Of  the  central  counties  located  in 
the  newer  part  of  the  State,  Rush  led  with  9,918, 
'followed  by  Putnam,  Fountain,  Parke,  Mont- 
Igomery,  Marion  and  Tippecanoe,  all  running 
over  7,000.  These  majorities  indicate  the  direc- 
^tions  in  which  the  currents  of  immigration  set 
I'strongest.  They  bore  no  relation  to  priority  of 
'settlement  and  the  attracting  causes  are  a  matter 

for  speculation.  In  the  case  of  Rush  county,  the 
most  populous,  it  was  doubtless  the  lay  and  qual- 
ity of  the  land,  and  perhaps  its  contiguity  to  the 
older  settlements  of  the  Whitewater.  The  capi- 
tal of  the  State,  of  course,  drew  many  to  Marion 
county.  Tippecanoe  and  Fountain  were  undoubt- 
edly beholden  to  the  Wabash  river,  but  why  Put- 
nam, Parke  and  Montgomery  should  have  so  far 
outstripped  some  other  counties  that  seemed  to 
have  equal  advantages,  is  a  matter  of  inquiry  for 
the  curious  student. 

:  *  For  studies  on  banking  see  Esarey's  Hist.  Ind.,  Smith's 
'Hist.  Ind.  and  Harding's  "State  Bank  of  Ind."  in  Journal  of 
Political   Economy,   December,   1895. 

Map  of  Indiana,  1S27. 

Politics. —  During  the  first  years  of  the  State 
partisan  interests  and  partisan  virulence  were  not 
in  evidence  in  Indiana  as  they  were  a  little  later. 
The  standard  of  self-government  did  not.  how- 
ever, seem  to  be  particularly  elevated  bv  that  fact. 
The  scrambling  for  public  office  went  on  just  the 
same,  without  regard  to  fitness  or  honesty  of  can- 
didates, and  the  acrimony  of  oi)i)Osing  individuals 
or  their  little  supporting  cliques  were  only  e(|ualed 
bv  the  unctuous  truckling  to  voters.  \n  the  be- 
ginning as  now  public  service  was  sometimes  en- 
trusted to  incompetency  and  rascality,  proving, 
]ierhaps,    that    this    shortcoming    is    inseparable 



from  our  political  system.  More  than  once  Ray 
complained  of  failures  from  many  counties  to 
make  ])roiJer  election  returns,  and  ever  and  anon 
in  the  House  and  Senate  Journals  we  iind  reports 
of  proceedings  against  minor  public  ofticials  for 
maladministration  of  their  office. 

Beginning  of  Party  Politics. — For  more  than 
a  dozen  years  after  the  admission  of  the  State 
political  issues  in  Indiana  were  local  and  the  for- 
tunes of  an  aspirant  to  public  life  devolved  upon 
his  personal  standing  rather  than  on  allegiance  to 
a  party.  The  presidential  campaign  of  1828, 
with  its  intense  partisanship,  introduced  a  new 
political  era.  This  was  not  felt  here  at  once  but 
Governor  Ray's  last  message,  delivered  on  his 
retirement  in  1831,  is  notable  for  its  protest 
against  party  ascendency  and  party  discipline  as 
assailing  "the  vitals  of  the  first  principles  of  the 
republic."  A  country's  happiness  and  honor,  he 
affirmed,  was  "about  to  be  periled  upon  the  self- 
ish basis  of  alternate  triumphs  and  defeats." 
Noah  Noble,  a  Whig,  was  the  first  Indiana  gov- 
ernor elected  along  national  party  lines,  but  a 
local  issue,  that  of  internal  improvement,  was 
a  prominent  factor  in  his  ascendency.  The  three 
successive  governors  from  1831  to  1843^ — Noah 
Noble,  David  Wallace  and  Samuel  Bigger,  were 

Industries  and  Trade. — Industry  throughout 
this  period  was  confined  almost  entirely  to  agri- 
culture and  home  products  of  manufacture,  such 
as  fabrics  for  clothing.  Occasionally  some  mill 
or  factory  with  a  sounding  name  was  incorpo- 
rated unfler  the  law,  but  as  yet  they  cut  little 
figure  in  the  activities  of  the  commonwealth. 
Trade  developed  quite  as  rapidly  as  could  be  ex- 
pected considering  the  serious  handicap  conse- 
quent upon  the  wretched  transportation  facilities. 
There  was  much  surplus  produce  in  the  shape 
of  horses,  cattle,  swine,  flour,  sugar  and  whisky, 
for  export,  and  as  early  as  1828,  before  the  days 
of  the  Wabash  canal,  it  was  affirmed  that  ten 
counties  along  the  Wabash  valley,  from  Knox 
to  Tippecanoe,  had  been  receiving  annually  from 
the  east  385  Ions  of  dry  goods,  while  from  Terre 
1  faute  alone  went  2.80()  barrels  of  whisky  and 
7.000  barrels  of  pork.*  The  most  of  the  export 
trade  went  southward  by  way  of  the  Mississippi 
river,  and  tlu-  Idealities  most  favored  were  those 
that  had  ca>ii^t   outlet  l)y  streani>  that  could  be 

*  R:iy's  incss.iKi-,   l.S_'S. 

navigated.  The  Ohio  and  Wabash  permitted  of 
egress  at  all  times  of  the  year,  but  most  of  the 
watercourses  that  threaded  the  interior  afforded 
outlet  at  high  water  only,  and  advantage  was 
taken  of  the  freshet  season  to  send  down  fiat- 
boats  laden  with  the  produce  of  the  country. 
These  rude  craft  required  comparatively  little 
skill  to  build  and  the  Indiana  forests  supplied 
an  abundance  of  timber  for  their  construction. 
They  were  from  forty  to  a  hundred  feet  in 
length  and  from  fifteen  to  twenty  feet  wide  and 
had  great  carrying  capacity,  one  estimate  being 
500  dressed  hogs  for  a  sixty-foot  boat. 

The  Ohio  and  lower  Wabash  had  the  advan- 
tage of  steamboat  transportation  at  an  early  day, 
but  what  is  claimed  as  the  first  vessel  of  this 
kind  on  White  river  did  not  come  until  1829  or 
the  early  part  of  1830,  when  the  "Traveler,"  cap- 
tained by  William  Sanders,  carried  a  load  of  salt 
as  far  as  Spencer.*  For  many  parts  of  the  State 
the  flatboat  traffic  continued  until  the  advent  of 
the  railroads. 


Constitutional  Provision. — The  ninth  article 
of  the  constitution  had  taken  this  stand  on  behalf 
of  the  education  of  the  State's  future  citizens : 

"Knowledge  and  learning  generally  diffused 
through  a  community  being  essential  to  the  pres-' 
ervation  of  a  free  government,  and  spreading 
the  opportunities  and  advantages  of  education  1 
through  the  various  parts  of  the  country  being' 
highly  conducive  to  this  end,  it  shall  be  the  duty 
of  the  General  Assembly  to  provide  by  law  for 
the  improvement  of  such  lands  as  are,  or  here- 
after may  be  granted  by  the  United  States  to  this 
State  for  the  use  of  schools,  and  to  apply  any| 
funds  which  may  be  raised  from  such  lands,  or 
from  any  other  quarter,  to  the  accomplishment! 
of  the  grand  object  for  which  they  are  or  mayl 
be  intended ;  but  no  lands  granted  for  the  use  I 
of  schools  or  seminaries  of  learning  shall  be  sold, 
by  the  authority  of  the  State  prior  to  the  year 
eighteen  hundred  and  twenty;  and  the  moneys' 
which  may  be  raised  out  of  the  sale  of  any  such 
lands,  or  otherwise  obtained  for  the  purpose 
aforesaid,  shall  be  and  remain  a  fund  for  the 
exclusive  purposes  of  promoting  the  interest  of 
literature  and  the  sciences,  and  for  the  support 
of   seminaries   and   ])u1)lic   schools.      It   shall  be 

Ind.  Quar.  Mag.  Hist.,  June,  1906. 



the  duty  of  the  General  Assembly,  as  soon  as 
circumstances  will  permit,  to  provide  by  law  for 
a  general  system  of  education,  ascending  in  a 
regular  gradation  from  township  schools  to  a 
State  university  wherein  tuition  shall  be  gratis 
and  equally  open  to  all.  And  for  the  promotion 
of  such  salutary  end,  the  money  which  shall  be 
paid  as  an  equivalent  by  persons  exempt  from 
military  duty,  except  in  times  of  war,  shall  be 
exclusively,  and  in  equal  proportion,  applied  to 
the  support  of  county  seminaries ;  and  all  fines 
assessed  for  any  breach  of  the  penal  laws  shall 
be  applied  to  said  seminaries  in  the  counties 
wherein  they  shall  be  assessed." 

This  was  an  admirable  foundation  on  which 
to  rear  the  educational  structure,  but  as  a  matter 
of  fact  it  was  a  good  while  before  the  citizenry 
could  work  to  the  program  with  any  degree  of 
efficiency,  and  during  this  period  the  actual  edu- 
cational status  was  very  crude. 

County  Seminaries, — What  is  known  as  the 
"County  Seminary  Law  of  1818"  marks  the  first 
step  toward  a  system.    This,  conformably  to  the 
constitutional  provision,   established  a   seminary 
in  each  county,  the  public  funds  for  which  were 
to  be  derived  as  specified.     How  inadequate  this 
fund  was  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  in  1825  Dear- 
born, one  of  the  most  populous  counties,  raised 
but  $700.  while  only  seven  had  in  excess  of  $200 
and  eight  had  less  than  $50  each.*     These  pit- 
tances, in  many  instances,  were  eked  out  by  pri- 
vate aid   from  public-spirited  citizens,  and  as  a 
matter  of   fact  some  of  the  seminaries  became 
not  only  educational  but  social  centers  of  con- 
siderable  importance   at   that   day.      As   schools 
they  were,  in  some  places,  mixed  and  ungraded, 
I  with  pupils   ranging,  as   Professor   Boone   says, 
,  from  "four  to  thirty  years  of  age,"  though  where 
,  the  township  schools  existed  they  were  confined 
I  to  the  higher  grades.    A  table  of  these  seminaries 
j  and  their  location  given  by  Boone  shows  eighteen 
to  have  been  established  up  to  1830. 

School  Law  of  1824;  Distinctive  Character. 
— In  1824  an  act  was  passed  to  establish  a  general 
system  of  township  schools,  and  this  law  was  no- 
table as  compared  with  the  legislation  existing 
elsewhere  at  that  day.  In  most  States  the  idea 
prevailed  that  public  schools  were  to  be  for  those 
who  could  not  otherwise  afl'ord  them,  whereas 

the  Indiana  law  was  thoroughly  democratic  and 
framed  "to  guard  against  any  distinctions  .  .  . 
between  the  rich  and  the  poor."  By  this  law 
any  three  residents  of  a  congressional  township 
could  call  a  meeting  of  the  other  residents  to  take 
steps  in  school  organization  by  the  election  of 
three  school  trustees  for  the  township.  After 
taking  the  prescribed  steps  the  inhabitants  should 
"be  a  body  corporate  politic"  in  whom  the  six- 
teenth section  of  school  land  should  be  vested. 
The  trustees  as  the  agents  of  this  corporation 
were  to  divide  the  township  into  districts  and 
appoint  for  them  sub-trustees  who,  by  calling 
meetings  in  their  respective  districts,  were  to  as- 
certain the  public  sentiment  as  to  the  establish- 
ment of  jniblic  schools.     Those  districts  that  fa- 

*  Boone's    "Education    in    Indiana,"    the    most    conipreliensive 
study  we  have  on  this  subject. 

Typical  Log  Schoolhouse  Erected  in  Indiana 
Under  the  Law  of  1824. 

vored  such  establishment  were  called  upon  to 
build  a  schoolhouse,  so  much  free  labor  being 
exacted  of  each  free-holder.  The  length  of  term 
and  questions  of  expenditure  were  also  submitted 
to  the  voters.  The  moneys  accruing  to  the  town- 
ship from  the  school  lands  were  to  be  equitably 
divided  among  the  various  districts.  The  town- 
ship trustees  were  to  examine  the  teachers  and 
grant  licenses.  That  the  actual  operations  of  the 
system  thus  established  was,  in  the  earlier  tiays 
at  least,  very  crude,  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that 
efficient  teachers  were  scarce,  and  that  their  con- 
tracts for  teaching  specified  "what  part  of  their 
wages  should  be  in  produce,  when  and  where  de- 
livered, what  i)art  should  be  paid  in  money,  and 
in  what  instalments,  and  whether  the  teacher 
should  be  boarded  among  his  employers" 
(Boone ). 

Public     Schools     Not     "Free."— While    thr 


(   l-VTI-WIAI 

-Ti  )RV    AXU    MAXDI'.OOK    OF    INDIANA 

school  ueiv  .i.-i-ii.iu-.i  .1-  iHiMu-.  llK-y  wtrc 
W)[  free,  llif  relunis  from  the  schonl  land.-,  |>arlly 
throiij,'h  luismanafienieiit.  heiii.ij  eiuirel\  inade- 
(|uate.  and  patrons  nsnally  lia<l  to  ])ay  lor  luiiion. 
as  in  any  private  school.  'I'he  school  term  was 
nMialU  thriT  moMllis.  Iloone  states  thai  the  law 
uas  "Moomed  to  failure  f(.r  lack  of  funds  to  main- 
tain the  svsteni."  It  remained  in  lorce  until 
183.^,  hut  as  a  matter  of  fact  a  lar«(e  proportion 
of  the  townships  in  the  organized  counties  made 
no  attempt  to  estahlish  schools. 

Private  Schools. — Thai  public  sentiment  and 
suiiport  ill  mailers  educational  moved  too  slowly 
for  the  more  advanced  element  is  indicated  by 
the  establishment  of  suiidr)  i>rivate  seminaries 
anil  academies,  (,f  which  iweiily-lwo  i:)rior  to  1836 
are  on  record.  Tliis  class  of  schools  is  cited  by 
Professor  Iloone  as  ha\in^  rendered  an  invalu- 
able service  to  education  throughout  the  State.* 

College  Beginnings. —  Three  permanent  in- 
stitutions of  learning  date  back  to  the  period  we 
are  considering— the  State  Seminary,  afterward 
Indiana  L'niversity :  Hanover  Academy,  after- 
ward Hanover  College,  and  the  school  that  be- 
came \\'al)ash  ("ollcge. 

State  School. — The  first  of  these,  as  the  name 
implied,  was  fostered  by  the  .State  and  was  part 
of  the  !^tate  system.  (  )piMied  in  1825  as  the 
"Stale  .Seminary"  it  became  "Indiana  College"  in 
1828  and  "Indiana  University"  in  1838.  though 
the  yi-ar  aflei-  the  conferring  of  this  latter  dig- 
nit  \  the  I  acuity  consisted  of  only  three  members 
ancl  the  students  wcrt'  but  sixt\-four. 

Hanover  College. — This  institution  was  the 
hrst  ot  the  jirixate  deiiominalional  schools,  and 
its  earlier  hislory  is  one  of  llu'  most  ins])iring 
cb.ipU-is  in  oiif  struggles.  I'ounded  1)\- 
the  I'l  esbyleriaiis  lor  llu- cardinal  jiurpost.'  of  ])ro- 

*  Tin-  lisl  iif  iIrsc  Iwciily-two  .scliocils,  tlicif  loc.ntion  .iiul  dates 
of  o|iciiinK  iirt  ;is  fulknvs:  I'oryilon  Si'iiiinaiy,  1816;  Vinccnnes 
A.a.lciny,  IKIT;  .Martin's  (Livonia),  1819;  New  Albany 
S.lio.,1.  ISj.l;  M.innal  Labor  .School  (loialion  not  givc-n),  1824; 
N<w  Harmony  Siininary.  1826;  Camliriilno  Academy  (Lawrence- 
l>urK).  1HJ(,;  llccrli  Crovc  Seminary  (Liberty),  1827;  Hanover 
Ara.lcmy,  1H27;  Kcl  River  Seminary  ( LoK'ansport).  1829;  Eugene 
Ac.i.lrmy,  182"';  Female  Seminary  (( irecneastle),  1830;  Teach- 
ri*'  Seminary  ((  rawfordsvillc),  18.10:  West  I'nion  School  (Mon- 
rovia). 18.12;  nine  River  Aea-lemy  (Salem).  1832;  Christian  Col- 
\<Kc  (New  Albany),  1833;  Western  Dnion  Seminary  (locality 
not  Kiven).  1833;  l"eniale  Seminary  (Salem).  1835;  Carlisle 
Srhool  (Sullivan  eon„iy>.  I83,S;  Olive  Branch  .School  (Lafay- 
rttc).  183.^,  -  (  My  I8.S1  these  private  schools  had  in- 
rrr.i,ed  lo  .Mveiity  tw,,  in  l,.',il  nuniber.  lho\ii;li  l.<f,,re  that  some 
had  K"nr  out  of  rxislenee.  The  romi-iled  by  Mr.  Roone  is 
not  eomi.lele.  ns  hi.s  text  intimates.  I'or  relerenee  to  William 
MaelnieS  part  in  ednealion  at  New  Harmony  see  "The  Story  of 
New   ll.irmonv." 

duciiig  an  educated  ministry  it  began  as  "Han- 
over Academv"  in  1827  and  was  chartered  as  a 
college  in  1833.  As  early  as  1829  it  w^as  adopted 
as  a  svnodical  school  by  the  Presbyterian  Synod 
of  Indiana,  and  a  theological  department  was 
established.  Its  struggle  for  existence  w^as 
heroic,  and  as  a  means  to  its  ends  it  attempted  a 
manual  lal)or  experiment,  whereby  moneyless 
students  could  ]jay  their  way  by  work  Cooper, 
cabinet,  carpenter  and  printing  shops  were  in- 
stalled, bricks  were  made  and  wood  was  chopped. 
By  1835  this  venture  had  proved  a  failure,  partly 
by  reason  of  a  difficult  market  for  the  products. 
Nevertheless  it  had  draw-n  students  from  as 
many  as  eight  or  nine  States  and  its  attendance 
during  this  manual-school  period  was  the  largest 
in  its  history,  being  two  hundred  forty  in  1833. 
Soon  after,  through  various  misfortunes,  it  de- 
clined almost  to  the  point  of  perishing,  but  recov- 
ered by  the  determined  efforts  of  its  promoters 
and  took  an  honored  place  among  the  State's  edu- 
cational institutions.  The  Scotch-Irish  stock  that 
stood  back  of  this  school  was  notable  for 
strength  of  character  and  sturdy  moral  fiber  and 
formed  an  important  element  in  our  early  popu- 

Wabash  College. — As  has  been  said  in  a  pre- 
vious section  the  Presbyterians  of  Indiana  stood 
])re-eminently  for  education,  and  as  the  Hanover 
school  was  established  for  the  promoting  of  an 
educated  clergy  so  was  the  original  of  Wabash 
College  founded  for  the  training  of  teachers. 
This  school,  under  the  name  of  "The  Wabash 
Manual  Labor  College  and  Teachers'  Seminary," 
was  opened  at  Wabash  on  the  3d  of  December, 
1833,  with  an  attendance  of  twelve  pupils  and 
with  Prof.  Caleb  Mills  at  its  head.  Like  Han- 
over this  embryo  college  languished  for  want  of 
su])])ort  and  struggled  under  debt,  to  which  was 
added  the  misfortune  of  a  fire  in  1838  that  all  but 
wiped  it  out.  During  this  decade  it  can  be  re- 
garded as  a  heroic  beginning  only  (W.  H. 

Lyceums. — As  ;in  educational  factor  mention 
should  l)c  made  of  a  law  of  1831  whereby  twenty 
or  more  citizens  of  any  county  could  incorporate 
lyceums  "for  mulual  improvement  in  the  arts 
and  sciences." 

Libraries. — The  constitution  contained  a 
]>rovisioii  that  whenever  a  new  county  should  be 
creaud  at  least  ten  per  cent,  should  be  reserved 



out  of  the  proceeds  from  the  sale  of  town  lots  in 
the  seat  of  justice  and  api)lied  to  the  establish- 
ment of  a  library  for  the  county.  As  early  as 
1816  and  again  in  1818  laws  were  passed  to  carry 
this  provision  into  effect,  and  thus  throughout 
the  legislation  of  the  twenties  we  find  repeated 
measures  for  the  founding  of  these  libraries.  To 
just  what  extent  they  were  used  and  what  part 
they  played  in  the  education  of  the  people,  there 
is  perhaps,  no  way  of  learning  now.  An  auxili- 
ary to  this  system  was  another  system,  pri- 
vately promoted,  of  Sunday  school  libraries, 
which  undoubtedly  had  much  influence,  especially 
with  the  younger  generation.  In  1827  it  was  esti- 
mated that  there  was  in  the  State  a  Sunday  school 
membership  of  two  thousand  children,  and  while 
this  was  but  a  small  percentage  of  even  the  juve- 
nile population,  it  made  an  excellent  seed  bed, 
and  one  writer  on  the  subject  affirms  that  to  these 
libraries  "may  safely  be  ascribed  much  of  the  in- 
telligence and  much  of  the  virtue  of  the  people 
of  later  generations."* 

State  Library. — The  State  Library  was  es- 
tablished by  an  act  of  February  11,  1825.  The 
first  official  word  touching  such  a  library  is  to 
be  found  in  the  Journal  of  the  first  constitutional 
convention,  where,  under  date  of  June  28,  1816, 
it  is  "Resolved,  That  it  be  recommended  to  the 
General  Assembly  of  the  State  of  Indiana,  to  ap- 
propriate the  money  voluntarily  given  by  the 
citizens  of  Harrison  county  to  the  State,  to  the 
purchase  of  books  for  a  library  for  the  use  of 
the  Legislature  and  other  officers  of  government ; 
and  that  the  said  General  Assembly  will,  from 
time  to  time,  make  such  other  appropriations 
for  the  increase  of  said  library  as  they  may  deem 
necessary."  After  a  lapse  of  nine  years  the  pro- 
posed library  materialized,  largely  through  the 
efforts  of  Judge  Benjamin  Parke,  to  whom  is 
given  the  credit  of  being  one  of  our  earliest  and 
most  ardent  promoters  of  all  matters  pertaining 
to  education.  Its  original  purpose,  as  specified 
in  the  Journal,  was  to  serve  the  various  officers 
of  the  State,  and  it  included  what  afterward  be- 
came the  Supreme  Court  Library.  The  humble- 
ness of  its  beginning  is  indicated  by  the  fact  that 
for  sixteen  years  it  did  not  even  have  a  separate 
librarian,  but  was  in  the  hands  of  the  Secretary  of 
State,  who  received  the  munificent  sum  of  $15 
per  year  extra  for  taking  care  of  it,  and  the  an- 

*  J.   p.    Dunn,  "The   Libraries  of  Indiana." 

nual  ajjpropriation  up  to  1831  was  but  $30. 
For  a  good  many  years  the  State  Library  was 
something  of  a  joke,  and  the  librarianship  one 
of  the  minor  political  ]:ilimis,  but  its  scope  grad- 
ually broadened  until  it  has  become  a  large  and 
valuable  reference  library  for  the  use  of  all  citi- 


General  Character. — During  the  earlier  pe- 
riod of  the  State's  history  it  was,  in  its  religious 
phase,  largely  a  missionary  field.  According  to 
a  study  of  this  subject  by  Prof.  C.  B.  Coleman* 
"it  is  scarcely  too  much  to  say  that  Indiana  Prot- 
estant churches  were  not  a  natural  development 
produced  by  the  settlers  who  came  here,  so  much 

First  State  House  in  Indianapolis,  Built  in   1832. 
(See  page  109.) 

as  they  were  a  planting  made  by  ministers  and 
missionaries  from  the  older  sections  of  the 
country."  These  ministers  and  missionaries, 
in  large  part,  represented  prior  to  1830  the 
Baptist,  Methodist,  and  Presbyterian  denomi- 
nations. The  Baptists,  though  at  first  the 
leaders,  did  not  keep  pace  with  the  other 
two,  and  those  sects  are  pre-eminently  conspicu- 
ous in  our  early  religious  history.  Broadly  speak- 
ing they  represented  two  types  of  religionists — 
one  the  intellectual  and  educated  class,  the  other, 
the  masses  who  were  swayed  largely  by  their 

Presbyterianism. — Of  the  Presbyterians  it 
has  been  said  that  they  "build  schoolhouse  and 
church  side  by  side ;"  and  that  "of  Indiana  it  is 
almost  literally  true  that  there  were  no  schools 
until  the  Presbvterian  minister  arrived."     These 

*  Some  Religious  Developments  in  Indiana:  Ind.  Mag.  Hist., 
vol.   V,  No.   2. 



ministers  were  among  the  i'lrst  school  teachers 
and  among  the  first  to  bring  private  libraries  into 
the  territory.  The  denomination  was  the  hrst 
l.y  several  years  to  establish  a  higher  school  for 
the  edncation  of  a  clergy  native  to  the  west,  who 
conld  better  meet  the  reqniremcnts  of  pioneer 
life.  This  was  the  Hanover  school,  sketched  on 
a  ftrevious  i)age.  To  illustrate  the  zeal  and  devo- 
tion of  the  ministry  Mr.  Coleman  cites,  as  typical, 
the  Rev.  John  M.  Dickey,  whose  average  salary 
for  sixteen  years  was  $80,  and  who  eked  out 
a  living  for  his  family  by  farming,  teaching  sing- 
ing classes,  doing  clerical  work,  surveying  land, 
teaching  school  and  mending  shoes,  wdiile  his  wife 
managed  the  household,  spun  and  made  all  the 
woolen  and  linen  garments  of  the  family,  ex- 
tended to  numberless  visitors  the  hospitality  due 
from  a  ])reacher's  wife,  and  reared  a  large  family 
of  children.  This  sketch  is  btit  a  sample  of  many 
that  may  l)e  found  in  the  Presbyterian  annals. 
The  Salem  Presbytery,  the  first  in  Indiana,  was 
formed  in  1823  and  the  first  synod  in  1826. 

Methodism. — The  church  that  made  the 
deepest  impress  on  the  pioneer  population  was  the 
-Methodist  with  its  zealotis  proselyting  and  its 
I)laying  upon  the  emotions  with  a  drastic  the- 
ology and  a  fervent  ajipeal  that  ofttimes  swept 
through  communities  as  a  sort  of  emotional  con- 
tagion. The  open-air  cam])  meeting,  given  over 
to  religious  demonstrations  and  attended  by  large 
numbers  drawn  thither  by  the  excitement,  made 
Methodi>ni  "catching. '"  and  the  extraordinary 
zeal  of  the  clerg\ ,  rude  men  of  the  rank  and  file, 
for  the  most  ])art.  who  carried  the  gospel  to  the 
peojile  lar  and  near  in  the  face  of  hardship  and 
l>rivation,  won  a  membership  to  the  sect  that 
^oon  outranked  all  others  in  jioint  of  numbers. 
.\'o  more  interesting  biographies  can  be  found  tbo-e  that  have  been  preserved  of  many  of 
the  itinerant  preachers  or  circuit  riders,  and  no 
n;irr;ili\cs  afford  more  iiuiniale  glimpses  of  the 
lives  f)f  the  people. 

Catholicism. — The  Catholic  church  is  by  far 
ilie  oldest  religious  institution  in  the  State,  as  it 
dates  b,u-k  to  the  days  of  the  b'rench  occupancy, 
for  manv  u'.irs  the  history  of  the  \'incennes 
ciiurch  s^■^•lns  to  In-  virlu.illy  the  history  of  the 
church  within  (bis  territory,  but  the  Catholic  di- 
rectory ol  \M7  designates  about  thirty  stations 
in  v.irious  p.nts  of  the  Slate  that  were  visited 
morr  cr   less   regularix    by   priests.       I  he   diocese 

of  \'incennes,  comprising  Indiana  and  about 
one-third  of  Illinois,  was  created  in  1834,  wdth 
the  Rev.  Simon  G.  W.  Brute  as  its  first  bishop. 

Christian  or  Disciples'  Church. — This  sect  in 
Indiana  may  be  said  to  have  had  its  beginning 
about  1819.  It  was  a  breaking  away  from  the 
superabundance  of  "man-made"  creeds  and  doc- 
trinal points  that  were  cumbering  the  Protestant 
faith,  and  the  reaction  in  favor  of  a  simpler  form 
of  belief,  based. on  "the  Bible  as  the  living  creed," 
was  crystallized  by  the  influence  of  a  few  men, 
into  a  movement  that  in  time  became  one  of  the 
strongest  churches  in  the  State. 

Religious  and  Moral  Societies. — The  reli- 
gious element  in  this  period  did  not  confine  it- 
self to  church  organization,  but  promoted  vari- 
ous societies  in  the  name  of  religion  and  morals. 
The  Indiana  Sabbath  School  Union,  a  branch  of 
the  American  Sabbath  School  Union,  was  formed 
at  Charlestown,  Clark  county,  in  1826.  Bible 
societies,  auxiliary  to  the  American  Bible  Socie- 
ties, were  formed  in  different  parts  of  the  State, 
and  were  instrumental  in  distributing  thousands 
of  Bibles  either  free  or  at  cost  price.  The  or- 
ganized crusade  against  intemperance  began  with 
the  formation  in  1830  of  the  Indiana  Temper- 
ance Society.  Another  movement  that  may  be 
classed  as  moral,  though  it  had  its  economic  and 
social  side,  was  that  of  removing  the  free  negroes 
from  America  and  colonizing  them  in  Liberia, 
Africa.  The  Indiana  Colonization  Society, 
formed  at  Indianapolis  in  1829,  was  a  branch  of 
a  national  organization.  It  continued  in  active 
existence  for  years,  with  many  of  the  leading 
men  of  the  State  back  of  it,  and  in  1846  it 
launched  a  monthly  publication,  "The  Coloniza- 
tionist,"  knowdedge  of  which  is  so  meager  that 
no  Indianapolis  historian  makes  mention  of  it. 

The  Press. — Prior  to  1820  ten  or  a  dozen 
new^spapers  had  sprung  up  in  Indiana,  most  of 
them  after  the  admission  of  the  State.  In  a  gazet- 
teer of  1833  we  find  what  is  perhaps  the  first  pub- 
lished list  of  papers,  which  shows  twenty-nine 
to  be  in  existence  at  that  time.  As  some  are 
known  of  before  that  date  that  are  not  included 
in  the  list  it  is  probable  that  an  uncertain  luunber 
were  short-lived.  That  the  newspaper  at  that 
day  and  tor  a  good  while  after  commanded  a 
precarious  living  is  evidenced  by  the  papers  them- 
selves as  they  occasionally  voiced  their  discour- 
agements and  diffictilties.     To  "owe  the  printer" 





\\.-i>  ;i  common  derclictioi)  that  seemed  lo  Ijother 
iiiibody's  cfjiiscience.  and  the  editor,  in  man}- 
eases,  was  glad  to  get  his  pay  in  commodities  of 
anv  kind  from  corn  to  eordwood.  The  local  news 
that  was  jmblished  was  very  meager,  the  con- 
tents of  the  columns  revealing  that  popular  inter- 
est ran  largely  to  national  politics  and  foreign 
news,  with  an  infusion  of  Slate  matters  that  grew 
as  internal  affairs  develojied. 

An  occasional  rare  book  or  jjamphlet  bears  the 
date  of  the  twenties  and  the  imprint  of  some  In- 
. liana  press.  The  Rappites,  at  Harmonic,  did 
-nme  printing,  and  their  successors,  the  com- 
niunit\  of  Robert  (  )wen.  had  a  well-equipped  out- 
tit.  Jn  1825  they  launched  a  periodical,  the  "New 
Harmony  Gazette,"  which  was  quite  distinct  in 
character  from  any  other  publication  in  the  State, 
i>eing  devoted  to  social  propaganda  and  the  philo- 
-n|)hical  discussion  of  moral  principles.* 

Medicine. —  l\'])ruary  12,  1825,  a  law  was 
passed  to  "incorporate  medical  societies  for  the 
purpose  of  regulating  the  practice  of  physics  and 
surgery  in  the  State."  By  it  authority  was  given 
to  doctors  of  the  various  counties  to  meet  at  the 
>eat  of  government  and  organize  into  a  corporate 
body,  to  be  known  as  "The  Medical  Society  of 
the  State  of  Indiana."  The  circuit  court  circuits 
were  to  com])rise  so  many  me(lical  districts,  "to 
be  known  as  first,  second  or  third  medical  dis- 
tricts, according  to  the  name  of  the  circuit." 
W  ithin  these  areas  district  societies  were  to  be 
lornicd.  1  he  ."^tate  societ\-  was  to  be  cojnposed 
of  delegates  from  tlie  district  societies,  and  cen- 
sors from  the  districts  weix'  lo  examine  all  can- 
•  liilales  for  license  and  grant  (lip](jmas.  Persons 
ot  bail  moral  cliaractei'  could  not  be  licensed. 

Militia. —  I'.y  the  adjutant-general's  report 
for  1828  we  fnid  tlial  the  aggregate  number  of 
officers  and  men  in  the  State  nn'litia  is  estimated 
at  4().(KX).  but  the  real  status  of  this  establishment 
i>^  indicate<l  by  the   fact  that  onlv  16,657  had  re- 

ported for  muster,  which  was  12,184  less  than 
in  1826.  The  complaint  of  trouble  in  getting  re- 
ports is  also  indicative  of  the  waning  interest. 

Benevolence;  Paupers  and  Negroes. — Gov- 
ernor kay  was,  in  many  instances,  in  advance  of 
his  times.  One  of  his  efforts  was  for  reform  in 
the  treatment  of  paupers.  In  his  messages  of 
1825  he  said :  "It  is  the  poor  and  needy  that  can 
justly  claim  more  of  our  deliberations  than  the 
affluent.  .  .  .  These  unhappy  objects  of  pub- 
lic charity  are  sold  like  merchandise  or  cattle  in 
a  public  market  to  persons  w^ho  are  generally  i 
induced  to  become  their  purchasers  from  motives 
of  gain  and  avarice.  ...  To  me  this  practice 
seems  degrading  to  our  character  as  a  Christian 
people."  His  suggestion  was  that  the  State  be  I 
divided  into  districts  of  counties  or  larger  areas.  \ 
and  that  in  each  of  these  districts  an  asylum  be 
established.  A  committee  report  on  public 
asylums*  does  not,  however,  coincide  with  the 
governor's  opinion.  This  report  reads :  "Com- 
paratively speaking  we  can  scarcely  be  said  to 
have  any  paupers.  The  proportion  is  less  than 
one  to  one  thousand  of  our  population."  The 
existing  system,  it  thought,  was  wisely  adapted 
to  the  situation  of  the  country,  and  therefore  it 
believed  that  the  establishment  of  asylums  was 
not  then  expedient. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  as  earlv  as  1829 
Ray  deplores  the  excessive  influx  of  negroes  into 
Indiana.  These,  he  said,  added  an  uneducated 
and  "immoralized"  element,  most  of  whom  were 
paupers  on  society.  As  a  remedy  for  this  he  ad- 
vocated the  colonization  scheme  which  for  a  num- 
ber of  years  many  regarded  as  the  solution  of 
the  negro  problem.  As  illustrating  a  peculiar 
twist  of  his  moral  perceptions  he  advocated  the 
exportation  of  whisky  because  the  wealth  of  the 
country  would  be  increased  and  l)ecause  "the 
moral  condition  of  our  society  would  be  greatly 
improved  and  ameliorated."! 

\«r  article  (in  "K.nly  Niwsp.ipirs  (.f  Iinliaii.i' 
M;iK.    Ili)tl..  vol.   ii.   No.   3. 

Inil.  Guar. 

*  House  Journal,   lOtli   session,  p.   135. 
■;•  Ray's  message,   1829. 



The  Rappites. — Two  notaljle  intrusions  into 
Indiana's  early  history  were  the  successive  social 
settlements  of  George  Rapp  and  Robert  Owen  at 
New  Harmony  (first  called  Harmonic) ,  in  Posey 
county.  As  early  as  1815  the  "Rappites,"  or 
"Harmonists,"  a  German  religious  sect  imder  the 
leadership  of  George  Rapp,  located  on  the  Wa- 
bash, having  purchased  there  a  holding  of  nearly 
thirtv  thousand  acres.  This  they  owned  in  com- 
mon, and  there  was  not  even  a  separation  into 
families,  as  one  of  their  doctrines  was  that  of 
strict  celibacy.  They  were  intensely  religious, 
docile  to  their  leader,  inoffensive,  industrious  and 
thrifty  with  many  skilled  workmen  among  them. 
The  little  town  of  Harmonic  that  they  built  up 
had  many  brick  buildings,  some  of  them  the  larg- 
est and  most  imposing  to  be  found  in  the  State 
at  that  time.  They  established  a  cocoonery  and 
silk  factory,  a  woolen  mill,  oil  mill,  saw  mill, 
brick  yard,  brewery  and  distillery,  and  the  wil- 
derness in  which  they  settled  was,  within  the 
years  of  their  occupancy,  converted  into  well- 
tilled,  productive  farms,  with  orchards  and  vine- 
yards. The  yield  of  their  fertile  acres  and  their 
various  industries  begat  a  trade  of  no  mean  pro- 
portions which  extended  down  the  Mississippi 
to  New  Orleans,  while  two  or  three  prosperous 
stores  were  maintained  at  Vincennes  and  else- 
where. As  a  result  they  acquired  a  wealth  and 
la  comfort  of  living  far  in  advance  of  the  pioneer 
I  conditions  of  their  American  neighbors,  from 
I  whom  they  were  altogether  removed  in  spirit  and 
in  sympathies. 

The  unfriendly  attitude  of  the  native  Ameri- 
jcans  toward  these  strange  people  is  given  as  one 
iof  the  reasons  why,  in  the  course  of  time,  they 
desired  to  leave  the  Wabash  region.  At  any  rate 
,  after  ten  years  spent  here  they  did  desire  to  leave, 
land  to  that  end  offered  for  sale  all  their  estate 
'with  its  improvements,  including  the  village  of 
Harmonic  with  its  dwellings,  factories  and  indus- 
(trial  machmery  all  ready  for  use! 

Robert  Owen,  Philanthropist,  Buys  Rappite 
Estate. — By  one  of  those  happy  coincidences 
{which  sometimes  occur  in  the  course  of  events, 

there  dwelt  at  Lanark,  Scotland,  an  altogether 
unusual  man  with  aspirations  and  dreams  into 
which  the  opportunity  oft'ered  b\-  the  Rappites 
fitted  as  if  by  a  prearranged  plan.  This  man, 
Robert  Owen,  was  a  large  and  successful  manu- 
facturer whose  desire  to  benefit  humanity 
amounted  to  a  passion.  His  efforts  to  ameliorate 
the  hard  conditions  of  the  ignorant,  over- 
worked and  underpaid  laboring  class  of  Great 
Britain,  and  the  greed  and  stupidity  against 
which  he  contended  make  one  of  the  touching 
chapters  in  the  history  of  philanthropy.  As  a 
philanthropist  of  lofty  ideals  he  had  estabhshed 
for  himself  a  reputation  that  extended  over  Eu- 
rope, but  the  hindrances  to  his  plans  were,  none 
the  less,  insurmountable.  When  an  agent  of  the 
Rappite  society  came  to  him  with  a  proposition 
to  purchase  their  great  estate  with  all  its  improve- 
ments on  the  far-away  Wabash  it  opened  up  a 
new  vista  that  glowed  with  promise.  There,  in 
a  new  country  where  all  things  were  yet  to  be 
formed,  he  could  work  out  the  grand  idea  of  a 
social  reform  that  should  prove  new^  truths  to  the 
world..  The  opportunity  was  too  fascinating  to 
be  resisted,  and  the  outcome  was  that  Owen,  for 
something  like  $150,000,  secured  a  tract  of  land 
considerably  larger  than  an  entire  congressional 
township,  on  which  labor  in  excess  of  that  value, 
doubtless,  had  already  been  expended,  to  say 
nothing  of  a  village  of  substantial  buildings  ca- 
pable of  comfortably  housing  perhaps  a  thousand 
]ieople  and  of  the  industrial  equipments. 

Owen's  Scheme. — His  first  work  after  the 
purchase  was  to  arouse  interest  in  America  by 
promulgating  his  plans,  and  to  that  end  he  came 
to  this  country  and  delivered  several  public  ad- 
dresses, the  first  two  being  in  the  national  capital 
before  large  audiences  in  which  were  many  of 
the  most  distinguished  people  of  the  country. 
These  addresses  which,  after  their  oral  delivery, 
were  published,  advertised  broadcast  the  scheme 
of  a  new  social  experiment  about  to  be  tried,  in 
which  all  who  were  in  sympathy  were  invited  to 
share  as  members.  The  arguments  of  the 
founder  were  alluring  and  plausible,  and  when 



(•i:.\tj:x.\ial  jiistoryaxd  handbook  of  ixdiaxa 

the-  tiinc  caiiK:  to  actually  form  the  coinnninily  it 
was  fouiiil  that  tiu-ix'  was  no  lack  of  material. 

Rappites  Succeeded  by  the  Owen  Community. 
— Hk-  J<ai>i.itL>  Kft  Harmonic  in  1824,,  going  lo 
I'cnnsvlvania.  where  they  established  for  them- 
selves a  new  community  home  which  ihey  called 
l-:conomy.  Early  in  1825  Owen  and  his  followers 
took  ])Ossession  of  the  Wabash  village,  which 
was  rc-nanied  Xew  Harmony.  Even  before 
(  )wen  himself  arrived  on  the  ground  the  place 
was  lilk-(l  with  peo|)le  of  many  kinds.  Some  were 
philanthropists,  entitled  to  all  respect;  some  were 
cranks  full  of  hobbies  and  eccentricities  wdio 
iu\er  were  born  to  work  together  with  anybody 
to  any  end.  When  Owen  arrived  he  set  forth 
his  views  once  more  to  this  mixed  assemblage ; 
the  ■•Preliminary  Society  of  New  Harmony"  was 
formed  and  a  constitution  establishing  a  social 
starting  point  was  adopted. 

Owen's  Ideals. — The  society  was  called  "Pre- 
liminary" l)ecause  it  was  regarded  as  but  the  first 
stej)  toward  a  more  ideal  organization  to  which 
I)eople  were  to  be  educated.  The  constitution 
adopted  announced  that  the  object  of  the  society 
was  to  secure  for  its  members  "the  greatest 
amount  of  hai)i)iness,"  and  to  "transmit  it  to 
their  children  to  the  latest  posterity."  All  mem- 
bers of  it  were  to  be  of  the  same  rank,  wath  no 
artiticial  ine()ualities,  and  all  were  to  be  "willing 
lo  render  their  best  services  for  the  good  of  the 
society,  according  to  their  age,  experience  and 
capacity."  The  official  name  of  the  society  w-as 
to  be  "The  New  Harmony  Community  of  P^qual- 
ity."  and  its  social  program  was  long  and  elalj- 
orale.  covering,  or  aiming  to  cover,  the  manv  and 
\ari;ible  relations  that  must  exist  in  any  society. 
<  >ne  feature  of  the  general  plan,  which  was  de- 
sciibid  in  the  (  )wen  address  above  referred  to,  a  series  of  ideal  villages,  as  the  community 
grew,  e;ich  of  which  was  to  consist  of  solid  rows 
ot  dwellings  or  a])artments  something  like  a  mod- 
ern tenement,  but  arranged  around  a  hollow 
-'•luare  one  thousand  feet  long.  The  village  was 
111  b;i\e,  besides  these  living  ap;u"tmenls,  a  pri- 
mary .and  hii,di  school,  ])ulilic  dining  hall  and 
kitchen,  common  nursery  for  the  children,  and 
rooms  lor  roiniiiui)ily  ]iuri)oses.  such  .as  lectiu'es, 
d;mces.    concerts,  etc. 

i'his  "model  vill;i.L;e."  as  it  w:is  designated. 
aloiii[  with  (iiher  plans  ;md  ideas,  never  got  be- 
MHid  ilie  st;i!L,'e.  .and  it   mav  be  added  here 

that  in  the  character  of  the  jjeople  attracted  by 
the  experiment,  and  in  their  diversity  of  views 
when  brought  to  the  test  of  a  definite  social 
scheme,  was  the  fatal  obstacle  to  any  kind  of 

The  Scientific  and  Educational  Circle;  Will- 
iam Maclure. —  The  most  notable  acquisition  of 
the  Owen  colony  was  the  addition  of  a  group  of 
men  who  took  high  rank  among  the  scientists 
and  educators  of  the  day.  Conspicuous  among 
these  as  a  leader  was  William  ]\Iaclure.  of  Phila- 
delphia, a  man  of  wealth  and  both  scientist  and 
educator.  As  the  former  he  came  to  be  known 
as  "The  Father  of  American  Geology,"  by  vir- 
tue of  his  pioneer  labor  in  that  field,  and  he  was 
a  principal  founder  and  for  many  years  presi- 
dent of  the  Philadelphia  Academy  of  X'atural 
Sciences.  As  a  promoter  of  education  he  intro- 
duced into  America  the  Pestalozzian  system  and 
his  ardor  in  educational  matters  was  second  only 
to  his  interest  in  science.  Like  Robert  r)wen  he 
was  by  nature,  and  sincerely,  a  philanthropist, 
and  their  essential  kinship  drew  the  two  men 
together.  In  some  directions  Maclure  did  not 
share  Owen's  social  theories,  but  the  famous  ex- 
periment was  one  to  interest  him,  especially  as 
it  opened  up  possibilities  for  the  fulfilment  of  his 
cherished  ideas ;  and  hence,  when  Owen  solicited 
his  co-operation  he  readily  affiliated  by  putting 
in  to  the  scheme,  as  a  copartner,  about  the  same 
amount  as  the  other  had  applied  to  the  original 

Maclure's  Dream. — The  dream  that  took  pos- 
session of   Maclure  was  the  establishment  of  a 
great  school  wdiicli  should  be  the  center  of  learn- 
ing in  the  west  of  the  future  and  of  a  system  of 
"free,  equal  and  universal  schools   for   feeding,  , 
clothing  and  instructing  all  the  children  of  the  j 
State."     Several  years  before  he  had  brought  to  j 
this  country,  from  Switzerland,  Joseph  X^'eef,  a 
disciple  of   Pestalozzi.  who  opened  at  Philadel- 
]->h'v,\  the  first  Pestalozzian  school  in  the  United 
.States.     Neef  and  this  school  he  now  plucked  up 
bodily,  as  it  w^erc.  to  transfer  them  to  the  Wa- 

Maclure's  Co-Workers. — Along  with  Neef 
Maclure's  prestige  and  influence  enlisted  a  group 
of  brilliant  and  able  men,  some  of  them  of  na- 
tional reputation,  who  were  to  contribute  their 
talents  to  the  proposed  school  of  higher  educa- 
tion.    Notable  among  these  were  Thomas   Say, 



Charles   A.    Lesueur,    Gerard   Troost   and   John 

Say,  a  pioneer  in  zoology  as  Maclure  was  in 
geology,  was  perhaps  the  greatest  American  zo- 
ologist of  his  day;  Lesueur  was  a  naturalist  of 
high  repute  and  an  artist ;  Troost  was  a  geologist, 
at  a  later  date  State  geologist  of  Tennessee.  Chap- 
pelsmith, of  lesser  fame,  was  an  artist  and  en- 
graver. Say  and  Neef  are  both  buried  at  New 
Harmony,  and  the  former,  during  his  life  there, 
was  the  author  of  important  works  on  natural 

their  scientific  and  intellectual  accomplishments, 
added  to  the  fame  of  New  Harmony  through  a 
period  of  many  years,  and  made  it  a  center  of 
interest  to  scientists,  philosophers  and  travelers 
abroad.  Conspicuous  among  them  were  the  four 
sons  of  Robert  Owen,  Robert  Dale,  William,  Da- 
vid Dale  and  Richard  Dale,  all  of  whom  had  been 
highly  educated  in  the  schools  of  Europe.  Rob- 
ert Dale  Owen,  the  best  known  of  these  brothers  in 
the  history  of  Indiana,  was  widely  in  touch  with 
the  affairs  of  the  State  and  did  notable  service 

Harmonic,  1816. 

'history.  That  men  of  this  stamp  should  have  left 
the  great  centers  and  buried  themselves  in  the 
remote  wilderness  is  an  evidence  of  the  lofty 
'hopes  inspired  by  the  social  experiment. 

The  Boatload  of  Knovi^ledge. — A  literatesque 
•feature  of  this  scientific  exodus  from  the  east 
[was  that  a  good-sized  party  of  men  and  women, 
with  their  equipment,  traveled  from  Pittsburg  to 
New  Harmony  in  a  keelboat,  and  to  this  day  the 
outfit  is  humorously  spoken  of  as  "The  Boatload 
5f  Khowledge." 

Other  Characters;  the  Ov^^en  Family. — Aside 
jfrom  the  Maclure  group  there  was  a  list  of  men 
md  women, too  long  to  be  dealt  with  here,  who  by 

as  a  statesman  both  at  home  and  as  a  representa- 
tive at  Washington.  As  a  pioneer  in  the  move- 
ment for  the  extended  rights  of  women  that  class 
owe  him  a  debt  of  gratitude,  which  they  acknowl- 
edged a  few  years  since  by  placing  a  bronze  bust 
on  the  grounds  of  the  State  Capitol.  As  a  mem- 
ber of  the  constitutional  convention  of  1850  he 
was,  perhaps,  the  ablest  contributor  to  that  instru- 
ment, and  left  his  strong  impress  upon  it.  In 
the  cause  of  science  he,  more  than  any  other  man, 
brought  about  the  establishment  of  the  Smith- 
sonian Institute  at  Washington. 

William  Owen  is  less  known  than  his  trio  of 
distinguished  brothers,  but  he  figured,  until  his 


ci:x'n:xMAi-  history  axd  handbook  of  Indiana 

(Icalh  in  1S42,  as  an  al.I.-.  v.-r^atilc  and  helpful 
citizen  of  New  Harmon\ 

David  Dale  Owen,  of  iIk  lust  rank  as  a  scien- 
tist, was  in  1S37  appointed  United  Slates  geolo- 
}(ist.  and  during  his  services  as  such  the  govern- 
ment geological  survey  was  eslahhshed  at  New 
llarnionv,  which  gave  the  place  additional  impor- 
tance, lie  was  the  lirst  State  geologist  of  Indi- 
ana, having  previously  occupied  the  same  office 
for  Kentucky  and  Arkansas.  He  died  while  ge- 
ologist <>i  this  Stale  and  was  succeeded  to  the 
office  hy  his  brother  Richard,  who  throughout  a 
long  life  was  identiticfl  with  scientific  and  educa- 
tional development  in  this  State,  ll  may  he  added 
lurr  ihat  I"..  T.  C  ox.  another  product  of  New 
1  larmonv.  was  our  State  geologist  for  twelve 
years,  and  perhaps  a  half-dozen  other  men  of  this 
group  were  identihed  with  geological  surveys 
in  other  States.  Among  the  able  men  in  other 
lines  may  be  mentioned  Josiah  Warren,  inventor 
and  social  philosopher  whose  ideas  for  the  solu- 
tion of  certain  social  problems  have  not  yet  been 
exploded,  nor  has  the  interest  in  them  ceased. 
L'onstantine  Raffinesque.  one  of  the  celebrated 
early  naturalists,  was  a  frequent  visitor  to  New 
1  larmony.  and  among  other  visitors  attracted 
thither  by  the  famous  resident  coterie  were  John 
James  Audubon,  Sir  Charles  Lyell  and  Prince 
Maximilian,  of  Prussia,  who  with  a  corps  of 
scientists,  was  touring  the  United  States. 
Frances  Wright,  one  of  the  most  intellectual 
women  of  her  day,  and  conspicuous  as  an  advo- 
cate of  the  rights  of  women,  was  intimately  iden- 
tified with  the  Ov,-ens  colony. 

Failures  of  New  Harmony. —  The  nionu- 
nu'  anil  general  failure  of  the  New  Harmony 
experiment  and  the  various  causes  of  it  make  a 
tascinating  study  in  social  i)rinciples.  When  com- 
pared wilh  till'  community  success  of  the  Rap- 
pites  a  i)erfect  contrast  is  afTorded.  The  latter 
were  bound  together  by  a  common  religious  belief 
and  '-ub^erxieiil  to  a  coninion  leader.  There  was 
no  questioning,  no  dissenl  and  no  intellectual  un- 
rc-st.  'I  he  Owen  colony,  mi  llu'  contrary,  was  in 
no  sense  a  unit,  milcss  i|  ]n-  in  tlie  general  dis- 
s.-itisf.Ktinii  with  the  established  order  of  things. 
Hec.-iuse  Ihey  did  not  agree  with  the  established 
order  ami  bad  ii..  resting  pl.ace  tlie\  segregated 
in  hopes  of  fin. Hug  mie.  but  only  to  find,  instead, 
that  llu-y  agreed  no  better  .iniong  themselves. 

General  Dissension. — Before  the  end  of  the 
second  year  disintegration  was  well  under  way. 
Almost  in  the  beginning  there  set  in  what  might 
be  called  subsegregations — birds  of  a  feather 
flocking  together  until  instead  of  one  society 
there  were  several  distinct  communities.  As  some 
wit  happily  intimated,  ''New  Harmony"  became 
a  misnomer — it  was,  more  properly,  New  Dis- 
cord. One  of  the  serious  discords  arose  between 
the  two  heads  of  the  experiment,  Owen  and 
Maclure.  The  latter,  who  was  to  have  had  en- 
tire control  of  the  school  scheme,  was  one  of  the 
first  to  secede  from  the  original  colony,  and 
Owen  set  up  a  system  of  his  own,  and  so  in  lieu 
of  the  proposed  great  school  there  were  several 
minor  ones,  with  more  or  less  hostility  between 
them.  One  of  these  under  the  auspices  of  Mac- 
lure,  was  an  industrial  school,  the  second  one  to 
be  established  in  the  United  States. 

Maclure  and  Robert  Owen  Leave;  Estimate 
of  the  Two  Men. — Maclure  spent,  all  told,  only 
about  two  years  at  New  Harmony,  though  his 
interest  in  the  place  continued  till  his  death. 
Robert  Owen  did  not  stay  there  much  longer, 
and  by  1827  the  social  experiment  was  an  ac- 
knowledged failure. 

In  their  moral  zeal  and  in  their  philosophies 
these  two  leaders  were  much  alike.  Both  com- 
bined with  worldly  wisdom  and  great  ability 
ideas  so  at  variance  with  common  observation  as 
to  seem  puerile.  Owen's  fundamental  mistake 
was  in  assuming  that  environment  and  instruction 
wholly  made  the  man,  and  that  human  beings 
could  be  molded  like  putty  to  a  theory.  The  in- 
dividualistic element  did  not  seem  to  enter  into 
his  calculations.  It  was  even  a  part  of  his  plan 
that  children  should  be  separated  from  their  par- 
ents and  be  virtually  owned  by  the  community. 
Maclure's  educational  theory,  along  with  many 
ideas  that  are  to-day  regarded  as  the  best,  advo- 
cated an  extreme  utilitarianism.  What  we  call 
cultural  ac(|uirements,  including  literature  and 
art,  had  no  place  in  his  scheme.  "A  plain,  simple 
narrative  of  facts  got  bv  evidence  of  the  senses" 
was  the  only  literature  needful  he  held,  and  the 
thing  to  be  most  guarded  against  was  the  "exag- 
gerated delusions  of  the  imagination."  The  play 
of  children  was  to  be  directed  to  useful  ends, 
and  "nothing  but  positive  knowledge  ought  to  be 
taught  to  children."     Utility  was  "the  only  scale 



by  whicli  tlic  value  of  everything  is  to  be  meas- 
ured." As  these  ideas  were  also  shared  by  Owen 
it  seems  very  likely  that  they  would  have  met 
serious  obstacles  to  success  even  had  the  leaders 
proceeded  in  perfect  harmony  with  each  other. 

The  Successes  of  New  Harmony. — George 
];.  Lockwood,  in  his  very  thorough  study  of  this 
whole  subject,  speaks  in  happy  paradox  of  "the 
failure  of  George  Rapp's  success"  and  "the  suc- 
cess of  Robert  Owen's  failure,"  and  among  the 
successes  of  the  Owen  regime  he  particularly 
si)ecifies  the  educational  influences  that  emanated 
from  there.  The  ideas  of  Pestalozzi,  introduced 
by  Maclure  and  Joseph  Neef,  made  their  impress 
in  time  on  the  educational  history  of  the  State. 
It  was  a  nursing  place  for  "first  things,"  the  first 

Home  of  (jeorgc  Rapp,  Harmonic,  1824. 

infant  school  and  kindergarten  in  the  country, 
the  first  distinctively  trade  school,  the  first  real 
public-school  system  and  the  first  school  to  offer 
e<iual  advantages  to  boys  and  girls,  all  being  ac- 
credited to  the  New  Harmony  experiment. 

Robert  Owen's  Successors. — Nor  was  this 
all  by  any  means.  When  Robert  Owen,  discour- 
aged, retired  from  the  field  he  left  able  men 
established  i)ermanently  on  the  ground,  and 
tliKugh  the  "social  exjjeriment,"  as  such,  ceased 
to  b(.-,  their  activities  did  not  cease.  It  became 
later,  as  ])revi()usly  said,  a  scientific  center  of 
wide  re])Utation  and  intlucnce.  and  the  town  took 
on  a  character  that  is  to  the  present  day  quite 
distinctive  and  superior,  while  through  some  of 
its  citizens,  particularly  Robert  Dale  Owen,  its 
most  dislingui-hed  piiblie  man,  and  a  direct  prod- 

uct of  the  original  New  Harmony  idea,  it  exerted 
no  small  influence  in  the  affairs  of  the  State. 

Status  of  Women  at  New  Harmony. — One 
development  that  should  not  be  overlooked  is 
that  of  the  status  of  women.  Owen  stood  for 
equality  of  the  sexes  at  a  day  when  such  an  idea 
had  little  lodgment  in  the  public  mind,  and  the 
arduous  devotion  to  the  emancipation  of  her  sex 
by  Frances  Wright,  one  of  the  remarkable  women 
of  her  times,  did  much  to  create  an  enlarged 
sphere  for  her  sisters.  These  ideas  found  prac- 
tical issue  when  Robert  Dale  Owen,  as  legislator 
and  member  of  the  second  constitutional  con- 
vention stood  as  a  champion  for  rights  of  women, 
securing  for  them  a  recognition  for  which  they 
have  not  been  ungrateful  in  later  days.  ; 

The     Maclure     Libraries. — As   before    said,! 
though  William  Maclure's  scheme  for  a  great 
school  at  New  Harmony  failed  and  he  was  only , 
a  temporary  resident  of. that  place,  his  educa-( 
tional  interest  did  not  cease,  and  his  will  created 
a  fund  for  the  establishment,  under  certain  condi- 1 
tions,  of  libraries  over  the  State  for  the  benefit  of 
"the  working  classes  who  labor  with  their  hands  j 
and  earn  their  living  in  the  sweat  of  their  brows."  ' 
It  should  be  added  that  Maclure's  desire  to  help ; 
this  class  amounted  to  a  passion,  and  his  ani- 1 
mosity  to  the  class  "who  live  by  the  ignorance  ] 
of  the  millions,"  was  inveterate.    The  library  be- 
quest met  with  legal  hindrances  and  it  was  not 
vmtil  1855,  fifteen  years  after  the  donor's  death,  j 
that  the  fund  was  applied.    By  it  $500  was  to  be  I 
given  to  any  club  or  society  of  laborers  in  the 
United  States  who  would  establish  a  reading  and 
lecture  room  with  a  library  of  at  least  one  hun- 
dred volumes.     The  result  of  this  benefaction 
was  144  libraries  in  Indiana,  distributed  through 
eighty-nine  counties.     J-  P-  Dunn,  in  his  mono- 
graph, "The  Libraries  of  Indiana,"  does  not  at- 
tribute a  very  wide  influence  to  the  libraries,  for 
various  reasons,  but  they  were,  to  say  the  least, 
a  notable  contribution  to  the  culture  of  the  State 
and  an  interesting  forerunner  of  the  extensive 
Carnegie  system  of  the  present  day.* 

*  The  fullest  and  best  account  of  the  New  Harmony  experi- 
ment is  the  elaborate  study  by  George  B.  Lockwood,  "The  New 
Harmony   Movement." 



TO  LAW  OF  1836 


Early  Conditions. — The  famous  internal  im- 
provement plan  of  1836  by  which  Indiana  inau- 
gurated a  huge  paternalistic  scheme  for  supply- 
ing an  elaborate  system  of  roads  and  canals  can 
not  be  presented  intelligently  unless  we  also  con- 
sider the  movement  antecedent  to  that  culmina- 
tion. The  absurdity  of  the  undertaking  borrows 
palliation  from  the  desperate  necessities  that  ex- 
isted and  is  in  a  measure  explained  by  them. 

From  the  beginning,  and  in  proportion  as  the 
settlements  pushed  northward  from  the  Ohio 
river,  the  problem  of  getting  in  and  out  increased 
in  seriousness,  and  by  the  time  the  central  por- 
tion of  the  State  was  taken  up  as  far  north  as 
the  upper  Wabash  the  problem  became  a  Inost 
pressing  one.  The  new  capital  was  eighty-five 
miles  from  the  nearest  market  outlet  and  many 
points  were  considerably  farther,  with  one  vast 
forest  intervening.  The  natural  outlets,  the 
streams,  were,  with  few  exceptions,  unreliable, 
and  at  best  served  only  certain  communities,  and 
intercommunication  generally  was  practically  im- 
possible until  a  system  of  highways  was  made 
through  the  wilderness. 

Early  Roads. — Thus  it  was  that  in  the  twen- 
ties the  question  of  internal  improvements  as  a 
live  issue  was  largely  confined  to  roads,  and  the 
road  legislation  during  that  period  is  so  frequent 
and  so  complicated  in  its  overlappings  as  to  be 
confusing.  Every  new  locality,  as  it  was  opened 
up  to  settlement,  had  to  be  accommodated  in  vari- 
ous directions  and  the  road  making  was  not  con- 
fined to  local  initiative,  but  an  elaborate  system 
of  State  highways  was  projected  and  added  to 
and  altered,  one  year  after  another.*  The 
scheme  generally,  in  its  results,  seems  to  have 
demonstrated  the  general  inefficiency  that  usu- 
ally,  or  perhaps  always,  accompanies  paternal- 

*  It  should  be  stated  that  the  funds  for  these  roads  was  not  a 
direct  tax  upon  the  people,  as  under  the  internal  improvement 
law  of  1836.  They  were  largely  derived  from  the  "3  per  cent, 
fund,"  which  was  donated  by  the  federal  government  out  of  the 
sale  of  public  lands. 

istic  attempts.  Ray,  in  his  first  message,  speak- 
ing of  the  roads  authorized  in  1821-2,  with  an 
appropriation  of  $100,000,  says : 

"It  is  well  worthy  of  inquiry  whether  the  large 
expenditures  that  have  already  been  made  have 
answered  the  expectations  of  the  public ;  whether 
large  sums  have  not  been  paid  to  numerous  com- 
missioners for  services  that  could  as  well  have 
been  rendered  by  one-third  of  the  number  em- 
ployed and  at  little  more  than  one-third  of  the 
expense ;  whether  a  number  of  the  roads  opened 
under  the  provision  of  the  law  are  not  entirely 
useless  to  the  public  and  even  suffered  to  become 
altogether  impassable  by  a  second  growth  and 
neglect  to  keep  them  in  repair." 

In  a  report  of  1826  we  find  thirty-eight  State 
roads  listed  and  $78,319.53  was  apportioned  to 
them  from  the  three  per  cent,  fund,  which  was 
one  of  the  very  important  sources  of  road  rev- 
enue.* Other  sources  of  maintenance  were,  a 
road  tax  levied  upon  real  estate  and  compulsory 
road  labor  on  the  part  of  male  adults  under  fifty 
years  of  age. 

Road  Conditions. — The  general  result  of 
this  expenditure  and  labor  was  crude  in  the  ex- 
treme. The  so-called  "improvement"  was  little 
more  than  the  opening  of  wagon  ways  through 
the  wilderness  and  they  were  hardly  more  prac- 
ticable than  the  drift-choked  streams.  Of  their 
atrocious  character  much  has  been  said  and  yet 
the  subject,  seemingly,  has  never  been  done  jus- 
tice. From  the  hills  of  the  southern  counties  to 
the  prairies  beyond  the  Wabash  the  State  was, 
for  the  most  part,  a  level  plain  covered  with  a 
forest  that  shut  out  the  sun  from  the  rank  mold, 
and  this,  like  a  sponge,  held  the  accumulated 
waters.  Vast  areas  were  nothing  but  swamps, 
which  the  streams  never  fully  drained. f     Most 

•  See  report  of  B.  T.  Blythe,  agent  of  3  per  cent,  fund,  House 
Journal,  11th  session,  p.  21. 

t  Mr.  William  Butler,  a  pioneer  of  southern  Indiana,  has  told 
the  present  writer  of  a  trip  he  made  to  Indianapolis  in  the  thir- 
ties. He  stopped  over  night  with  a  settler  in  Johnson  county, 
and,  inquiring  as  to  the  country  east  of  them,  was  told  that  there 
was  no  other  residence  in  that  direction  for  thirty  miles.     "And 




ol  the  year  a  journey  o\er  the  roatls  vva^  sinipl)' 
a  slow,  laborious  wallowing  ilirougli  mud;  the 
bogs  were  passable  only  by  the  use  of  "cordu- 
roy." autl  this  corduroy  of  poles  laid  side  by  side 
for  miles  not  infre(|uenlly  had  to  be  weighted 
down  with  dirt  to  prevent  floating  ott  when  the 
swamji  waters  rose.  In  a  book  called  "The  New 
I'urcha-e."  which  purports  to  dej)icl  life  in  cen- 
tral Indiana  in  the  early  twenties,  the  wagon  trip 
to  llloiimington  is  described  in  the  author's  pe- 
culiar, half-intelligible  style.  He  speaks  of  the 
country  as  ••buttermilk  land,"  "mashland,"  "rooty 
and  snaggy  land."  with  mudholes  and  quicksands 
and  c(>i-duro}s,  "wox^en  single  and  double  twill," 
,ind  there  are  fords  "•with  and  without  bottom." 
In  tlie  early  spring,  he  says,  the  streams  were 
brimful,  "creeks  turneil  to  rivers,  rivers  to 
lakes,  and  lakes  to  bigger  ones,  and  traveling  by 
land  becomes  traveling  by  mud  and  water."  As 
one  proceeded  he  must  tack  to  right  and  left,  not 
to  hnd  the  road,  but  to  get  out  of  it  and  find 
places  where  the  mud  w-as  "thick  enough  to  bear." 
'J"he  way  w^as  a  "most  ill-looking,  dark-colored 
morass,  enlivened  by  streams  of  purer  mud  (the 
r(iads  t  crossing  at  right  angles,"  and  these 
streams  were  "thick-set  with  stumps  cut  just  low 
enough  for  wagons  to  straddle."  Innumerable 
siul)S  of  saplings,  sharpened  like  spears  by  being 
shorn  off  obliquely,  waited  to  impale  the  unlucky 
traveler  who  might  be  pitched  out  upon  them, 
and  the  prol)ability  of  such  accident  was  consid- 
erable as  the  lumbering  wagon  plunged  over  a 
succosion  of  ruts  and  roots,  describing  an  "ex- 
hilarating seesaw  with  the  most  astonishing  alter- 
nation of  plunge,  creak  and  splash."  Ever  and 
anon  the  brimming  streams  had  to  be  crossed, 
sometimes  by  unsafe  fording  and  sometimes  by 
rude  urries.  In  the  latter  case  the  ferrykeeper 
was  apt  l(j  be  off  at  work  somewhere  in  his  clear- 
ing, and  the  traveler  had  to  •'halloo  the  ferry" 
till  he  iduld  make  himself  heard. 

Mow  Nciious  iIk-  road  (pieslion  was  as  affect- 
int^  public  wellaie  is  evidenced  bv  our  legisla- 
tion. I'k.iu  1S2()  there  was  scarcely  a  session  but 
road  laws  were  enacted,  adding  to  or  modifying 
the  system,  ;ind.  in  many  instances  rei)ealing  stat- 
utes ihal  -M-rni  to  h.ive  Ikhmi  expc-rinient.d  and  ill- 

«'s  Ml,.,,-,  iIku-  ,i,\,i  will  l.i."  llif  iiifoniianl  a.lcled,  liis  rea- 
-oii  l.iiii«  ili.,|  till-  Mil>iii<:rKt<l  lau.l  was  incclaiiiiablc.  It  may 
lp«-  iiMiarkiil,  iiiii.lcntally,  that  llic  swamp  in  (luistion  lias  long 
■  IK"  Ixri.   into  lini-   farms. 

The  National  and  Michigan  Roads. — In  the 

road  history  of  Indiana  these  two  thoroughfares 
stand  distinct  from  the  system  of  State  roads, 
though  the  one  last  named  was  constructed  by 
the  State.  The  National  road,  as  the  name  im- 
plies, was  the  work  of  the  Federal  government, 
designed  as  a  great  highway  to  connect  the  west 
with  the  east.  It  began  at  Cumberland,  Md. 
(from  which  fact  it  at  first  bore  the  name  of  the 
•'Cumberland  road"),  and  was  to  reach  St.  Louis 
after  traversing  parts  of  Pennsylvania  and  West 
Virginia  and  the  central  portions  of  Ohio,  Indi- 
ana and  Illinois.  As  originally  planned  it  would 
have  passed  south  of  Indianapolis  and  near  Co- 
lumbus, in  Bartholomew  county,  but  through  the 
efforts  of  Oliver  H.  Smith,  when  a  congressman, 
the  route  was  changed.  The  first  Federal  legis- 
lation regarding  this  road  dates  back  to  1806  and 
its  extension  toward  and  into  the  western  coun- 
try was  a  matter  of  lively  interest  for  many  years. 
It  reached  the  Indiana  line  in  1827,  the  first  work 
in  this  State  being  in  Wayne  cotinty  that  year. 
In  1831  there  was  an  appropriation  of  $75,000 
for  work  that  included  the  bridge  over  White 
river  at  Indianapolis.  Throughout  the  tliirties, 
as  before,  its  completion  and  improvement  was 
an  ever-recurring  theme  for  the  newspapers,  but 
the  improvement  in  the  west  was  comparatively 
inferior,  the  expenditure  on  it  here  being  but 
about  $3,000  per  mile  as  against  $6,000  on  the 
eastern  end.  The  money  for  this  road  was  de- 
rived from  the  sale  of  lands  in  the  public  do- 
main, two  per  cent,  being  reserved  for  internal 
improvements  under  the  direction  of  Congress.* 
The  Michigan  road,  from  Madison  on  the  Ohio 
river  to  the  mouth  of  Trail  creek  on  Lake  Michi- 
gan, was  a  work  of  the  thirties.  It  traversed  the 
central  portion  of  the  State  from  south  to  north 
as  the  National  road  did  from  east  to  west,  the 
two  forming  a  pair  of  trunk  lines  that  gave  en- 
trance to  the  different  sections  of  the  State.  The 
southern  terminus  was  determined,  as  the  south- 
ern terminus  of  the  first  railroad  was  a  little  later, 
by  the  political  influence  then  existing  at  Madi- 
son. The  northern  terminus  was  determined  by 
the  chance  of  a  good  lake  harbor  at  the  mouth 
i)t  Trail  creek,  and  this  also  determined  the  loca- 
tion of  Michigan  C"ilv.     It  ran  from  Madison  •'al- 

*  For  long  paper  on  National  road,  and  additional  matter  re- 
lating to  tlie  road  in  Indiana,  see  Ind.  Quar.  Mag.  Hist.,  vol. 
iii.  "The  Old  Pike,"  by  T.  B.  Searight,  is  the  fullest  work  on 
the  road  as  a  whole. 



most  due  north  through  Jefferson  and  Ripley 
counties  to  Greensburg  in  Decatur.  Thence,  by 
a  direct  line,  it  led  across  Shelby  county  to  the 
capital.  The  important  sections  of  the  road  were 
those  from  Indianapolis  across  Hamilton,  Boone, 
Clinton  and  Carroll  counties  to  Logansport,  and 
from  that  place  due  north  again  across  Cass, 
Fulton  and  Marshall  to  South  Bend,  and  thence 
west  to  Michigan  City.  During  eight  months  of 
the  year  it  was  an  open,  passable  highway,  but 
during  the  winter  it  was  an  endless  stream  of 

makers,  was,  of  course,  largely  farcical.  The 
value  of  the  lands  about  balanced  the  cost  of  the 
road,  which,  up  to  1840,  was  something  like 


Ohio  Falls  Canal. — The  first  canal  agitation 
in  Indiana  was  for  a  waterway  around  the  falls 
of  the  Ohio  river,  which  were  a  serious  impedi- 
ment to  navigation.  This  concerned  Kentucky 
and  Ohio  quite  as  much  a^^  Indiana,  and  one  of 

Old  National  Road  Bridge  Over  White  River,  Indianapolis.— 5^t'/c7i  by  Alois  E.  Sinks. 

black  mud  and  almost  useless.  Its  importance 
may  be  estimated  from  the  fact  that  one-half  of 
the  pioneers  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  Indiana 
reached  their  homes  over  it"  (Esarey).  The 
funds  for  this  work  were  derived  from  lands  that 
were  given  by  the  Potawatomie  Indians  through 
what  is  known  as  the  Mississinewa  treaty,  made 
in  October,  1826.  These  donated  lands  con- 
sisted of  one  section  for  each  mile  of  the  pro- 
posed highway,  granted  to  the  State  "as  an  evi- 
dence of  the  attachment  which  the  Potawatomie 
tribe  feel  toward  the  American  people,  and  par- 
ticularly to  the  soil  of  Indiana" — which  fine  sen- 
timent, evolved  and  framed  by  the  white  treaty- 

the  propositions  in  the  twenties  was  a  joint  work 
by  Ohio  and  Indiana,  but  nothing  came  of  it. 

As  early  as  1805  a  company  was  formed  in  this 
State,  composed  largely  of  Clark  county  citizens, 
and  $120,000  subscribed  for  the  canal  in  question 
(Esarev).  Soon  after  the  admission  of  the  State 
the  Legislature  chartered  "The  Ohio  Canal  Com- 
]>anv,"  which  aimed  to  raise  a  capital  of  $1,000.- 
000,  but  failed  to  do  so.  A  reorganized  company 
with  a  new  charter  was  authorized  in  1818  to 
raise  money  by  lottery,  the  State  itself  to  be  a 
stockholder,  and  the  following  year  work  w;is 
begun.  Like  much  of  the  subse(iuent  canal  work, 
however,   the   capital   and   labor  expended   were 



a  sheer  loss.  Support,  was  inadcijuate  and  prog- 
ress slow.  In  1825  Kentucky  look  u])  the  work 
on  it^  side.  The  cut  could  be  made  much  cheaper 
there.  The  Kentucky  enterprise  had  the  back- 
ing of  the  Federal  government,  and  the  Indiana 
effort,  that  had  persisted  stubbornly  for  twenty 
years  or  more,  received  its  death-blow.  That 
Louisville  became  a  metropolis  and  Jefferson ville 
and  New  Albany  sank  into  desuetude  was  no 
doubt  largely  determined  by  the  canal  as  a  com- 
mercial factor.  The  Indiana  scheme  seems  to 
have  died  hard,  for  as  late  as  1836  there  was  a 
flicker  of  revival  when  a  company  obtained  an- 
other charter  for  the  renew'al  of  work  on  our 
side.  This,  however,  never  got  farther  than  the 
first  movement. 

Whitewater  Canals;  East  and  West  Forks, 
— The  Whitewater  canal  that  traversed  the  val- 
ley of  the  West  Fork  as  far  north  as  Hagers- 
town,  Wayne  county,  connecting  it  with  the  Ohio 
river  at  Lawrenceburg  and  Cincinnati,  was  part 
of  the  State  internal  improvement  scheme  of 
1836,  but  as  early  as  1822  the  question  of  a 
canal  through  that  important  region  was  agi- 
tated. It  need  be  only  mentioned  here.  For 
"Completion  of  the  Whitewater  Canal"  see  chap- 
ter xii. 

The  work  up  the  east  fork,  known  in  its  day 
as  the  Richmond  and  Brookville  canal,  was  never 
fmished,  but  it  was  begun  and  from  1834  to  the 
close  of  that  decade  it  was  a  lively  hope,  consid- 
erable energy  and  money  being  spent  on  it. 

The  Wabash  and  Erie  Canal. — The  qtiestion 
of  a  canal  to  connect  the  waters  of  the  Wabash 
and  Maumee  rivers,  which  ultimately  became  the 
famous  Wabash  and  Erie,  began  to  be  agitated 
in  the  early  twenties.  This,  Governor  Hen- 
dricks urged,  would  open  an  inland  navigation 
from  New  York  to  New  Orleans  (via  the  Erie 
canal  of  New  York)  and  would  be  the  great 
ai^ent    in   enhancing  the   value  of   vast  cjuantities 

of  public  lands.  Indiana  alone  was  too  poor  to 
attempt  the  work,  and  after  repeated  appeals  for 
Federal  aid  and  much  debating  of  the  subject. 
Congress,  in  1827,  made  liberal  grants  of  land 
along  the  proposed  route  amounting  to  three 
thousand  two  hundred  acres  for  each  lineal  mile. 
Construction  was  begun  in  1832  and  in  1836  the 
work  was  merged  in  the  State's  plans  for  gen- 
eral improvement.* 

Other  canal  propositions  that  never  got  beyond 
talk,  claimed  public  attention  during  these  earlier 
years,  and  by  the  early  thirties  the  agitation  of 
railroads  became  pronounced.     In  a  word,  the 
fermentation  that  resulted  in  the  famous  internal  I 
improvement  law  was  for  ten  years  or  more  gath- 
ering form  and  becoming  a  part  of  public  thought. 
It  became  a  factor  in  politics  and  the  men  rode 
into  popular  favor  who  mounted  the  hobby  of 
State    improvements    by    the    paternalistic    plan.i 
Governor  Ray  was  an  example  of  this.     His  ad- 
vocacy of  the  growing  sentiment  made  his  politi- 
cal fortune,  and  an  excerpt  from  his  message  of! 
1826,  couched  in  his  characteristic  swelling  style,! 
indicates  that   he  made  the  most  of   it.     "The 
whole  country,"  he  says,  "as  if  by  one  impulse, 
is  moved  by   the   master   spirit  that   is   abroad. 
.     .     .     On  the  construction  of  roads  and  canals 
we  must  rely  as  the  safest  and  most  certain  State 
policy,  to  relieve  our  situation,  place  us  among! 
the  first  in  the  Union,  and  change  the  cry  of  hard 
times  into  an  open  acknowledgment  of  content-, 
edness."    In  1829  we  find  him  arguing  for  a  gen-l 
eral  system  of  State  improvements,  including  a 
railway,  canals  and  turnpikes — a  scheme  not  un-: 
like  the  one  that  the  State  adopted  in  1836.     In 
view  of  all  this  it  is  perhaps  safe  to  say  that  the 
great   paternalistic   experiment,    however    ill-ad- 
vised it  may  seem  in  the  light  of  history,  was, 
inevitable,  being  but  a  logical  sequence. 

*  For  "W^abash  and  Erie  Canal  and  Commercial  Development" 
see  chap.  xii. 



The  Problem. — At  this  point  the  question 
of  progress  as  determined  by  the  internal  im- 
provement movement  becomes  secondary  to  an 
interesting  and  profitable  study  of  influences  and 
conditions  that  made  for  retrogression,  and 
which  resulted  in  the  most  disastrous  financial 
set-back  in  the  State's  history. 

To  understand  the  great  paternalistic  experi- 
ment that  distinguished  the  fourth  decade  of  In- 
diana's history  we  must  consider  it  as  a  part  of 
a  much  wider  movement.  The  conditions  in  the 
interior  of  America  with  its  vast  distances  and 
its  isolated  inland  centers  made  the  problem  of 
transportation  particularly  acute  and  particularly 
difificult  because  of  the  enormous  cost  and  the  in- 
adequate wealth  of  a  thinly  scattered  population. 

Federal  Aid. — Nothing  short  of  State  aid, 
it  seemed,  could  help  the  people  to  the  facili- 
ties they  needed.  Federal  aid  (as  in  the  building 
of  the  National  road)  was  early  invoked,  but  all 
that  could  be  hoped  for  from  that  source  was 
trivial  as  compared  with  the  relief  demanded  by 
the  various  sections  of  many  States.  The  most 
substantial  help  afiforded  by  the  general  govern- 
ment was  the  gift  of  three  per  cent,  out  of  the 
sales  of  public  lands.  This  yielded  in  Indiana, 
altogether,  $575,547.75,  which  was  applied  to  the 
opening  of  numerous  "State"  roads.  By  the  mid- 
dle thirties  these  roads  pretty  well  covered  the 
State,  but  were  the  rudest  of  thoroughfares,  and 
owing  to  the  nature  of  most  of  the  country,  were 
virtually  untravelable  in  the  bad  seasons. 

The  Seeming  Solution. — The  only  solution  of 
the  transportation  question  was  in  expensive  im- 
proved turnpikes  or  yet  more  extensive  canals 
or  railroads ;  the  construction  of  such  works  by 
private  enterprise  at  that  day  was  out  of  the 
question,  and  thus  the  tide  turned  to  the  notion 
of  the  one  agency  big  enough  to  accomplish  the 
desired  results — the  State.  This  idea  prevailed 
and  bore  fruit  in  a  number  of  states,  Indiana  be- 
ing but  one  of  these  to  project  and  attempt  a 
system  of  public  works  for  the  purpose  of  trans- 
portation. The  sentiment  in  Indiana  for  such 
a  scheme  was  a  growth  of  several  years,  as  has 
already  been  shown.     It  had  its  opponents,  who 

saw  the  dangers  ahead,  but  the  advocates  in- 
creased till  they  took  possession  of  the  day.  The 
politicians  who  championed  the  idea  were  the 
ones  who  rode  into  power ;  arguments  grew  by 
what  they  fed  upon,  and  these  plentifully  bol- 
stered up  by  figures  convinced  the  people  that 
roads  and  canals,  at  whatever  cost,  were  a  colos- 
sal money-making  proposition.  The  increase  of 
commerce  and  the  tolls  from  canals  would  not 
only  pay  for  the  canals  but  return  a  surplus  that 
would  relieve  the  citizen  from  tax-paying. 

Difficulties  of  Fixing  on  a  System. — The 
detriment  to  final  legislation  was  the  difficulty 
of  elaborating  a  system  that  would  benefit  every- 
body. Of  course  no  taxpayer  wanted  to  con- 
tribute to  improvements  that  would  give  his 
neighbors  all  the  benefit  and  leave  him  still  in 
the  woods,  and  a  system  that  could  touch  every 
county  in  the  State  was  manifestly  impossible. 
Also,  there  was  a  division  of  opinions  as  to  the 
values  and  practicability  of  difYerent  kinds  of 
improvements — turnpikes,   canals   and   railroads. 

The  Internal  Improvement  Bill. — These  dif- 
ferences kept  the  Legislature  jockeying  for  two 
or  three  sessions,  but  finally,  in  January  of  1836, 
the  internal  improvement  bill,  famous  in  our  an- 
nals, was  passed,  to  the  great  joy  of  the  people, 
who  made  bonfires  and  jubilated  wildly  in  honor 
of  the  event.  The  bill  provided  for  eight  differ- 
ent works,  including  turnpikes,  canals,  railroads, 
and  the  improvement  of  the  lower  Wabash,  the 
scheme  as  it  originally  stood,  together  with  the 
separate  appropriations,  being : 

1.  A  canal  down  the  valley  of  the  Whitewater 
from  the  National  road  to  the  Ohio,  and  a  canal 
or  railroad  to  connect  the  upper  Whitewater 
with  the  Central  canal  at  some  point  in  Madison 
or  Delaware  county,  if  possible.  Appropriation. 

2.  A  canal,  to  be  known  as  the  "Central," 
from  some  point  on  the  upper  Wabash  to  Indian- 
apolis via  ]\Iuncie,  and  down  White  river  to  the 
forks ;  thence  to  Evansville.  Appropriation. 

3.  An  extension  of  the  \\'abash  and  Erie 
canal    from   Tippecanoe   river   to   Terre    Haute. 




thence  1)V  Eel  river  to  the  Central,  or  to  the  mouth 
of  Dlack  creek  at  the  Central,  in  Knox  county. 
Aj)])roi>riati<in.  Si  ..'i(X).0(i;». 

4.  A  from  .Madison,  via  Columbus 
anil  ln<lianai)oli>.  In  Lafayette.  .\].i)roi)riation, 

5.  A  niacadaniizeil  turnpike  1  roni  New  Al- 
hanv.  by  way  of  Greenville,  hredericksburg, 
I'aoli.  Mt.  Pleasant  and  Washington  to  Vin- 
cennes.     Appropriation.  $1,150,000. 

().  A  m.-icadaniized  road  or  railroad  from  Jef- 
fcrxinville  to  Crawfortlsville,  by  way  of  New  Al- 
bany, Salem,  Ijeilford.  Illoomington  and  Green- 
castle.     Ap])roprialion.  $1,300,000. 

7.  The  im]:)rovement  of  the  Wabash  river 
from  X'incenncs  to  its  mouth.  \])])ropriation, 

8.  A  sur^•ev  of  a  canal  or  railroad  from  the 
Wabash  and  E.ric  canal  at  or  near  Fort  Wayne 
to  the  lake  at  Michigan  City,  by  way  of  Goshen, 
South  Bend  and  Laporte. 

'IMiese  various  works,  all  of  which  the  State 
]»ledgcd  itself  to  build  as  expeditiously  as  pos- 
sible, totaled  about  one  thousand  two  hundred 
miles  and  the  total  estimated  cost  was  $20,000,- 
IHM)  (W.  II.  Smith).  $10,000,000  of  which  was 
borrowed  at  once  for  twenty-five  years  at  six 
per  cent.,  with  the  works  themselves  and  all 
grounds,  rents,  tolls  and  profits  given  as  security. 

First  Effect  of  the  Bill;  Speculation. — One  of 
the  first  effects  of  the  ])assage  of  this  bill  was  a 
universal  boom.  In  the  conditions  that  were  to 
follow  everybody  hjresaw  a  chance  to  get  rich 
(|nick.  'fo  quote  one  writer,  "a  period  of  wild 
■-]n.-cul,'ition  ensued.  Those  who  owned  farms 
bought  others,  and  those  who  owned  none  went 
into  debt  and  purch;ised  them."  (  )1(1  towns  be- 
g;ui  to  swi'U  ;md  to  advertise  lots  for  sale  at  in- 
tl.ited  prices,  and  new  towns  began  to  sjjring  u|) 
on  p;ipcr.  'fhis  craze  soon  got  its  setback,  but 
it  la^tnl  loni;  enough  In  ruin  man\-  ;l  jjlmiger  and 
to  be  lollowed  by  a  w.Mke  of  hardshi])  ;md  dis- 

St^te   Control   and    How    It    Worked. —  fhe 

writer  who  has  se;irched  most  fullv  into  the  de- 
t.iiK  of  Ihi-  subject  (  L,s;irey )  makes  some 
interesting  statements  as  to  the  workings  of  the 
Sl.-ite's  great  enti'rprise.  A  "l'.o;ird  of  luternrd 
Improvements."  the  nuMiibiTs  of  which.  si'])a- 
r.itelv.  were  put  in  charge  of  the  \ai-ious  works  to 
be    pl;uH-d    under    contr.icl.    met     in     I 

March  7.  1836,  and,  says  Mr.  Esarey,  "the  scram- 
ble for  the  lion's  share  of  the  money  began  as 
soon  as  the  first  meeting  was  called  to  order. 
I^ach  commissioner  seemed  to  be  interested  alone 
in  getting  his  work  completed  as  soon  as  pos- 
sible." Then  came  jealousy  and  chicanery  after 
the  contracts  were  let,  between  the  sections  to 
be  benefited.  Some  of  the  works  did  not  pro- 
gress as  rapidly  as  others,  and  none  of  them  fast 
enough  to  suit  the  citizen  who  was  eager  for  re- 
turns. Labor  was  scarce,  and  the  contractors 
were  pitted  against  each  other,  one  trying  to  lure 
away  another's  workmen.  Some  of  the  improve- 
ments that  were  not  definitely  settled  on  by  the 
law  still  remained  unsettled.  W''hen  the  State 
l)orrowed  money,  it  is  stated,  it  made  no  provi- 
sion for  interest,  as,  according  to  the  "System 
orators,"  the  tolls  were  to  take  care  of  all  that, 
so  when  interest  fell  due  it  was  paid  out  of  bor- 
rowed money  instead  of  taxes,  as  the  people  had 
been  assured  there  would  be  no  increase  in  tax- 

One  corollary  is  that  interest  on  $10,000,000 
at  six  per  cent,  amounts  up  appallingly.  More- 
over the  $10,000,000  were  only  part  of  the  sum 
to  be  borrowed,  according  to  the  original  esti- 
mates of  total  cost,  and  in  1838  another  estimate 
l)y  the  head  engineer  ran  the  sum  up  to  $23,- 

The  Collapse. — I^y  the  end  of  1837  there  was 
plenty  of  reason  for  grumbling  and  distrust,  and 
the  administration  at  that  time  was  whistling 
optimistically  to  keep  up  its  courage,  but  by  an- 
other year  even  the  governor  ( \\\allace').  who 
had  been  elected  because  of  his  advocacy  of  the 
internal  improvement  movement,  began  to  ex- 
])ress  misgivings.  The  Legislatures  tinkered  in 
a  helj)less  way  with  the  situation,  making  experi- 
mental changes  here  and  there.  Then  in  1839 
cau)e  the  collapse  and  all  work  was  stopped  after 
an  expenditure  of  vast  sums,  for  much  of  which 
llu're  was  never  the  least  return,  to  the  State, 
while  contractors  were  bankrui:»ted  and  thou- 
sands of  laborers  thrown  out  of  employment 
without  ])ay  for  work  they  had  done.  The  fin- 
ished work  to  show  for  the  millions  of  dollars 
expendi'd  were  ;i  i)art  of  the  \\'hitewater  canal 
in  oper.atiou  :  an  indefinite  amotuit  of  work  on 
the  Wabash  and  ICrie  (the  funds  for  this  canal 
b-'ing  also  derived  from  the  sales  of  government 
lam's  lh;it  had  been  granted  for  it  )  ;  about  twentv- 



]  eight  miles  of  the  Madison  railroad  and  a  neg- 
ligible amount  of  turnpike  improvement — the  to- 
tal of  the  completed  work,  according  to  Dillon, 
i  being  two  hundred  eighty-one  miles  and  the  cost 
(for  same  $8,164,528.21.     The  returns  from  the 
Itwenty-eight  miles  of  railroad,  the  partially  tin- 
'  ished  Whitewater  canal  and  the  Wabash  and  Erie 
barely  took  care  of  the  upkeep,  and  all  the  State 
got  for  the  $1,820,026  it  had  put  into  the  Central 
and  crosscut  canals  was  a  few  miles  of  completed 
ditch   between    Indianapolis    and    Broad    Ripple 

far  to  find  the  fundamental  reasons  for  this  mon- 
umental fiasco,  the  legislative  warrant  for  which 
was  characterized  as  pre-eminently  a  "people's 
measure."  In  the  first  place  the  sagacity  of  the 
orator-fed  people  in  judging  the  probabilities  of 
a  colossal  piece  of  business  that  called  for  busi- 
ness insight  of  a  high  order,  was  practically  nil, 
as  the  sequel  amply  proved.  The  proposition 
that  the  commerce  of  a  thinly  populated  back- 
woods State  could  safely  float  a  twenty-million- 
dollar   enterprise   was    hardly    one   to   commend 

Befle  Fountain  &    Ind.  Deoot 

Lafayette     Depot. 

Xiiic  i  nnati  Ls-wre  nee  burrf  &  ind    DtpoC 

Md.disofi  £  ind. Depot 

First  Railroad  Depots  in  Indianapolis.  1854. 

that  for  a  while  was  utilized  for  floating  cord- 
wood  down  to  the  capital  and  eventually  went 
into  the  hands  of  the  Indianapolis  Water  Com- 
pany. The  Madison  railroad  and  the  White- 
water canal  were  taken  over  and  completed  by 
private  companies.  The  Wabash  was  retained  for 
several  years,  and  finally  became  the  State's  sal- 
vation, it  being  transferred,  in  1846,  to  her  cred- 
itors in  liquidation  of  the  disastrous  debt  that  had 
brought  the  commonwealth  almost  to  the  point 
of  repudiation. 

The  Elements  in  the  Case. — Accepting  the 
study  of  this  movement  made  by  the  authority 
previously  mentioned,  one  does  not  have  to  seek 

itself  to  a  shrewd  business  man.  The  orators 
who  rode  on  the  rising  tide  of  public  sentiment 
made  a  business  of  hypnotizing  the  masses,  and 
the  masses  moved  by  a  sort  of  mob  psychology 
in  the  direction  of  their  desires. 

Again  when  it  came  to  the  actual  test  of  per- 
forming the  business  it  was  the  old  governmental 
evil  of  purely  perfunctory  administration  made 
worse  by  innumerable  temptations  to  graft. 
Millions  of  dollars  at  hand  with  more  to  easily 
follow  as  the  demand  arose  was  fatal  to  all  those 
ideas  of  economy  that  the  business  man  weighs 
when  he  realizes  that  the  business  must  make 
good  or  he  pay  the  penalty.     The  public  work  be- 



came  a  j^'reat  fcediiig-ciilj.  an<l  as  none  of  the 
"higher-ups"  had  anything  at  stake  tlie  job- 
hunter,  if  he  had  any  influence,  was  apt  to  fare 
well.  We  hear  of  surveying  parties  that  seemed 
to  be,  largely,  hunting  and  fishing  parties,  and 
of  the  "'b'-ating  Brigade"  which,  for  services 
largely  unrendercd,  received  annually  about 
$54,000.  Besides  resident  engineers  there  was 
an  cngineer-in-chief  for  canals  and  another  one 
for  railroads,  and  so  on.  The  broad-gauge  ideas 
of  the  men  who  had  nothing  financially  to  lose 
is  illustrated  by  the  work  done  on  the  Madison 
railroad.  For  this  the  best  was  none  too  good; 
the  latest  improved  T  rail  was  imported  from 
England  at  $80  per  ton,  and  the  twenty-eight  and 
a  fraction  miles  were  built  at  a  cost  of  $1,624,- 
603,  or  $58,000  per  mile.  When  a  private  com- 
pany finished  it  later  the  style  of  construction 
was  fitted  to  the  probable  returns,  and  the  cost 
was  something  less  than  $11,000  per  mile. 

Nor  was  this  all  nor  the  worst  feature  of  the 
sorry  business.  Still  drawing  upon  the  above- 
cited  study  as  authority,  the  finances  of  the  enter- 
prise, though  in  the  hands  of  reputable  men, 
were  worse  than  poorly  managed.  The  State 
government  paid  little  attention  to  the  financial 
board  ;  the  business  was  attended  to  in  a  careless, 
slovenly  way,  and  reflection  is  cast  upon  the  hon- 
esty of  the  administration.  Transactions,  were 
had  with  irresponsible  "wildcat"  institutions  by 
which  the  State  lost  outright  many  thousands  of 
dollars,  while  it  is  intimated  that  those  who  ma- 
nipulated the  funds  came  out  of  it  with  nests 
well  lined.  Of  one  of  them  it  is  said  that  "he 
received  $103,880  from  these  people  on  whom 
the  State  lost  several  millions." 

The  Panic  and  Script  Issues;  "Red  Dog" 
and  "Blue  Pup." — One  factor  in  the  general 
distress  that  followed  the  internal  improvement 
boom  was  a  financial  panic  that  swept  the  coun- 

try in  the  latter  thirties.     The  enormous  running 
expenses  had  to  be  met,  but  it  became  impossible 
to  secure  the  expected  loans  from  the  sales  of 
bonds.     Contractors  could  not  be  paid,  and  this 
of  course  involved  the  thousands  of  laborers  and 
the  people  at  large.     As  an  escape   from  this 
dilemma  the  Legislature  in  January  of  1840  au- 
thorized an  issue  of  State  scrip  to  the  amount 
of    $1,200,000     (Esarey.       Other     writers    say 
$1,500,000).     This    served    the    purpose    for   a 
while,  then  depreciated  to  half  its  value  and  even 
less.    It  was  printed  on  red  paper,  and  the  sense 
of  derisive  humor  that  has  always  distinguished 
the  Hoosier  fastened  upon  it  the  name  of  "Red  i 
Dog."     This  was  carried  farther  when  private ' 
companies  that  took  over  certain  of  the  public 
works  were  also  authorized  to  issue  scrip  to  help ; 
out  their  undertakings,  and  this  scrip  from  be- 
ing mostly  printed  on  blue  paper,  became  known; 
as  "Blue  Pup"  (W.  H.  Smith).    Elbert  Jay  Ben- 1 
ton,  in  his  "Wabash  Trade  Route"  (p.  60),  says' 
"Blue  Pup"  was  a  sort  of  shinplaster  currency! 
based  on  "Blue  Dog,"  and  that  both  these  andj 
"White  Dog"  were  land   scrips  secured  by  the! 
lands  of  the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal.     All  the 
scrip   suffered   depreciation,   but   eventually  the 
State's  "Red  Dog"  arose  again  to  par,  plus  ac- 
crued interest.     During  the  days  of  its  discredit! 
its  greatest  value  was  for  the  payment  of  State! 
taxes,  and  speculators  made  a  business  of  buying 
it  up  cheaply  in  some  sections  where  it  was  most; 
plentiful  and  selling  it  in  other  parts  still  below | 
par,  to  taxpayers  (Smith).    The  inference  is  that 
the  State  accepted  it  at  face  value.* 

*  For  excellent  original  studies  from  documentary  sources  of 
this  subject  see  "The  Wabash  Trade  Route  in  the  Development 
of  the  Old  Northwest,"  by  Elbert  J.  Benton,  in  the  Johns  Hop- 
kins University  studies,  and  "Internal  Improvements  in  Early  i 
Indiana,"  by  Logan  Esarey,  vol.  v,  No.  2,  of  Ind.  Hist.  Soc. 
publications.  The  latter  in  a  somewhat  modified  form  reappears  I 
in  Esarey's  History  of  Indiana.  W.  H.  Smith's  History  of  In-j 
diana  also  devotes  a  chapter  to  this  theme. 



Expansion  of  Territory. — Various  treaties 
with  the  Indians  between  1830  and  1840  added  to 
the  area  for  settlement  upward  of  3,000,000 
acres,  exclusive  of  the  final  cession  of  the  "Mi- 
ami reserve"  (now  partly  comprising  Grant, 
Howard  and  Tipton  counties),  which  was  pur- 
chased in  1840.  The  erection  of  twenty-two  new 
counties  brought  the  total  number  up  to  eighty- 
seven,  and  this  meant  a  multiplication  of  towns, 
a  growing  urban  population,  and  a  corresponding 
development  of  activities. 

Business  Expansion. — During  this  period 
we  find  capital,  for  the  first  time,  virtually,  seek- 
ing investment  in  business  enterprises.  That  the 
State  bank  had  considerable  to  do  with  this  is 
evidenced  by  the  fact  that  after  its  establishment 
there  were  numerous  incorporations  of  various 
kinds,  the  list  including  railroad,  turnpike,  bridge, 
steam  mill  and  insurance  companies.  The  busi- 
ness expansion  generally  is  best  shown  by  the 
Federal  census  of  1840,  according  to  which  the 
total  capital  invested  in  the  manufactures  of  the 
State  at  that  time  amounted  to  $4,132,040.  This 
does  not  include  eleven  commercial  houses  in 
foreign  trade ;  twenty-six  commission  houses, 
with  a  total  investment  of  $1,207,400;  1,801  re- 
tail stores,  with  a  capital  of  $5,664,687;  a  pelt 
and  fur  trade  amounting  to  $220,883  ;  the  news- 
papers with  their  allied  printing,  representing 
$58,505.  and  other  industries  not  classed  as  man- 
ufactures. As  measured  by  the  capital  repre- 
sented, the  saw,  grist  and  oil  mills,  scattered  over 
the  State,  led  with  a  total  investment  of  $2,077,- 
018.  Next  in  importance  came  the  tanneries  and 
leather  industries  with  $647,176.  The  meat- 
packing establishments  of  fifteen  counties,  with 
Jefferson  leading,  represented  $582,165.  Next 
came  the  distilleries  and  breweries,  323  of  the 
former  and  20  of  the  latter,  with  $292,316.  The 
production  of  bricks  and  lime,  lumber,  cotton 
and  wool  manufactures,  and  the  making  of 
wagons  and  machinery  had  by  1840  assumed  con- 
siderable importance.  New  Albany  leading  in  the 
last-named  industry,  and  Indianapolis  in  wagons. 
The  making  of  furniture  in  forty-eight  counties 
involved  an  investment  of  $91,022;  that  of  hats 

and  straw  bonnets,  $69,018,  and  the  manufac- 
tured products  of  tobacco,  $65,659.  Soap  and 
candles,  pottery,  salt,  the  working  of  iron  mined 
within  the  State,  the  mining  of  coal  and  quarry- 
ing all  figured  in  the  industries  of  the  State. 
There  were  three  paper  mills,  located  at  Brook- 
ville,  Madison  and  Richmond,  with  an  output 
valued  at  $155,196.  From  eleven  counties  along 
the  rivers  water  craft  to  the  value  of  $107,223 
were  reported.  At  Michigan  City,  our  only  lake 
port,  commerce  by  water  amounted  to  272,400 
bushels  of  grain  and  10,368  barrels  of  flour,  pork, 
etc.,  shipped  out,  and  1,850  tons  of  merchandise 
and  9,000  barrels  of  salt  received  at  the  docks. 

The  manufacturing  and  commercial  industries 
of  the  State  gave  employment  to  23,666  men. 

Growth  of  Agriculture. — That  the  popula- 
tion of  the  State  in  1840  was  still  largely  rural  is 
briefly  shown  by  the  fact  that  the  number  en- 
gaged in  agricultural  pursuits  were  148,806  as 
against  23,666  in  the  manufactures  and  commerce 
and  a  comparative  few  in  miscellaneous  busi- 
nesses. New  Albany,  then  the  largest  town  in 
the  State,  had  only  4,220  inhabitants,  and  Indi- 
anapolis but  2,692. 

With  all  the  activity  in  the  work  of  internal 
improvements  the  transportation  facilities  during 
this  decade  were  not  materially  improved,  and 
the  market  problem  was  still  a  deterrent  in  de- 
velopment. Agricultural  methods  were  crude, 
though  an  advance  upon  those  of  an  earlier  pe- 
riod. The  wooden  mold-board  plow  and  the 
home-made  harrow  with  wooden  teeth  were  still 
in  general  use.  The  sickle  was  still  the  common 
implement  for  reaping  grain.  The  threshing  was 
done  with  the  flail  or  by  tramping  out  with  horses, 
and  the  winnowing  of  the  chaft  from  the  grain 
was  accomplished  by  the  use  of  a  waving  sheet 
and  a  hand  sieve.  The  hay  was  cut  with  a  scythe 
and  gathered  with  a  hand-rake. 

Notwithstanding  these  handicaps  the  agricul- 
tural showing  of  the  State  by  the  census  returns 
of  1840  was  no  mean  one.  By  reason  of  trans- 
portation difficulties  the  raising  of  live  stock  that 
could  be  taken  to  market  afoot,  was  the  conspicu- 
ous farming  industry.     Swine  led  all  the  rest  for 




the  reasons  thai  hogs  not  only  could  be  taken  m 
ilr(n'es  to  the  MacHson,  Lawreneehur^  or  Cincin- 
nati s]au,s,dUer-hoiise.  or  he  slau.i^htered  at  home 
anrl  shi])i)e(l  in  barrels  to  tlu-  southern  market  by 
every  stream  that  wouM  tloat  a  Hatboal,  but  they 
could  be  raised  at  a  minimum  of  cost,  as  they  fed 
largely  on  the  forest  mast  which  then  abounded. 
'Hie  i)ro]»ortion  of  different  kinds  of  live  stock  in 
1.S39,  as  shown  by  the  following  census  figures. 
was:  Hogs.  1.62.^/>08;  sheep,  675,982;  cattle, 
619,980:  horses  and  nuiUs,  241,0.^6. 

It  naturally  followed  that  the  leading  crops 
would  be  those  for  stock  feeding,  and  accord- 
inglv  we  Inid  corn  far  in  the  lead  with  a  total  of 
28.155.887  bushels.*  The  oats  crop  follows, 
with  a  return  of  5.981,605  l)ushels.  Wheat  comes 
next  with  a  yield  of  4.049,.S75  lutshels,  Laporte 
county  far  in  the  lead,  owing,  it  may  be  surmised, 
to  ship]>ing  facilities  from  Michigan  City.  Rye, 
buckwheat  and  barley  figured  among  the  cereals, 
and  the  ])olaio  crop  amounted  to  1,525,794  bush- 
els, while  hoj)S  were  cultivated  to  some  extent, 
particularly  in  Ripley  county.  The  hay  tonnage 
amounted  to  178,029,  with  Dearborn  county  lead- 
ing, but  flax,  an  important  crop  for  fabrics  in 
earlier  \ears.  seems  to  have  fallen  ofl,  as  from 
twenty-nine  counties  there  are  no  returns  at  all. 
Of  wool  there  were  1,237,919  pounds,  and  this 
l)robably  supplanted  flax  in  the  manufactures  of 
the  home  loom,  as  these  were  still  largely  in  ex- 
cess of  the  factory  ])roducts,  being  valued  at 
$1,289,802.  Products  of  the  dairy  were  valued  at 
$742,269,  and  those  of  the  orchiird  at  $110,055. 
Sugar,  presumably  all  m;i])k',  and  which  may 
therefore  be  classed  as  a  ])roducl  of  the  forest, 
amounted  to  .3,727,795  pounds  in  total  output, 
with  Rush  county  far  in  the  lead.  The  most  sur- 
prising crop  was  tobacco,  of  which  not  less  than 
sixty  counties  made  returns,  the  aggregate  growth 
being  1,820,306  jjounds. 

Agricultural  Societies. — (  )ne  sign  n\  the  in- 
creased interest  in  agricultmal  matters  was  the 
passage  of  a  law  in  1835  for  the  encouragement 
of  county  and  townshi])  societies,  and  the  crea- 
tion of  ;i  .State  r.o;ird  of  Agricultm-e.  This  lat- 
ter institution  seems  not  to  have  cut  much  figure, 
and   we  bear  little  more  about  it,t  but  the  local 

•  In  1837  D.ivirl  n.  Owfii,  iIk-  first  St.itc  geologist,  s;ii.l  of  the 
Wabash  coimlry:  "It  is  cmph.itically  a  corn  country;  ...  so 
soon  as  tlic  Walinsti  lioats  get  nut  with  their  corn  the  southern 
Stales  become  so  fully  supplied  that  it  inime<liaUly  .-ilTects  the 
whole   grain   market   of  the   .South." 

t  The  present  Slate  Hoard  of  Agriculture  dates  frmn   1852. 

societies  fiourished  and  were  stimulating  in  their 
effect.  There  had  been  an  act  to  incorporate  such 
societies  in  1829,  and  in  1835  Governor  Noble 
stated  that  "fairs  and  exhibitions  have  been  held 
and  a  spirit  of  emulation  and  generous  competi- 
tion has  been  superinduced,  the  happy  eft'ects  of 
which  are  witnessed  in  the  improved  culture  and 
stock  of  many  of  the  farms  throughout  the  coun- 
trv."  The  contemporary  account  of  the  first  fair 
of  Marion  county,  held  October  30-31.  1835, 
bears  out  the  governor's  laudatory  remarks.  Of 
live  stock  twenty-four  classes  were  entered  for 
premiums.  For  some  reason  no  premiums  were 
oft'ered  for  agricultural  products,  though  the  fol- 
lowing year  these  figured  liberally.  Articles  of 
home  manufacture,  such  as  flannels,  jeans,  linen 
and  carpeting  were  encouraged,  and  also  essays 
on  grasses  and  on  the  culture  of  mulberries  and 
the  production  of  silk.  The  cash  premiums 
awarded  amounted  to  $169.* 

One  object  of  this  society  w^as  to  promote 
through  its  members  the  cultivation  of  some  ar- 
ticle for  export,  and  the  commodity  decided  on 
was  tobacco.  By  an  article  of  its  constitution  the 
requirement  from  each  member  was  "the  raising 
of  one  hogshead,  or  1,000  pounds,  of  tobacco,  or 
the  cultivation  of  one  acre  in  said  article,  or  the 
paying  of  one  dollar  in  specie."  Nothing  note- 
worthv  came  of  this  tobacco  movement. 

Growth  of  Schools. — At  the  end  of  the  thir- 
ties the  ])ercentage  of  illiteracy  was  still  large,  it 
being  estimated  that  more  than  72.000  of  the 
population  could  not  read  or  write.  The  illiter- 
ates in  1840  were  about  one  in  seven  of  the  adult 
l)opulation,  and  in  1850  the  conditions,  as  to  ra- 
tio, were  not  improved.  "More  than  sixty  per 
cent,  of  the  State's  children  were  not  in  school 
a  single  day  for  the  year  1846-47,"  we  are  told, 
and  universal  free  education,  maintained  by 
taxes  was  as  yet  but  a  dream  of  the  advanced 
few,  although  the  school  fund  in  1849  was  esti- 
mated at  $1,890,215.08.  To  the  list  of  private 
schools  of  the  academy,  seminary  and  small-col- 
lege class,  more  than  thirty  were  added  during 
the  decade.  In  higher  education  the  Catholics 
established  the  University  of  Notre  Dame,  at 
South  Bend,  in  1842,  and  the  Baptist  school,  es- 
tablished at  Franklin,  Johnson  county,  in  1837. 
became  Franklin  College  in  1845.     The  libraries 

Ind.  Journal,  Oct.   16,  1835. 



of  the  State  other  than  private  numbered   151, 
with  a  total  of  68,403  vohimes. 


Newspapers. — By  the  federal  census  there 
existed  in  Indiana  in  1840,  seventy-three  news- 
papers, sixty-nine  of  which  were  weeklies  and 
four  semi-  or  tri-weeklies.     Three  "periodicals," 

work  and  the  first  geological  survey  of  the  State 
was  made  in  1837  and  1838,  Owen  submitting  a 
report  for  each  of  these  years.  The  record  of 
these  may  be  found  in  the  Documentary  Journal 
for  1838,  and  both  were  subsequently  published 
in  one  volume,  as  the  "Report  of  a  Reconnais- 
sance of  the  State  of  Indiana."  After  this  the 
office  of  geologist  seems  to  have  been  discon- 
tinued and  the  next  we  hear  of  it  is  in  connection 

Becks'  Mill,  Washington  County.  The  first  mill  on  this  site  was  built  of  logs  in  1808.  The  building  shown  in 
the  picture  was  erected  in  1861  and  was  used  to  grind  flour  as  late  as  1905.  It  is  now  used  mainly  to  crush 
grain  for  feed. 

presumably  literary  papers,  had  also  appeared 
upon  the  tield,  though  what  these  three  publi- 
cations were  is  now  probably  lost  to  human 

Geological  Department. — In  1836  the  first 
step  was  taken  looking  toward  a  geological  sur- 
i  vey  of  the  State  by  a  joint  resolution  proposing 
to  Ohio  and  Kentucky  a  joint  survey.  Nothing 
came  of  this,  and  a  law  of  February  6,  1837, 
authorized  the  Governor  to  appoint  a  State  Ge- 
ologist at  a  salary  not  exceeding  $1,500  per  year, 
with  an  additional  sum  not  exceeding  $250  for 
expenses.  David  Dale  Owen,  a  son  of  Robert 
Owen,  of  New  Harmonv.   was  secured   for  the 

with  the  State  Board  of  Agriculture  in  the  earl\ 

Increase  of  Official  Salaries. — The  first  in- 
crease of  official  salaries  was  made  by  a  law  of 
1837,  which  set  the  following  schedule:  Gov- 
ernor, $1,500  per  year;  judges  of  superior  court, 
$1,500  each;  presidents  of  circuit  courts.  $1,000 
each ;  members  of  the  General  Assembly.  S3  per 
(lav  for  each  day's  attendance  and  $3  for  every 
twenty-five  miles  traveled  "b\-  the  most  usual 

New  State  House. — From  1825  to  1834  the 
Legislatures  held  their  sessions  in  the  Marion 
counlv   ccnn-thouse,   l)Ut   by    1830  these   ([uarters 


(■i-:.\Ti:xxi.\].  HisTr)Ry  axd  handbook  of  ixdiaxa 

Ijej^'.'iii  to  l)f  too  rcstrictcHl  for  the  State's  l)usiness. 
The  Legislature  tfiok  the  first  step  toward  build- 
ing' a  new  cajtiiol  by  an  act  of  February  10.  1831. 
I'lans  were  advertised  for,  to  inchide  Senate  ami 
Rei^resentativc-  ehambers  and  quarters  for  the 
Supreme  Court.  Secretary  of  State.  Auditor  of 
State,  State  Library.  Law  Library,  six  committee 
rooms  and  six  clerk's  rooms.  The  contract  was 
,<,Mven  to  Ithiel  Town  and  Andrew  J.  Davis.  New 
\<.rk  architects  of  hij^h  standing',  and  the  work 
of  construction  was  begun  in  1832  and  finished 
in  time  for  the  Le^jislature  of  1835-6.  The  total 
co-t  of  the  buildin.ij  was  restricted  to  $60,000.* 

Change  in  Taxing  System. — In  1835  a  change 
w.i'-  made  in  the  taxing  system.  Prior  to  that 
land  was  classed  as  first,  second  and  third  rate. 

•  Sec  p.  89. 

The  new  law  provided  for  an  appraisement  based 
on  actual  market  value.  Buildings  were  also  ap- 
praised ;  there  was  added  to  the  taxables  a  long 
list  of  chattels,  including  household  articles,  and 
business  capital,  corporation  stock  and  money  at 
interest  were  included.  A  poll  tax  was  fixed  of 
37^.^  cents  for  State  and  37y2  cents  for  county 
for  each  male  citizen  over  twenty-one  years  of 
age  (Laws  of  1835). 

Improvement    in    Housing. — The    extent   to 
which  the  typical  log  cabin  of  pioneer  days  was 
being    supplanted    by    brick,    stone    and    frame 
houses  is   indicated  by  the    following   statistics. 
The  total  number  of  brick  and  stone  houses  in 
1840   was   346,   and   of    "wooden,"   presumably; 
frame,    4,270.      Of    the    former    kind    Marion  1 
county  led  with  35.    All  but  sixteen  counties  re-i 
turned  frame  buildings.  Green  leading  with  344. 

I'""l  of  \\';iItin.iM  Mill,  I'.KUMi  (  omiiy,  l)etvveon  Heimsburg  and  Nasliville. 



The  State's  Financial  Dilemma. — While  the 
■general  suspension  of  the  public  works  in  1839 
idid  not  quite  banish  the  hope  that,  somehow,  the 
jsystem  would  be  completed,  it  proved  to  be  the 
final  collapse  of  the  governmental  scheme.  For 
;a  few  years  the  State  continued  to  operate  and 
slowly  extend  the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal,  but 
the  returns  from  it  did  not  balance  the  expenses. 

The  aftermath  of  the  disastrous  business  fell 
(heaviest  upon  the  next  decade,  and  on  Governors 
Bigger  and  Whitcomb  and  the  Legislature  of 
their  administrations  devolved  the  perplexing 
task  of  extricating,  as  best  they  could,  the  com- 
monwealth from  financial  ruin  and  discredit.  An 
official  report  made  in  1842  shows  a  disgraceful 
tangle  of  afifairs.  Out  of  a  bond  issue  of  $15,- 
000,000,  "$4,000,000  was  represented  by  worth- 
less securities,"  and  $2,000,000  had  been  "em- 
bezzled by  various  State  officers  and  agents." 
The  interest  on  the  public  debt  was  far  greater 
than  the  State  could  keep  up,  from  1840  it  accu- 
mulated, adding  to  the  principal  at  an  appalling 
rate,  and  how  Indiana  was  ever  going  to  take 
care  of  her  enormous  obligation  was  not  appar- 
ent. In  the  face  of  this  desperate  outlook  it  is 
hardly  surprising,  perhaps,  that  a  disposition  to 
throw  over  the  most  galling  part  of  the  burden 
by  repudiation  should  have  cropped  out.  Just 
how  widely  such  a  disposition  actually  prevailed 
among  the  rank  and  file  is  not  clearly  traceable, 
but  it  is  generally  implied  by  our  historians  that 
at  this  crisis  the  State  narrowly  escaped  that  blot 
ion  her  fair  name. 

The  Butler  Bill  Compromise. — The  way  of 
fat  least  partial  escape  from  this  dilemma  opened 
Lip  by  a  compromise  which  in  1846  took  form  in 
what  is  known  as  the  "Butler  Bill."  The  holders 
;of  the  State's  bonds,  whose  interest  was  now  far 
in  arrears,  employed  a  New  York  attorney, 
Charles  Butler,  to  visit  Indiana  and  efifect  some 
settlement  with  the  Legislature.  The  settlement 
iigreed    upon    was    that    the    bondholders    who 

wished  could  become  part  owners  of  the  Wabash 
and  Erie  canal  and  its  unsold  lands  and  acquire 
a  lien  on  its  earnings.  More  specifically,  one 
could  surrender  his  bonds  and  receive  for  each 
$1,000  two  $500  certificates  of  stock.  One  of 
these  would  be  canal  stock  and  the  other  State 
stock.  The  former  had  back  of  it  the  canal  prop- 
erty, and  the  latter  was  to  be  taken  care  of  by  a 
tax  levy  (Benton).  A  part  of  the  agreement  was 
that  out  of  the  sales  of  the  remaining  lands  the 
canal  was  to  be  completed  to  Evansville.  The 
State  was  to  still  retain  a  supervisory  interest, 
and  the  property  was  to  be  put  into  the  hands  of 
three  trustees,  two  to  be  appointed  by  the  cred- 
itors and  one  by  the  State. 

This  compromise  was  embodied  in  a  long  bill 
of  thirty-five  sections,  covering  many  complicated 
points,  which  became  a  law  January  19,  1846, 
after  considerable  opposition  that  seems  to  have 
had  no  reason  other  than  petty  politics.*  It  did 
not  prove  satisfactory  to  the  creditors,  and  after 
another  fight  Butler  secured  in  1847  the  passage 
of  another  long  bill  amending  the  first. 

The  result  of  this  compromise  legislation  was 
that  the  State  luckily  escaped  from  one-half  of 
its  internal  improvement  debt,  thus  cutting  it  to 
$6,732,880  (Esarey).  This  reduction  enabled  the 
State  to  save  itself,  but  the  rest  of  the  debt  re- 
mained a  heavy  burden  for  years.  The  result  to 
the  creditors  was  that  they  got  what  they  could 
out  of  a  bad  situation.  Eventually  they  suffered 
loss  that  brought,  in  many  cases,  ruin  and  dis- 
tress, for  the  canal,  after  continuing  in  operation 

*  A  letter  from  Butler  to  his  wife  during  his  legislative  cam- 
paign (see  History  of  Union  Theological  Seminary)  gives  an  in- 
teresting glimpse  of  his  difficulties.  "The  prospects,"  he  says, 
"are  altogether  discouraging,  and  almost  everybody  says  that  noth- 
ing can  be  done.  Politicians  are  afraid  to  move.  It  is  really 
amazing  to  see  what  a  paralysis  hangs  upon  this  people. 
The  governor  is  a  prominent  candidate  for  the  United  States 
Senate  and  dare  not  open  his  mouth  as  he  should,  lest  it  might 
affect  his  election  to  that  office.  .  .  .  My  mission  is  a  hard 
one  and  no  mistake.  .  .  .  It  is  certain  that  if  the  question 
is  not  now  settled  it  never  will  be;  the  people  will  go  into  re- 


ci-:xTi:.\".\rAf,  !H.->torv  and  iiaxdp.ook  of  Indiana 

for  a  tew  year.-  ua-  kilk-.l  h\  the  incoiiiin,i,^  rail- 
roads, l-'inally,  in  1S77.  it  ua.s  -oM  b\  order  of 
eourt  for  the  heiietit  of  the  1)oiidhol<lcrs,  who 
"received  from  tlie  sale  about  9-j  l)er  cent,  of 
their  investment"'  (  Renlon  ).  The  work  was 
completed  to  the  (  )hio  river  at  ICvansville  in 
1S52,  after  a  lon^  series  of  misfortunes  and  set- 
backs, but  the  part  from  Tcrrc  Haute  down 
proved  worse  than  i.rotitless.  the  cost  bein.i,''  tar 
in  excess  of  returns. 

■■'I'luis  closed  the  story  of  the  old  W  abash  and 
I'rie.  'I'lie  Slate  and  bondholders  had  exi)ended. 
all  told.  $8,259,244.  They  had  received  from 
Lands  and  tolls.  $5,477, 2.v^.  A  magnificent  land 
grant  by  the  federal  government  had  been  squan- 
dered. The  amount  of  land  donated  was 
\A^7.M)C)  acres,  or  2.277  sections;  an  area  equal 
to  the  five  largest  counties  or  the  ten  smallest. 
This  was  twice  as  much  as  the  whole  donation 
for  the  common  schools"   (h'sarey). 

<  )f  this  canal  in  its  relation  to  the  commerce 
;ind  po])ulation  of  the  State  we  will  speak  in  an- 
other section.     (  See  next  page. ) 

Completion  of  Whitewater  Canal. — As  part 
oi  the  State  system  the  White  water  canal  was 
completed  from  i.awrenceburg  to  llrookville.  the 
first  boat  between  those  points  arriving  at  Brook- 
ville  June  8.  1839  (James  M.  Miller).  In  1842 
it  was  sold  to  Henry  S.  X'allette.  a  capitalist  of 

<  incinnati.  It  reached  Laurel  in  1843,  Conners- 
ville  in  1845  and  boats  were  running  to  Cam- 
bridge tity  by  1846.  For  the  Whitewater  val- 
ley and  tor  each  of  its  towns  as  thev  became,  in 
lurn.  heads  of  n.avigation,  the  canal  made  an  era 
ot  prosperity,  t  ambridge  City,  we  are  told,  be- 
came ;i  shipping  port  for  1  lenry,  l\andol])h  and 
hel.iware  counties  .in  well  as  for  Wa\ne  ;ind 
norther;)  ku-b,  and  P)rookville  am!  Laurel  drew 
wheat.  liogN  and  other  agricultural  exports  for 
m;my  miles  to  the  west,  north  ;ind  east.  In  1S47 
a  I  l.a.Ljersiown  <-ompany  coiuiiiued  the  canal  to  town,  but  not  nuuh  profit  derived  from 
the  extension    (  ^■ounl;'s   \\a\iie   (ountv). 

The  beginiiini^  of  the  <lecadence  of  the  \\  hile- 
w.ater  c;  the  damage  done  bv  two  disas- 
trous Moods  in  1847.  which  <lainage.  it  was  esti- 
mated.   ainouiUed     In     not     less     (     $18().():K). 

<  Mher   dis.isirrs    fulluwed.   .and    the   fuLil    one.    so 
tar  ;is   ih,'  cm.d    w,is  concerned.   w;is   its  s.ile  in 
'•""^''•^    '"    '1"     Wliileu.itrr    \:i!lev    U;iilro;id    (  om\.'.j  il,v  ,|it>-l)   wuli  ;.   r;iilro;id. 


The  first  benevolent  institutions  other  than 
county  asylums  for  the  poor,  date  from  this 
decade.  In  article  nine  of  the  constitution  there 
was  a  provision  for  asylums  "for  those  persons' 
who  by  reason  of  age,  infirmity  or  other  misfor- 
tunes may  have  a  claim  upon  the  aid  and  benefi- 
cence of  society  on  such  principles  that  such  per- 
sons may  therein  find  employment  and  every 
reasonable  comfort,  and  lose,  by  their  usefulness, 
the  degrading  sense  of  dependence."  It  was  fif-l 
teen  years  until  this  took  shape  in  county  infirm-i 
aries  for  the  indigent  and  twenty-eight  years  un-[ 
til  it  included  in  its  broadened  scope  unfortunatesi 
other  than  paupers.  The  deaf  and  dumb,  thej 
blind  and  the  insane  all  became  the  objects  of. 
State  aid  at  this  period. 

School  for  the  Deaf  and  Dumb. — This  insti- 
ttition  was  the  first  to  receive  consideration, 
when  the  Legislature  of  1842-3  laid  a  "tax  of 
two  mills  on  each  one  hundred  dollars'  worth  of 
])roperty  in  the  State  for  the  purpose  of  support- 
ing a  deaf  and  dumb  asylum."  The  first  form  of 
this  support  w^as  an  appropriation  of  $200  to  one 
James  IMcLean,  who  was  conducting  a  small 
school  in  Parke  county.  Then  William  Willard. 
attracted  by  the  tax  levy,  established  a  school  in 
Indianapolis,  in  1844,  and  at  the  beginning  of  its 
second  session  this  school  was  taken  over  by  theJ 
State.  Between  1844  and  1849  the  attendance} 
increased  from  16  to  99.  Tuition  and  board 
were  furnished  free  to  deaf-mutes  of  the  State' 
between  the  ages  of  ten  and  thirty  years,  the  edu- 
cation including  the  teaching  of  a  trade.  The 
large  building  for  the  school  east  of  the  city,; 
which  served  for  more  than  fifty  years,  was  first! 
occupied  October  2,  1850.  The  original  cost  wa^ 
S.iO.OfX),  but  it  was  subsec|uently  added  to.  ! 

School  for  the  Blind. — The  desirability  oi 
some  i)rovision  tor  the  educatioi  of  blind  chil- 
dren was  first  brought  to  the  attention  of  the 
Legislature  and  the  people  in  1844  through  the 
zeal  of  James  Af.  Ray.  a  public-spirited  citizen  of 
Indianapolis.  Mr.  R.ay  had  witnessed  in  Louis-! 
\ille  ;m  exhibition  of  children  from  the  Ken-, 
tucky  school  for  the  blind  under  the  charge  of 
W  illi.nn  IT.  Churchman,  a  blind  instructor,  and 
b\  iiuit.ilion  of  l\ay,  ^Ir.  Churchman  broughtj 
his  pupils  to  Indianapolis  and  gave  an  exhibition; 



for  the  benefit  of  our  Legislature.  The  result 
was  the  levying  of  a  tax  of  two  mills  on  the  hun- 
dred for  educational  aid  to  the  blind.  In  the  be- 
ginning it  was  proposed  to  send  Indiana  children 
to  the  Kentucky  and  Ohio  schools,  pending  the 
establishment  of  our  own  institution,  paying 
their  tuition  out  of  the  tax  levy,  but  when  the 
pupils  were  advertised  for  there  were  only  five 
applicants,  all  told.  Then  Mr.  Churchman,  as 
one  experienced  in  the  business,  was  secured  to 
take  the  work  in  hand.  In  the  fall  of  1846  he 
personally  canvassed  the  State,  traveling  about 
1,520  miles  through  thirty-six  counties,  and  as  a 

of  1843,  by  Dr.  John  Evans,  an  authority  on 
mental  diseases.  That  address  was  part  of  a  leg- 
islative plan  for  gathering  information  on  the 
subject,  and  the  following  session  a  law  was 
passed  authorizing  a  special  levy  of  one  cent  on 
each  hundred  dollars  for  the  establishment  of 
an  asylum.  One  hundred  and  sixty  acres  just 
west  of  Indianapolis  were  purchased  and  a  build- 
ing for  the  accommodation  of  200  patients  was 
ready  for  occupancy  in  1848.  The  total  original 
cost  was  estimated  at  $72,069. 

Enlargement  of  State  Prison. — The  State's 
prison  at  Jeffersonville,  which  dated  from  1822, 


The  First  "Crazy  Asylum."  Built  in  Indianapolis  in  the  early  thirties.  It  was  located  in  the  southwest  section 
of  the  block  bounded  by  Alabama,  New  York,  Ohio  and  New  Jersey  streets.  The  buildings  had  been  orig- 
inally occupied  by  early  settlers. — From  sketch  by  C.  Schroder. 

result  twenty  pupils  were  enlisted  and  placed  in 
ithe  institutions  of  the  above-named  States,  at  a 
,cost  of  $100  each.  In  1847  our  own  school  was 
established,  with  Mr.  Churchman  at  its  head,  on 
a  salary  of  $800  per  year.  The  term  began  with 
only  nine  pupils,  but  these  increased  to  thirty  the 
first  year.  The  entire  equipment  of  books  and 
apparatus  cost  but  a  little  over  a  hundred  dollars 
rand  the  total  expense  of  that  year  was  a  little 
more  than  $6,000.  The  building  which,  with 
some  additions,  still  stands,  was  first  occupied  in 
1853.     Its  cost  was  about  $68,000.* 

Hospital  for  the  Insane. — The  first  legis- 
lative step  toward  the  establishment  of  an  asylum 
for  the  insane  followed  an  address  in  December 

For  sketch   of  William   H.   Churchman   and  his  work   for   the 
!  blind  of  Indiana  see   Ind.    Mag.   Hist.,   vol.    x,   p.   77. 

was  rebuilt  and  much  enlarged  in  the  early  for- 
ties. Its  outer  wall  of  brick,  thirty  inches  thick 
and  twenty-eight  feet  high,  covered  an  area  of 
about  four  acres.  Within  this  enclosure  were 
guard-house,  cell-house,  workshops,  ware  and 
store  houses,  grist-mill  and  a  hospital.  The  aver- 
age number  of  prisoners  from  1840  to  1850  was 
133   (Merrill's  and  Fisher's  gazetteers). 


The  greatest  developing  factor  in  the  State 
during  this  period  was  the  Wabash  and  Erie 
canal.  It  not  only  gave  access  to  the  fertile 
Wabash  valley,  the  choicest  portion  of  the  State, 
but  by  opening  up  a  new  and  direct  water  route 



to  tiic  l-:ast  in  way  of  Lake  l-.rie  and  the  Erie 
canal  of  New  ^'ork.  hut  it  hroiight  iirto  the  State 
a  new  and  distinct  tide  ot'  immi.ifration  that  gave 
its  character  to  the  i.npulalion  of  the  northern 
counties.  These  counties  that  bordered  on  the 
canal  increased  in  population  much  more  rapidly 
than  counties  oft  the  line  that,  in  some  cases,  of- 
fered far  better  natural  advantages  (Benton), 
and  land  values,  of  course,  were  enhanced  ac- 
c(jrdingly.  It  gave  a  vast  impetus  to  agriculture, 
which  heretof(jre  had  virtually  no  market.  Large 
farms,  we  are  told,  began  to  take  the  place  of 
small  clearings;  imjjroved  farm  machinery  began 
to  be  introduced,  and  the  crops  to  pay  for  it  all 
found  their  way  eastward  in  large  quantities. 
In  1844.  says  Benton.  5.262  bushels  of  corn 
l)assed  through  Toledo,  increasing  in  1846  to 
555,250  bushels  and  in  1851  to  2,775,149  bushels. 
This  is  but  a  consi)icuous  example  of  various 
agricultural  exports,  the  shipments  of  wheat  and 
flour  being  also  very  heavy.  A  broad  belt  of 
country  extending  uj)  and  down  the  river  and 
extending  over  "thirty-eight  counties  in  Indiana 
and  nearly  nine  counties  in  Illinois"  was  tribu- 
tary to  the  canal,  and  not  only  farm  stuiTs  but 
stone  from  the  quarry,  lumber  from  the  forest 
and  other  bulky  raw  material  in  large  quantities 
sought  cheap  transportation  to  the  market  that 
was  now  made  possible.  Of  the  magnitude  of 
the  trade  we  get  some  idea  from  the  statement 
that  in  a  single  day  in  1844  four  hundred  wagons 
unloaded  at  Lafayette  and  that  "it  was  a  com- 
mon occurrence  to  see  as  many  as  four  or 
five  hundred  teams   in  that  place  .     .     un- 

loading grain  to  the  canal."  This  export  business 
begat  a  trade  in  ini])orts  and  the  returning  boats 
bore  westward.  bcNides  the  immigrants  and  their 
possessions,  merc-bandise  of  all  kinds,  the  shi})- 
ments  of  sah  alone  amounting  in  1851  to  88,191 

The  incrt'.ise  of  ixipulaiioii  and  wealth  gave 
rise  to  new  towns  all  alnni;  the  route,  and  created 
new  industries.  Ilie  lenlinL;  of  water  ])ower 
trom  the  t;inal  was  one  of  tlie  sources  of  reve- 
nui-,  and  lumierous  mills  of  \;irious  kinds  sprang 
up,  a>  ilid  .also  i^iiiiii  ele\ators,  shops,  ware- 
iiouses  .and  other  est.dilisbnients  resulting  from 
increasing  Ir.ide  .and  seeking  shipi)ing  facilities. 
I  his  business  prosperity  in  turn  develoi)ed 
features  wi.nld  fnniisb  ]K(adi.ail\  (|u,aiiit  .and 
liter,ales(|ne    \i>y   {]\v   storv-wiatiT.      Peo- 

ple began  to  travel,  not  only  because  there  was  a 
growing  class  who  could  aflford  to,  but  because 
the  new  passenger  transportation  by  boat  was  a 
luxury  compared  with  travel  by  coach  over  rough 
wilderness  roads.  Passenger  packets,  less  bulky 
and  more  speedy  than  the  freight  boats,  ap- 
peared, and  these,  hauled  at  a  sharp  trot,  could 
make,  under  favorable  conditions,  about  eight 
miles  an  hour.  Of  pleasant  summer  weather  the 
travelers,  lolling  about  the  roomy  decks  of  the 
smoothly  gliding  packet,  played  games,  con- 
versed, sang  in  chorus  or  otherwise  cultivated  the 
social  amenities  as  it  fitted  their  holiday  mood. 
At  the  locks  where  the  boats  were  delayed  ro- 
mantic couples  could  stroll  on  ahead,  if  they 
wanted  to,  gathering  wild  flowers  as  they  went. 
The  approach  to  a  town  was  heralded  by  a 
great  blowing  of  the  boat's  horn  that  brought 
out  the  townsmen,  and  at  dock  the  two  crowds, 
mingling,  fraternized  genially  and  exchanged  in- 
formation till  the  boat's  horn  again  gave  warn- 
ing of  departure. 

This,  however,  was  not  the  only  side  of  the 
picture,  for  we  have  other  accounts  of  stuffy 
cabins,  wretched  food,  millions  of  mosquitoes 
that  had  to  be  fought  all  night,  and  pestilential, 
miasmatic  vapors.  Notwithstanding  these  draw- 
backs, however,  people  in  the  Wabash  valley 
moved  about  as  they  never  had  since  their  resi- 
dence there.  This  brought  the  isolated  rural  life 
that  much  nearer  to  the  social  life  of  the  town, 
and  that  it  had  its  educative  effects  is  a  safe  sur- 

This  canal  era,  while  it  was  most  conspicuous 
in  the  forties  by  reason  of  its  having  no  competi- 
tor north  of  the  Ohio  river,  as  a  great  highway, 
continued  to  increase  in  its  freight  transportation 
till  1856,  when  it  reached  its  maximum  with  308,- 
667  tons.  After  that  it  waned  year  by  year,  un- 
able to  hold  its  owni  against  the  competing  rail- 
roads, especially  the  Toledo  &  Wabash,  which 
paralleled  it  as  far  down  as  Lafayette.  Of  this 
the  State's  creditors,  wdio  had  taken  over  the 
canal,  bitterh-  complained,  the  granting  of  fran- 
chises to  comi)etitive  utilities,  they  maintained, 
being  a  breach  of  honor,  since  they,  the  creditors, 
had  accc]'»ted  the  canal  in  good  faith  as  a  prop- 
erty of  value  and  as  an  earnest  of  the  State's  de- 
sire to  make  good  its  debt. 

With  all  the  seeming  prosperity  of  the  Wabash 
.and  bait'  durini--  the  score  or  so  vears  in  which 



'it  flourished,  its  great  value  was  as  an  incidental 
developing  factor.  As  a  paying  investment  it 
jwas  a  failure,  because  during  the  winter  season 
its  traffic  was  suspended  and  because  of  the  heavy 
.expenses  for  repairs.  In  many  places  through 
ithe  lowlands  the  canal  was  built  up  instead  of 
'being  excavated.  That  is,  it  ran  between  stretches 
lof  levees  or  dikes  and  the  springing  of  a  leak 
;through  these  not  infrequently  resulted  in  a 
(washout  which  would  empty  the  ditch,  leaving 

40,000  less  than  the  increase  of  the  last  pre- 
ceding decade,  and  the  falling  off  was  largely 
due,  doubtless,  to  the  State's  heavy  debt.  In 
1841  that  debt  in  its  totality  amounted  to  $15,- 
088,146;  there  was  no  prospect  of  any  equiva- 
lent returns,  and  the  affairs  of  the  commonwealth 
generally  were  not  such  as  to  invite  citizenship. 
Hence  of  the  great  tide  of  immigration  pouring 
westward  by  way  of  the  National  road  much 
that  might  have  stopped  here  passed  on  to  re- 

Neals'  Mill  on  Eel  River,  near  Clay  City.    This  was  one  of  the  stations  of  the  "Underground  Railroad,"  used 
for  the  purpose  of  hiding  fugitive  slaves  during  the  early  '50s. — Photograph  by  Bert  Wccdon. 

ooats,  freight  and  passengers  stranded  in  the 
nud  until  the  breach  was  repaired  and  the  canal 
•e-fiUed.  Floods  had  their  dangers,  and  in  1844 
(he  liberated  contents  of  a  mill-dam  broke 
■;hrough  adjacent  levees  so  swiftly  that  a  packet 
ooat,  the  Kentucky,  was  carried  bodily  through 
!;he  gap  into  the  river  bottom  and  broken  to 
l^ieces  among  the  trees,  three  passengers  being 


I  Population. — The  population  during  this  dec- 
ide grew  from  685,866  in  1840  to  988,416  in 
1850.     This  increase  of  302,550  was  more  than 

gions  farther  west.  Of  the  aberrant  classes  there 
were  estimated,  in  1850,  to  be  81  convicts,  861 
paupers,  278  blind,  517  deaf  and  dumb  and  1,059 
insane  persons  and  idiots. 

Agriculture. — During  the  decade  about  one- 
fourth  of  the  total  area  of  the  State,  or  5,019,- 
822  acres,  was  farmed,  and  the  assessed  value 
of  farm  lands  was  $128,325,552.  There  was  a 
general  and  pronounced  increase  of  agricultural 
wealth,  in  both  produce  and  live  stock.  The 
staple  crop  of  corn,  for  example,  advanced  from 
28,155,887  bushels  in  1840,  to  52,877.564  bushels 
in  1850,  and  swine  increased  by  nearly  a  million 
head.     The   farmers'  long-standing  problem   of 



getting  to  the  larger  markets  was  vastly  helped 
out  by  three  transportation  outlets  of  great 
value — the  Madison  &  Indianapolis  railroad,  the 
Whitewater  canal  and  the  Wabash  and  Erie 
canal.  The  railroad  was  a  crude  affair,  by  the 
modern  standard,  with  its  strap  rails,  and  its  di- 
minutive locomotives  and  cars,  but  in  capacity 
and  speed  it  was  a  marvelous  advance  over  the 
old,  laborious  teaming.  As  the  road  slowly  crept 
northward  its  business  increased,  and  by  the 
time  it  reached  Indianapolis,  in  1847,  it  was  en- 
tering upon  a  fat  prosperity. 

What  the  Madison  &  Indianapolis  railroad 
was  to  the  south-central  part  of  the  State  the 
Whitewater  canal  was  to  the  Whitewater  valley 
and  the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal  was  to  the  Wa- 
bash region,  as  set  forth  in  a  previous  section. 

Church  Statistics. — In  1850  the  religious  de- 
nominations in  the  State  had  multiplied  to  six- 
teen, besides  sundry  minor  sects,  with  a  total 
membership  of  709,655,  and  with  2,032  churches. 
The  church  property  was  valued  at  $1,529,585. 
The  Methodists  were  far  in  the  lead  with  778 
churches  and  266,372  members.  The  Baptists 
came  second  with  138,783  members  and  the 
Presbyterians  third  with  105,582,  followed  in 
order  of  strength  by  the  Christian,  with  65,341  ; 
Friends,  60,355;  Roman  Catholic,  25,115;  Lu- 
theran, 19,050;  Moravian,  18,250;  Episcopal,  7,- 
300;  Universalist,  5,050;  Tunker,  3,000;  Free, 
2,750;  Congregational,  1,400;  Dutch  Reform, 
1,275;  Union,  1,250;  German  Reform,  1,150; 
Unitarian,  250 ;  minor  sects,  2,822.  As  compared 
with  previous  periods,  Catholicism  had  spread 
rapidly  during  this  decade,  there  being  in  1849 
upward  of  63  churches  distributed  over  35  coun- 
ties, Franklin  county  leading  in  membership. 
They  also  supported  a  theological  seminary  at 

Increase  of  Professions. — While  agriculture 
was  still  far  in  the  ascendency  as  compared  with 
other  industries,  there  was  by  1850  a  large  in- 
crease in  the  number  of  professions  and  trades, 
the  census  list  showing  nearly  200  of  these. 


From  the  spring  of  1846  to  the  middle  of  1848 
Indiana,  along  with  the  rest  of  the  country,  suf- 
fered the  distraction  incident  to  war.  Eight  days 
after  the  declaration  of  hostilities  with  Mexico 

(May  13)  Governor  Whitcomb  received  a 
requisition  for  three  regiments  of  volunteers  and 
on  May  22  he  issued  a  proclamation  calling  for 
this  quota.  The  military  conditions  of  the  day 
and  the  response  to  the  call  are  thus  set  forth  in 
"Indiana  in  the  Mexican  War,"  a  collection  of 
documents  compiled  in  1908  by  Adjutant-General 
Oran  Perry : 

Military  Conditions. — "At  the  outbreak  of 
the  Mexican  war  the  martial  spirit  of  the  people 
of  the  State  was  at  the  lowest  ebb.  There  wasl 
no  State  organization  of  militia,  no  arms,  no} 
equipment,  and  apparently  not  a  soldier  in  sight. 
The  probability  of  war  and  the  necessity  of  pre- 
paring for  it  had  occurred  to  the  minds  of  but 
few.  The  position  of  adjutant-general  was 
looked  upon  as  a  compliment,  a  peg  on  which  to 
hang  a  title.  He  was  paid  a  salary  of  $100  per 
annum,  provided  his  own  office,  fuel  and  sta- 
tionery, and  was  blissfully  ignorant  of  every  de- 
tail of  the  position.  Fortunately  for  the  reputa- 
tion of  the  State  the  incumbent,  General  David 
Reynolds,  was  a  man  of  superior  executive  abil- 
ity, dauntless  in  all  emergencies,  a  tireless 
worker  and  blessed  with  an  abundance  of  com- 
mon sense,  which  largely  oft'set  his  lack  of  ex- 
perience. His  success  in  rapidly  organizing  the 
State's  quota  for  the  war  had  no  parallel  at  that 
time,  and  in  1847  a  grateful  Legislature  recog- 
nized the  fact  by  adding  $150  to  his  salary  for 
that  year. 

"At  that  time  there  was  but  one  railroad  in  the 
State,  running  between  Madison  and  Edinburg. 
There  were  but  few  improved  highways  and  no 
telegraphs.  All  communication  was  by  mail, 
mostly  carried  by  men  on  horseback  and  over 
bad  roads.  There  were  no  daily  papers,  the  press 
services  being  rendered  by  small  weekly  sheets, 
one  or  two  to  the  county." 

Governor's  Proclamation;  Response  of  the 
People. — "In  spite  of  these  handicaps  the  war 
news  traveled  fast.  The  governor  issued  his 
proclamation  on  the  22d  of  May  and  the  ad- 
jutant-general his  General  Order  No.  1  of  the 
Fourth  of  July,  directing  the  companies  to  as- 
semble at  the  rendezvous  (old  Fort  Clark,  be- 
tween Jeffersonville  and  New  Albany)  as  soon 
as  possible  by  the  shortest  route,  and  at  their 
own  expense  for  transportation  and  subsistence. 



"As  if  by  magic  the  roads  were  filled  with 
marching  men,  helped  on  by  patriotic  farmers, 
who  furnished  teams  for  transportation  and 
whose  kind-hearted  wives  fed  the  hungry  volun- 
teers. Notwithstanding  these  drawbacks  the  con- 
centration was  quickly  made,  and  by  the  10th  of 
June,  nineteen  days  after  the  call,  thirty  com- 
panies had  reported  at  camp  and  been  mustered 
into  service,  while  an  overflow  of  twenty-two 
companies  reported  from  their  home  stations, 
clamoring  for  acceptance. 

"No  less  remarkable  than  the  uprising  of  vol- 
unteers was  the  patriotic  action  of  the  banks  in 
volunteering  to  supply  the  governor  with  the 
needful  funds  and  take  the  chance  of  reimburse- 
ment by  the  State  or  general  government,  and 
this  at  a  time  when  the  State  was  almost  hope- 
lessly in  debt." 

Indiana  Regiments ;  Battle  of  Buena  Vista. — 
Indiana  sent,  all  told,  about  5,000  men  into  the 
field,  the  three  regiments  in  response  to  the  first 
requisition  being  followed  in  1847  by  the  fourth 
and  fifth.  This  number  included  also  326  who 
joined  the  United  States  regiment  of  mounted 

At  the  battle  of  Buena  Vista  the  disorderly 
retreat  from  the  field  of  the  second  regiment 
fixed  a  stigma  on  the  name  of  Indiana  that  long 
remained.  This  disrepute  was  but  one  illustra- 
tion of  the  truth  that  the  judgments  of  the  world 
are  not  based  on  either  charity  or  reason.     The 

facts  seem  to  be  that  comparatively  a  handful  of 
raw  recruits  were  fronted  by  an  overwhelming 
force  of  the  enemy ;  that  there  was  a  confusion 
of  orders ;  that  those  who  started  the  retreat 
thought  they  were  doing  so  under  order.  Some 
were  rallied  and  led  anew  to  the  fight  under  the 
colors  of  another  regiment,  and  that  some,  under 
the  circumstances,  were  panic-stricken  beyond 
rallying  was  no  earthly  reason  why  the  charge  of 
dishonor  should  be  visited  upon  a  State. 

The  Part  of  Politics. — A  feature  of  the  Mexi- 
can service  not  to  be  overlooked  is  the  fact  that 
here,  as  elsewhere,  according  to  one  writer 
(Esarey)  petty  politics  played  their  part  at  the 
expense  of  efficiency.  "Indiana,"  we  are  told, 
"had  competent  men  trained  for  war,  but  through 
political  juggling  not  one  of  them  was  called  into; 
service.  Of  the  three  colonels  and  one  brigadier- 
general,  not  one  could  have  led  a  company 
through  the  manual  of  arms."  This  is  the  sin-j 
ister  evil  that  crops  out  all  along  the  line  of  our 
political  history,  and  one  wonders  if  the  common, 
sense  of  the  people  will  ever  take  home  the  les- 
son that  it  teaches. 

The  published  roster  of  Indiana  troop's  with 
accompanying  brief  data  (see  "Indiana  in  the 
Mexican  War")  shows  a  loss  by  death  of  542. 
The  mortality  from  disease  and  exposure  was 
heavy,  though  statistics  do  not  give  the  propor-; 
tion.  Another  detriment  to  the  State  was  a  de- 
lay in  the  federal  improvement  of  rivers,  har- 
bors and  the  National  road,  on  account  of  a  de- 
pleted treasury. 


PERIOD  FROM  1850  TO  1860 

Developments  of  Decade. — The  conspicuous 
developments  of  this  decade  were  the  adoption 
of  a  new  State  constitution ;  the  beginning  of  a 

(transportation  system  that  was  to  revolutionize 
the  economics  of  the  State,  and  the  marked  ad- 
vancement by  agitation  and  legislation  of  a  gen- 
eral system  of  public  schools.     A  change  in  the 

[banking  system,  the  establishment  of  a  State  fair 
and  a  permanent    agricultural    society    are    also 

j  notable  features  of  the  period. 


Constitutional     Provisions     for     Change.  — 

The  framers  of  the  constitution  of  1816,  recog- 
nizing the  uncertainties  of  it  as  an  instrument  for 
future  years  and  future  conditions,  provided  that 
"every  twelfth  year  after  this  constitution  shall 
have  taken  effect  .  .  .  there  shall  be  a  poll 
opened  in  which  the  qualified  voters  of  the  State 
shall  express  by  vote  whether  they  are  in  favor 
of  calling  a  convention  or  not."  If  a  majority  fa- 
vored it,  then  provision  was  to  be  made  by  law 
for  an  election  of  delegates  who,  when  met, 
should  have  the  power  to  revise,  amend  or  change 
the  constitution,  with  the  one  restriction  that  no 
alteration  should  ever  sanction  slavery  in  the 

This  twelfth-year  proviso  gave  rise  to  consid- 
erable argument  before  the  adoption  of  another 
constitution,  some  maintaining  that  it  should  be 
followed  strictly,  as  the  fundamental  law,  while 
others  held  that  the  Legislature  had  the  right  to 
submit  the  question  to  the  people  whenever  de- 
sired. As  a  matter  of  fact  the  proviso  was  not 
followed  strictly.  Esarey  calls  attention  to  the 
fact  that  as  early  as  1822  a  law  directed  that  at 
the  next  election  the  voter  should  indicate  on  the 
bottom  of  his  ballot  whether  or  not  he  favored 
calling  a  convention.  In  1828,  the  end  of  the 
first  twelve  years,  the  vote  was  taken  on  the 
question,  but  evidently  there  was  little  interest 
in  it  for  only  ten  out  of  fifty-eight  counties  were 
heard  from,  and  these  voted  almost  two  to  one 
against  it.  When  the  referendum  was  again  ex- 
ercised, in  1840,  fourteen  counties  out  of  sixty- 

nine  made  no  returns,  and  the  fifty-five  that  did 
vote  stood  overwhelmingly  against  the  proposi- 
tion. Nevertheless  the  minority  sentiment  for 
a  change  was  growing  more  urgent,  for  six  years 
later  another  vote  was  taken  which  gave  a  ma- 
jority of  those  cast  on  the  question  in  favor  of 
the  convention.  It  was  not,  however,  a  majority 
of  the  total  vote  and  the  election  of  delegates  was 
not  held.  Three  years  later  it  was  tried  again. 
Hitherto  a  large  percentage  of  the  voters  had 
refrained  from  voting  at  all  on  the  convention 
question  and  the  attempt  was  now  made  to  catch 
these  non-voters  by  a  provision  in  the  law  direct- 
ing the  inspector  of  election  to  verbally  put  to 
each  one,  as  he  presented  his  ballot,  the  query : 
"Are  you  in  favor  of  a  convention  to  amend  the 
constitution?"  The  answer  was  recorded  by  the 
clerk  of  election  in  a  special  poll  book.  Even 
by  this  unusual  method  the  special  vote  fell  short 
of  the  total  by  more  than  10,000,  but  the  required 
majority  for  the  convention  was  gained  and  a 
law  for  the  election  of  delegates  was  passed  on 
January  3,  1850.*  It  may  be  noted  that  this  ref- 
erendum was  three  years  before  the  twelfth  year 
as  specified  in  the  constitution. 

Reasons  for  Change. — The  argument  for  sup- 
planting the  old  constitution  was  that  under  it 
certain  conditions  had  sprung  up  that  in  time  be- 
came evils.  Chief  of  these  was  legislation  of  a 
purely  local  or  even  personal  character.  Divorces, 
special  privileges  to  individuals,  the  incorpora- 
tion of  towns  and  the  improvements  of  local  roads 
were  some  of  the  matters  that  absorbed  the 
legislative  energy  to  the  exclusion  of  general  and 
important  business.  The  General  Assembly,  we 
are  told,  "was  constantly  being  beset  to  pass  hun- 
dreds of  such  personal  and  local  acts,"  until  "the 
local  laws  became  six  or  seven  times  more 
voluminous  than  the  general  laws"  (Woodburn). 
Under  the  old  regime  the  Legislature  met  each 
year  and  it  was  thought  that  every  other  year 
would  do  as  well  and  be  much  less  expensive.  The 
old  constitution  did  not  impose  restrictions  on 
the  creation  of  public  debt,  and  the  evil  of  that 

J.    A.    Woodburn,    Ind.    Magazine   of   History,   vol.   x,   p.   237. 




was  apparent  after  the  colossal  plunging  of  the 
State  in  1836.  Also,  the  appropriating  of  public 
funds  needed  a  stricter  safeguard.  These  were 
among  the  reasons  specified  by  Governor  Whit- 
comb  in  his  message  of  1848.  Other  reasons  that 
existed  were  that  there  should  be  opportunity  for 
a  more  general  banking  law ;  that  judges  and  the 
State  officers  should  be  elected  by  the  people  in- 
stead of  being  appointed  by  the  governor,  as  the 
judges  were,  or  elected  by  the  General  Assembly 
as  were  the  secretary,  auditor  and  treasurer ;  that 
the  appointive  power  of  the  governor  should  be 
curtailed.  Also,  the  court  system  was  unsatis- 
factory and  court  practice  costly. 

The  Convention. — The  second  constitutional 
convention  met  in  Indianapolis  October  7,  1850, 
with  150  delegates,*  among  whom  were  a  num- 
ber of  men  whose  names  were,  or  afterward  be- 
came, well  known  in  our  political  history.  Ex- 
Governor  David  Wallace,  Schuyler  Colfax, 
Thomas  A.  Hendricks,  Robert  Dale  Owen,  W. 
S.  Holman,  Alvin  P.  Hovey,  William  McKee 
Dunn  and  William  H.  English  are,  perhaps,  the 
ones  best  remembered  to-day.  The  convention 
spent  eighteen  weeks  at  its  work  and  was  the 
great  event  of  the  day.  One  writer  speaks  of  it 
as  "an  eighteen  weeks'  course  in  political  science 
for  the  citizens  of  the  State,"  and  both  press  and 
people  showed  a  lively  interest  in  the  work  as  it 
progressed.  When  the  new  constitution  was 
completed  it  was  not  only  published  abroad  by 
the  newspapers  but  50,000  copies  in  English  and 
5,000  in  German  were  printed  for  distribution. 
At  the  next  election,  which  was  in  August  of 
1851,  it  was  submitted  to  the  people  for  ratifica- 
tion and  it  was  approved  by  a  majority  of  85,- 
592.  It  went  into  operation  November  1,  1851, 
and  in  the  transition  there  was  no  noticeable  dis- 
arrangement in  the  machinery  of  government. 
The  cost  of  the  convention  was  $85,043.82  (Es- 

Changes  Effected. — The  principal  changes 
brought  about  by  the  new  constitution  were  those 
indicated  above.  The  nuisance  of  special  legisla- 
tion was  corrected  by  the  following  section  ol 
article  four : 

"Section  22.  The  General  Asscmlily  shall  not  pass 
local  or  special  laws  in  any  of  the  following  enumerated 
cases,  that  is  to  say : 

"Regulating  the  jurisdiction  and  duties  of  justices  of 
the  peace  and  of  consta1)les  ; 

•There  were  42  delegates  in  the  convention  of  1816. 

"For  the  punishment  of  crimes  and  misdemeanors; 

"Regulating  the  practice  in  courts  of  justice; 

"Providing  for  changing  the  venue  in  civil  and  crim- 
inal cases ; 

"Granting  divorces ; 

"Changing  the  names  of  persons; 

"For  laying  out,  opening  and  working  on  highways, 
and  for  the  election  or  appointment  of  supervisors ; 

"Vacating  roads,  town  plats,  streets,  alleys  and  public 
squares ; 

"Summoning  and  impaneling  grand  and  petit  juries 
and  providing  for  their  compensation  ; 

"Regulating  county  and  township  business  ; 

"Regulating  the  election  of  county  and  township 
officers  and  their  compensation  ; 

"For  the  assessment  and  collection  of  taxes  for  State, 
county,  township  or  road  purposes ; 

"Providing  for  supporting  common  schools,  and  for 
the  preservation  of  school  funds ; 

"In  relation  to  fees  or  salaries ;  except  that  the  laws 
may  be  so  made  as  to  grade  the  compensation  of  officers 
in  proportion  to  the  population  and  the  necessary  serv- 
ices required ; 

"In  relation  to  interest  on  money; 

"Providing  for  opening  and  conducting  elections  of 
State,  county  or  township  officers,  and  designating  the 
places  of  voting; 

"Providing  for  the  sale  of  real  estate  belonging  to 
minors  or  other  persons  laboring  under  legal  disa- 
bilities, by  executors,  administrators,  guardians  or 

This  rather  lengthy  list  of  negative  provisions 
indicates  the  variety  of  special  legislation  that 
had  sprung  up  under  the  old  constitution,  and  to 
further  guard  against  such  misuse  of  the  legis- 
lative power  another  section  specifies  that  "all 
laws  shall  be  general  and  of  uniform  operation 
throughout  the  State." 

By  the  old  constitution  the  number  of  legis- 
lators was  fixed  by  the  General  Assembly  and 
was  to  vary  with  the  voting  population.     In  the  | 
House  there  were  to  be  not  less  than  twenty-five  ' 
nor  more  than  thirty-six  so  long  as  the  number  i 
of  voters  was  less  than  22,000.     The  number  in 
the  Senate  was  to  be  not  less  than  one-third  nor 
more  than  one-half  of  that  in  the  House.    In  the 
new  instrument  the  Senate  was  not  to  exceed  fifty  j 
nor  the  House  one  hundred  members.  I 

The  secretary,  auditor  and  treasurer  of  State  | 
were  to  be  elected  by  the  voters  of  the  State  for  j 
a  uniform  term  of  two  years,  whereas  they  had  I 
been  elected  by  joint  ballot  of  the  General  As-  j 
sembly,  the  secretary  for  four  years  and  the 
other  two  for  three  years.  ' 

Among  the  changes  in  the  judiciary  was  the 
jiopular  election  of  judges  instead  of  appointment 
by  the  governor.  Under  the  old  system  the  State 
was  divided  into  three  circuits,  and  the  circuit 
courts  were  under  the  jurisdiction  of  a  president 
and  two  associate  judges.  These  latter  were  ^ 
local  officials  elected  by  the  voters  of  their  sev- 



eral  counties,  and  they  sat  with  the  president 
judge  as  he  traveled  the  rounds  of  the  circuit. 
In  the  change  they  were  done  away  with.  There 
was  no  constitutional  hmit  to  the  number  of  ju- 
dicial circuits,  and  one  judge  was  elected  by  the 
voters  of  each  circuit.  The  new  instrument  pro- 
vided for  the  appointment  of  three  commission- 
ers to  "revise,  simplify  and  abridge  the  rules, 
practice,  pleadings  and  forms  of  the  courts  of 
justice,"  and  "for  abolishing  the  distinct  forms 
of  action  at  law  now  in  use."  A  duty  of  these 
commissioners  was  "to  reduce  into  a  systematic 
code  the  general  statute  law  of  the  State." 

The  safeguard  against  excessive  State  debt  was 
thus  embodied  (section  5,  article  x)  :  "No  law 
shall  authorize  any  debt  to  be  contracted  on  be- 
half of  the  State,  except  in  the  following  cases : 
To  meet  casual  deficits  in  the  revenue ;  to  pay  the 
interest  on  the  State  debt ;  to  repel  invasion,  sup- 
press insurrection,  or,  if  hostilities  be  threat- 
ened, provide  for  public  defense."  Section  1  of 
article  xiii  also  places  a  restriction  upon  the  in- 
debtedness of  "political  or  municipal  corpora- 
tions," limiting  such  indebtedness  to  two  per  cent, 
on  the  value  of  taxable  property  within  the  cor- 

A  drastic  provision  that  was  ratified  in  1851 
but  stricken  out  in  1881  was  one  that  "no  negro 
or  mulatto  shall  come  into,  or  settle  in  the  State 
after  the  adoption  of  this  constitution."  All  con- 
tracts made  with  any  negro  coming  into  the  State 
was  to  be  void  and  any  one  who  employed  or 
otherwise  encouraged  such  negro  to  remain  here 
was  subject  to  a  fine  of  from  $10  to  $500  and 
fines  so  collected  were  to  be  set  apart  and  ap- 
propriated to  the  colonization  of  negroes  already 
in  the  State  who  might  be  willing  to  emigrate. 
The  negro  was  explicitly  forbidden  all  right  of 

Comment  on  the  Constitution. — Logan  Es- 
larey,  in  his  "History  of  Indiana,"  has  this  com- 
.ment  on  the  new  constitution  : 

"Taken  as  a  whole,  it  is  not  a  great  constitu- 
tion. It  sufifers  by  comparison  with  the  one  it 
!  displaced.  Its  departure  from  that  instrument  in 
most  cases  are  of  very  doubtful  value.  Its  jus- 
tification rests  on  the  substitution  of  biennial  for 
f annual  assemblies  and  abolishment  of  private  and 
local  legislation.  On  the  other  hand  its  critics 
rightly  insist  that  the  judiciary   was   weakened 

and    a    vast    field    opened     for    sinister    party 

Whether  or  not  one  agrees  with  this  estimate, 
the  fact  remains  that  there  seems  to  have  been 
considerable  dissatisfaction  with  the  new  consti- 
tution. Soon  after  its  adoption  there  was  agita- 
tion for  amendments,  and  in  1859  there  was  an 
efl:"ort  to  bring  about  another  convention  or  at 
least  secure  a  series  of  amendments.  The  ques- 
tion of  calling  a  convention  was  submitted  to  the 
people  at  the  regular  election  in  October  of  the 
year  mentioned,  but  was  voted  down.  In  subse- 
quent years  there  was  further  agitation  and  in 
1881  sundry  amendments  went  through,  among 
them  the  elimination  of  the  provision  forbidding 
negroes  coming  into  the  State. 


Passing  of  the  Old  State  Bank;  "Wildcat" 
Banks. — The  charter  of  the  State  Bank  of  In- 
diana, which  dated  from  1834,  ran  till  January 
1,  1859.  The  State  was  a  part  owner  in  that 
bank,  but  though  the  institution  ranks  well  in  our 
history  as  a  reputable  one,  objections  to  it  had 
sprung  up.  In  the  new  constitution  was  inserted 
a  section  forbidding  the  State  to  be  a  stockholder 
in  any  bank  after  the  expiration  of  the  charter 
then  existing.  There  was  also  the  provision  that 
no  bank  should  be  established  otherwise  than 
under  a  general  banking  law,  except  that  there 
might  also  be  chartered  a  bank  with  branches 
without  collateral  security,  the  branches  to  be 
mutually  responsible  for  each  other's  liabilities 
upon  all  paper  credit  issued  as  money.  If  the 
General  Assembly  should  enact  a  general  law  it 
was  to  "provide  for  the  registry  and  countersign- 
ing, by  an  officer  of  State,  of  all  paper  credit  de- 
signed to  be  circulated  as  money ;  and  ample  col- 
lateral security,  readily  convertible  into  specie, 
for  the  redemption  of  the  same  in  gold  or  silver," 
was  to  be  required,  such  collateral  security  to  be 
under  the  control  of  the  proper  officers  of  the 

The  immediate  result  of  this  was  a  general  law 
authorizing  "free  banks,"  passed  by  the  first 
Legislature  after  the  convention,  and  the  "free 
bank  era"  that  followed  would  seem  to  be  one 
of  the  lessons  of  history.  Within  six  months 
after  the  passage  of  the  law  fifteen  banks  had 



been  organized  and  seventy- four  others  followed 
(Esarey).  In  spite  of  the  constitutional  safe- 
guards as  to  "ample  collateral  security"  under  the 
control  of  State  officers  many  of  the  bankers 
were  irresponsible  adventurers  and  a  goodly  per- 
centage of  these  seem  to  have  been  deliberate 
rascals  and  grafters.  According  to  one  writer, 
"a  thousand  or  two  of  cash  only  was  needed  to 
start  a  bank  in  those  halcyon  days  of  paper  cur- 
rency. All  that  was  needed  w^as  enough  to  pay 
for  engraving  the  bills.  An  embryo  banker 
would  go  to  New  York  with  a  thousand  or  two 
dollars,  order  an  engraver  to  make  a  plate  and 
print  him  $50,000  in  bills.  He  would  then  visit 
a  broker  and  negotiate  for  $50,000  worth  of  the 
bonds  of  some  State.  The  next  step  was  to  send 
the  printed  bills  to  the  State  auditor  of  Indiana 
and  instruct  the  broker  to  forward  to  the  same 
place  the  bonds  negotiated  for,  to  be  paid  for  on 
receipt  at  the  auditor's  office.  The  auditor  would 
countersign  the  new  money,  pay  for  the  bonds, 
and  a  new  bank  would  be  set  going,  and  the  en- 
terprising banker  would  receive  the  interest  on 
the  $50,000  worth  of  bonds.  Thus  one  man,  with 
$10,000  in  money,  bought  bonds  and  established 
banks  until  he  had  in  circulation  $600,000  of 
paper,  and  was  drawing  interest  on  that  amount 
of  bonds"  (W.  H.  Smith). 

This  may  be  drawing  it  a  little  strong  so  far 
as  the  general  conditions  were  concerned,  but  at 
any  rate  the  "wildcat"  banks  and  the  speculators 
who  made  the  most  of  them  brought  about  a  gen- 
eral derangement  of  money  affairs  and  the  dis- 
tress that  goes  with  an  inflated,  depreciated  cur- 

Bank  of  the  State  of  Indiana;  Changes  In- 
volved.— This  was  the  situation  in  1855  when  a 
bill  was  passed  chartering  a  new  bank  to  be  known 
as  the  Bank  of  the  State  of  Indiana.  The  State  sus- 
tained no  relation  to  it,  though  its  name  conveys 
the  idea  that  it  was  a  State  bank.  Conformably 
witli  article  xi,  section  2,  of  the  constitution,  it 
was  a  Ixuik  with  branches  that  were  mutually 
responsil^le,  but  otherwise  it  was  unrestricted. 
There  was  considerable  opposition  to  it  by  rea- 
son of  the  possibilities  for  abuse  that  the  charter 
offered,  and  from  the  first  there  were  charges 
of  chicanery  and  corrupt  politics.  Governor 
Wright  was  bitterly  opposed  to  it,  and  vetoed  the 
I)ill,  but  it  was  passed  over  his  veto.     In  his  mes- 

sage of  1857  he  attacked  it  anew  in  drastic  lan- 
guage. "The  means  and  appliances  brought  to 
bear  to  secure  the  passage  of  this  charter,"  he 
said,  "would,  if  exposed  to  the  public  gaze,  ex- 
hibit the  darkest  page  of  fraud  and  corruption 
that  ever  disgraced  the  Legislature  of  any 
State."  This  severe  arraignment,  amplified  by 
further  detailed  charges,  resulted  in  an  investi- 
gation by  a  select  committee  of  the  Senate.  The 
report  of  the  examination  of  numerous  witnesses 
in  the  case  make  a  good-sized  book.*  The  con- 
clusions of  the  committee  were  that  there  had 
been  chicanery  and  that  the  investigation 
"clearly  uncovers  to  the  public  gaze  a  fraudulent 
and  successful  encroachment  upon  the  rights  of 
the  people.  ...  A  great  franchise  of  the 
State,"  the  report  says,  "which  the  constitution 
intended  to  be  granted  only  for  the  public  good 
and  to  be  equally  open  to  all,  has  been  scrambled 
for,  won,  and  sold  to  the  highest  bidder."  In 
short,  the  committee  thoroughly  discredited  the 
bank  as  a  colossal  instrument  of  graft  ("Bank 
Frauds"  report,  pp.  432-436)  and  advanced  ar-i 
guments  for  the  revocation  of  the  charter,  but 
no  such  step  was  taken.  Its  management,  after, 
the  stirring  up,  passed  into  good  and  competent: 
hands,  with  the  noted  financier  Hugh  McCul-i 
loch,  as  its  president,  and  James  M.  Ray,  one  of  i 
the  best  citizens  of  Indianapolis,  as  cashier.  It] 
ran  successfully  until  1865,  when  it  was  sup-! 
planted  by  the  national  banking  system,  most  of, 
its  branches  becoming  national  banks  (W.  H.i 
Smith).  Its  branches  were  at  Lima,  Laporte,' 
Plymouth,  South  Bend,  Fort  Wayne,  Lafayette,. 
Logansport,  Indianapolis,  Richmond,  Conners- 
ville,  Rushville,  Madison,  Jeffersonville,  New  Al- 
bany, Bedford,  Vincennes,  Terre  Haute,  Muncie 
and  Lawrenceburg  (Esarey). 


Educational    Status    in    Latter    Forties. — Inj 

spite  of  the  constitutional  provisions,  the  various] 
school  laws  and  the  private  seminaries,  acad-l 
emies  and  other  schools  that  sprang  up  over  thej 
State  the  educational  status  in  Indiana  through- 
out the  period  of  the  first  constitution  was  very, 
low.     To  cjuote  Professor  Boone  ("Education  in 

*  "Bank     Frauds:      Journal,    Testimony    and    Reports."      Pub- 
lished by  Joseph   J.    Bingham,    1857. 



Indiana")  :  "As  yet  [prior  to  1849]  there  was  no 
system.  .  .  .  Elementary  education  was  chiefly 
conspicuous  through  neglect  of  it,  while  all  other 
was  more  or  less  antagonized.  Free  schooling 
of  any  grade  was  thought  by  many  to  be  danger- 
ous to  the  State  and  subversive  of  the  highest 
individual  good."  Nor  was  this  condition  on 
the  mend,  for  whereas  in  1840  the  State  stood 
sixteenth  in  the  scale  of  literacy  "in  less  than 
ten  years  it  fell  to  the  twenty-third  place,"  and 
among  the  free  northern  States  it  stood  lowest. 
About  one  in  every  seven  was  unable  to  read  or 
write,  taking  the  State  over,  while  some  counties 
reported  one-third  of  their  adults  as  illiterates. 

Caleb  Mills. — The  most  notable  pioneer  edu- 
cator to  wage  a  crusade  against  this  benighted 
condition  was  Caleb  Mills,  a  New  Hampshire  man 
and  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  college  and  An- 
dover  Theological  Seminary,  who  came  to  Craw- 
fordsville  in  1833  to  take  charge  of  the  school 
that  was  to  become  Wabash  college.  It  was  not 
until  thirteen  years  later  that  he  began  his  fa- 
mous systematic  campaign  that  entitles  him  to 
an  honored  place  among  those  who  have  truly 
served  Indiana. 

Mills'  "Messages." — The  feature  of  this 
"campaign"  was  a  series  of  appeals  to  the  Legis- 
latures and  to  the  constitutional  convention  which 
extended  over  a  period  of  six  years.  They  be- 
came known  as  "messages"  to  the  Legislature  by 
"One  of  the  People,"  the  identity  of  Mills  being 
concealed  under  that  signature.  Presented  as 
the  gratuitous  or  volunteer  messages  of  a  lay- 
man on  the  one  subject  of  education  they  ap- 
peared in  the  Indiana  State  Journal  in  1846,  1847, 
1848,  1849,  at  the  beginning  of  the  legislative  ses- 
sions of  those  years.  Four  letters  to  the  members 
of  the  convention  appeared  in  the  Indiana  States- 
man in  1850,  and  the  sixth  and  last  "message" 
was  laid  on  the  desks  of  the  legislators  of  1852 — 
the  first  to  convene  under  the  new  constitution. 

In  these  various  addresses  Professor  Mills 
dealt  with  the  problem  of  illiteracy  and  what  it 
meant  to  the  State,  dwelling  analytically  and  ex- 
haustively upon  facts  that  previous  Legislatures 
had  ignored.  "Shall  we,"  he  asked,  "dig  canals 
and  build  railroads  to  transport  the  products  of 
our  rich  soil  to  market,  and  leave  the  intellect  of 
the  rising  generation  undeveloped  and  undis- 
ciplined ?  Is  matter  more  valuable  than  mind  ? 
We  have  borrowed,"  he  said,  "millions  for  the 

physical  improvement  of  our  State,  but  we  have 
not  raised  a  dollar  by  ad  valorem  taxation  to 
cultivate  the  minds  of  our  children."  He  cited 
statistics  to  show  the  increased  industrial  effi- 
ciency that  resulted  from  education,  and  pointed 
out  the  benefits  from  the  viewpoint  of  material 
prosperity  alone.  He  also  discussed  the  question 
of  ways  and  means — of  resources  and  taxation 
and  methods,  and  made  clear  the  inadequacies 
of  the  existing  system  with  its  low  standards,  its 
poor  teachers  and  its  lack  of  equipment.  In 
brief,  he  threshed  out  the  question  from  every 
side  with  the  masterful  power  of  an  expert  in  a 
field  where  experts  were  few,  and  his  unwearying 
persistence  made  an  impression  that  was  the  be- 
ginning of  a  new  educational  order.  The  effect 
on  Governor  Whitcomb,  indeed,  was  immediate, 
and  following  Mills'  first  address  he  spoke  for  the 
first  time  in  his  own  message  of  the  educational 
needs.  "One  of  the  People"  was  widely  read 
and  discussed,  and  by  the  time  the  last  of  the  six 
appeals  was  laid  before  the  Legislature  that  body 
thought  enough  of  it  to  order  5,000  copies  printed 
for  distribution. 

Effect  of  the  Addresses. — Mr.  Charles  W. 
Moores*  says  that  "the  six  messages  have  long 
been  considered  the  basis  of  the  Indiana  system 
of  common  schools.  Their  influence,  although 
they  were  published  anonymously,  was  felt  at 
once,  and  that  influence  is  still  a  controlling  one 
in  the  educational  growth  of  the  State." 

Contemporary  with  these  addresses  and  largely 
inspired  by  them,  seemingly,  there  sprang  up  a 
general  agitation  of  the  educational  question.  On 
May  26,  1847,  there  was  a  school  convention 
held  at  Indianapolis  which  was  in  session  for 
three  days  and  in  connection  with  which  we  find 
the  names  of  a  number  of  well-known  citizens  of 
the  State.  This  was  the  first  of  a  series  of  such 
meetings  which  worked  on  public  sentiment,  and 
helped  clear  the  way  against  ignorance  and  the 
opposition  of  false  notions  for  a  better  law, 
which  finally,  in  1849,  found  its  way  into  the  stat- 
ute book.  The  distinctive  feature  of  this  law 
was  that  it  authorized,  for  the  first  time,  a  direct 
and  general  tax  levy  for  the  support  of  public 
schools,  whereas  previously  the  reliance  had  been 
on  the  inadequate  returns   from  the  permanent 

*  "Caleb  Mills  and  the  Indiana  School  System,"  by  Charles 
W.  Moores;  Ind.  Hist.  Soc.  publications,  vol.  iii.  The  fullest 
and  best  study  we  have  of  this  chapter  in  our  educational  his- 



school  fund.  It  also  changed  the  machinery  of 
school  administration,  as  organized,  and  intro- 
duced more  of  a  system.* 

The  free  school  principle  which,  under  the  old 
constitution,  was  subject  to  the  shifting  notions 
of  public  opinion  and  of  successive  Legislatures, 
was  fixed  in  the  new  constitution  by  a  mandatory 
provision  that  there  should  be  "a  general  and 
uniform  system  of  common  schools,  wherein  tui- 
tion shall  be  without  charge,  and  equally  open 
to  all."  This  was  an  immense  advance  gained 
by  the  advocates  of  free  and  universal  education, 
and  one  step  toward  the  "general  and  uniform 
system"  was  the  further  provision  for  election 
by  the  voters  of  the  State  of  a  State  superintend- 
ent of  public  instruction  as  head  of  the  whole 
educational  plan. 

Law^  of  1852;  Beginning  of  New  Regime. — 
The  first  Legislature  under  the  new  constitution, 
that  of  1852,  passed  a  law  that  went  a  step 
farther  in  the  direction  of  a  uniform  and  efftcient 
system,  though  in  the  general  re-arrangement 
under  new  conditions  it  had  many  problems  to 
contend  with.  It  has  been  said  that  "the  dawn 
of  our  present  common  school  system  began  in 
1852.  .  .  .  The  law  embodied  the  principle 
that  the  property  of  the  State  should  educate  the 
children  of  the  State  and  that  all  the  common 
schools  should  be  open  to  pupils  without  charge. 
.  .  .  It  provided  for  the  consolidation  and  gen- 
eral management  by  the  State  of  all  the  per- 
manent school  funds  .  .  .  and  for  the  better 
investment  of  the  school  funds"  (W.  H.  Smith). 
It  also  provided  for  the  election  of  a  State  super- 
intendent of  public  instruction  and  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  State  Board  of  Education. 

A  distinctive  feature  of  the  law  that  proved  to 
be,  virtually,  its  undoing  was  the  authorization 
of  school  corporations  in  cities  and  towns  inde- 
pendent of  the  township  corporations  that  had 
previously  comprehended  the  whole  system,  and 
the  further  authorization  of  local  taxation  at  the 
option  of  the  people  supplemental  to  the  general 
fund.  This  opened  the  way  in  the  centers  of 
population  for  graded,  superior  schools,  and  un- 
der the  stimulus  of  it  many  cities  levied  the  extra 

*  Prior  to  the  Legislature  of  1849  a  popular  vote  was  taken  on 
the  free  school  question  and  it  carried  by  more  than  16,000,  but 
the  forty-three  counties  constituting  the  south  half  of  the  State 
returned  a  majority  of  1,634  against  free  schools  while  the  forty- 
seven  counties  north  of  an  east  and  west  line  drawn  along  the 
south  boundary  of  Marion  county  gave  a  favorable  majority  of 
18,270.     (Boone.) 

tax  and  proceeded  to  develop  something  larger 
and  better  than  the  country  schools  of  the  town- 
ship system. 

The  Perkins  Decision. — In  1855  this  new  prog- 
ress received  a  serious  check.    Many  still  opposed 
taxation  for  educational  purposes  as  a  coercive 
policy.      The    constitutionality    of    the    law    was 
questioned,  and  in  a  suit  brought  in  the  city  of 
Lafayette   by   one   William    M.    Jenners,    which 
found  its  way  to  the  Supreme  Court,  the  conten- 
tion of  the  plaintiff  was  sustained  by  Judge  Sam- 
uel Perkins,  and  the  law  overthrown.    The  result  ■ 
of   this  court  decision  was  a  discouraging  set- 
back to  the  cause  of  education.    Professor  Boone 
says  that  "most  city  schools  were  classed  as  pub-  i 
lie  schools,  the  houses  rented  to  private  parties 
and  superintendents  and  teachers  dismissed,  not 
a   few  of  the  best  of  both  classes   leaving  the 
State ;"  and  again :  "This  condition  gave  Indiana 
through  a  decade  of  years,  a  reputation  that  re- 
quired another  decade  to  wipe  out."     In  other  ; 
words,  the  restricting  of  the  educational  work  I 
to  the  returns  from  the  permanent  fund  and  the  I 
general  State  tax  of  ten  cents  on  each  hundred  | 
dollars'   worth   of   property,   threw   the    schools  | 
back  on  a  revenue  so  insul^cient  that  the  school  '■ 
term  was  reduced  to  two  or  three  months,  or  less,  . 
and  in  1859,  for  example,  "the  entire  school  rev-  | 
enue  of  every  kind,  distributed  to  the  schools, 
averaged  but  94  cents  per  child — only  $68  to  each 
of  the  6,500  schools"  (Boone).  , 

The  detrimental  effects  of  this  adverse  decision  ' 
of  Judge  Perkins  was  felt  for  a  dozen  years,  dur- 
ing which  time  a  revival  of  private  schools  of  va-  ■ 
rious  kinds  was  the  educational  salvation  of  the 
State.    In  1867  another  local  tax  law  was  passed 
and  public  sentiment,  by  this  time,  was  so  favora-  j 
ble  to  it  that  its  constitutionality  was  not  ques-  ■ 
tioned  until  eighteen  years  later.    In  1885  a  test  [ 
case  was  made  in  the  Switzerland  county  circuit 
court,  similar  to  the  one  in  Lafayette  thirty  years 
before.     It  went  to  the  Supreme  Court  and  this 
time  Judge  Byron  K.  Elliott  laid  the  ghost  by  de- 
claring constitutional  the  controverted  section  of  ' 
the  law. 


A  New  Impulse. — During  this  decade  there 
was  a  very  decided  movement  toward  agricul-  ^ 
tural  advancement.    From  the  beginning,  indeed, 



farming  had  been  considered  as  the  mainstay  of 
the  country,  but  attempts  to  improve  its  status 
by  organized  effort  had  been,  at  the  best,  spo- 
radic. As  early  as  1835  a  State  Board  of  Agri- 
culture had  been  created,  but  for  years  it  had 
only  a  nominal  existence ;  and  the  same  seems  to 
have  been  true  of  various  county  societies.  The 
first  step  toward  a  more  efficient  order  may  be 
found  in  the  message  of  Governor  Wright,  de- 
livered December  31,  1850.  Wright,  although 
fun  has  been  poked  at  him,  and  his  political  op- 
ponents facetiously  accused  him  of  advising  the 
farmers  to  buy  hydraulic  rams  for  the  purpose 
of  improving  the  breeds  of  sheep,  is  nevertheless 
justly  honored  among  the  governors  as  a  patron 
saint  of  husbandry. 

State  Board  of  Agriculture. — In  his  message 
referred  to  he  advised  the  re-establishment  of  a 
State  Board  of  Agriculture  and  suggested  feat- 
ures of  a  plan  that  were  incorporated  in  a  law 
which  followed.  This  law,  "An  Act  for  the  En- 
couragement of  Agriculture,"  approved  February 
14,  1851,  and  re-enacted  with  some  modifications 
on  February  17,  1852,  provided,  in  the  first  place, 
for  the  formation  of  county  societies,  for  the  en- 
couragement of  which,  under  certain  conditions, 
there  was  granted  all  moneys  collected  as  licenses 
for  the  exhibitions  of  menageries,  circuses,  the- 
atrical performances  or  other  shows.  It  also 
"created  a  body  corporate,  with  perpetual  suc- 
cession .  .  .  under  the  name  and  style  of  the 
'Indiana  State  Board  of  Agriculture,'  "  which 
was  to  receive  reports  from  the  various  country 
societies,  deliberate  with  delegates  from  such 
societies  "as  to  the  wants,  prospects  and  condi- 
tions of  the  agricultural  interests  throughout  the 
State,"  and  to  make  an  annual  report  to  the  Gen- 
eral Assembly.  This  board  was  given  "power  to 
(hold  State  fairs  at  such  times  and  places  as  they 
>may  deem  expedient"  and,  having  entire  con- 
trol of  the  same,  could  fix  the  amount  of  the  va- 
rious premiums  offered. 

The  Board  of  Agriculture  organized  and  held 
its  first  meeting  May  28,  1851,  with  Governor 
Wright  as  president ;  John  B.  Dillon,  secretary, 
and  Royal  Mayhew,  treasurer.  The  question  of 
a  State  agricultural  fair  was  discussed,  some 
'members  urging  such  an  exhibition,  and  others 
holding  that  the  conditions,  both  as  to  transporta- 
tion facilities  and  public  sentiment  were  not  yet 
quite  ripe.     In  deference  to  the  latter  argument. 

it  seems,  the   fair  project  was  postponed  for  a 
year  and  a  half. 

County  Societies. — The  formation  of  county 
societies  progressed  from  the  first,  and  by  1852 
there  were  forty-five  of  them  in  existence,  and 
the  reports  of  these  organizations  incorporated, 
along  with  other  matter,  in  the  annual  report  of 
the  State  board,  present,  from  1852,  an  excellent 
record  of  the  agricultural  progress  of  the  State. 

First  State  Fair. — There  doubtless  was  a  re- 
lation between  the  establishment  of  a  State  fair 
and  the  existence  of  the  railroads  which  made 
practicable  the  transportation  of  live  stock  and 
exhibits  from  various  parts  of  the  State.  The 
first  of  these  fairs  was  held  in  Indianapolis,  Oc- 
tober 20,  21  and  22,  1852,  on  the  grounds  now 
known  as  Military  park,  west  of  West  street.  It 
was  an  event  of  great  popular  interest.  The 
newspapers  devoted  a  quite  unusual  amount  of 
space  to  it  and  the  people,  both  exhibitors  and 
visitors,  rallied  to  make  it  a  success.  It  was  re- 
garded as  an  important  forward  step  in  the 
State's  progress.  To  quote  from  a  paper  of  the 
day :  "A  just  pride  in  the  utility  and  greatness 
of  their  pursuits  will  be  generally  infused  among 
our  farmers,  mechanics  and  manufacturers. 
Standards  of  excellence  in  stock,  of  utility  in 
machines,  and  of  true  taste  in  the  elegant  articles 
of  comfort  and  luxury  will  be  fixed  in  the  minds 
of  all.  Progress  in  their  respective  pursuits  will 
take  the  place  of  indifl:erence  in  their  minds.  A 
laudable  ambition  to  have  the  mantel  decorated 
with  a  silver  cup  will  actuate  all,  and  thus  feel- 
ing and  acting,  who  can  calculate  the  ultimate  re- 

There  were  1,365  entries,  with  quite  a  showing 
of  improved  agricultural  machinery,  and  a  large 
exhibit  of  live  stock,  chiefly  hogs,  sheep  and  cat- 
tle. Of  the  latter  the  Durham  were  most  in  evi- 
dence, though  Devons,  Herefords  and  Ayreshires 
were  also  represented.  As  shown  by  the  treas- 
urer's report,  premiums  to  the  amount  of  $1,026 
were  distributed  among  about  160  entries.  The 
out-of-town  attendance  taxed  the  capacity  of 
both  the  fair  grounds  and  the  city's  facilities  for 
accommodations,*  and  the  total  gate  receipts  at 
20  cents  a  head  amounted  to  something  over 
$4,600,  which,  according  to  the  local  papers,  de- 

*  The  estimated  attendance  the  first  day  was  15,000;  on  the 
second,  25.000,  while  on  the  third  there  were  "more  people  in 
town  than  the  grounds  could  hold." 



frayed  expenses  and  allowed  the  return  of  $2,000 
that  had  been  borrowed  from  the  State. 

Fair  Week  in  Indianapolis. — Incidentally, 
this  was  undoubtedly  the  liveliest  week  that  In- 
dianapoHs  had  ever  known.  The  place  was  filled 
with  side-shows  and  catch-pennies.  A  vaudeville 
troupe,  under  the  management  of  the  once- fa- 
mous "Yankee"  Robinson,  gave  three  perform- 
ances daily  in  a  tent  near  the  fair  grounds. 
Wells'  minstrels  were  another  attraction.  A  man 
named  Diehl  put  up  what  he  advertised  as  an 
"enormous  pavilion"  near  the  State  House,  where 
he  gave  pyrotechnic  displays,  and  there  was  a 
"grand  exhibition  of  the  world's  fair,"  being 
illuminated  views  of  the  London  Crystal  Palace 
exposition ;  also  "Beard's  Hoosier  Panorama  of 
Paradise  Lost,"  showed  at  one  of  tRe  churches. 
Then  P.  T.  Barnum  came  along  with  his  museum 
and  menagerie,  and,  added  to  all,  the  Democrats 
had  a  big  torchlight  procession  which  was  to  close 
with  speaking  at  the  Wright  House,  where  the 
New  York  store  now  stands,  but  the  whigs  gath- 
ered to  howl  down  the  speakers,  thus  contribut- 
ing to  the  pandemonium  which  the  good  citi- 
zens of  Indianapolis  had  to  endure  for  that  week. 

Original  Policy  a  Shifting  Fair. — The  orig- 
inal intention,  out  of  deference  to  the  other 
leading  towns  of  the  State,  was  to  shift  the  fair 
from  place  to  place,  giving  Indianapolis  every 
third  year.  In  accordance  with  this  idea 
Lafayette  had  it  in  1853  and  Madison  in  1854. 
At  both  these  places  it  was  a  financial  failure. 
Then  it  was  kept  at  Indianapolis  for  four  years. 
In  1859  New  Albany  tried  it,  but  again  it  was  a 
financial  failure,  and  after  that  it  remained  per- 
manently at  the  capital,  the  grounds  being 
changed  from  Military  park  to  a  thirty-six-acre 
purchase  at  the  north  edge  of  the  city,  now  built 
over  and  known  as  Morton  Place. 


The  Plank  Road  Era. — y\n  innovation  in  road- 
making  during  the  fifties  constituted  what  is 
sometimes  called  the  "plank  road  era." 

The  plank  road  ajjpears  to  have  originated 
in  Russia,  to  have  found  its  way  thence  into 
Canada,  and  from  there  into  jiarts  of  the  United 
States  lying  contiguous  to  Canada.  In  a  country 
where  timber  was  not  merely  abundant,  but  an 
actual  encur.ibrancc,  the  conversion  of  this  lim 

ber  into  a  solid  road  as  smooth  as  a  floor  was 
a  captivating  proposition,  and  the  fever  caught 
and  spread.  In  no  place  was  there  better  reason 
for  its  spreading  than  in  Indiana,  and  accord- 
ingly for  nearly  ten  years  (through  the  fifties) 
we  had  the  plank  road  era.  The  promise  of  im- 
mediate returns  was,  presumably,  sufficient  to 
attract  capital,  and  the  State  very  wisely  handed 
over  the  new  movement  to  the  capitalists.  From 
1848  we  find  laws  authorizing  corporations  to 
take  possession  of  the  existing  roads,  to  con- 
vert them  into  plank  roads,  and  to  erect  and 
maintain  toll-houses  for  revenue  along  the  same. 
In  1850  one  of  these  companies,  organized  to 
build  a  plank  road  from  New  Harmony  to  Mount 
Vernon,  in  Posey  county,  sent  Robert  Dale  Owen 
to  western  New  York  to  investigate  the  roads 
already  in  operation  there,  and  the  result  was  the 
publication  of  a  small  book  containing  a  mass  of 
information  upon  the  subject.*  There  were  va- 
rious widths  and  methods  of  laying  in  the  con- 
struction of  these  roads,  but  that  recommended 
by  Owen  was  eight  feet  wide,  formed  of  planks 
two  and  one-half  to  four  inches  thick  laid  cross- 
wise on  long  mud  sills,  and  well  spiked  down. 
The  cost  of  this  material  he  estimated  at  $938.08 
to  $1,689.60  per  mile,  according  to  thickness  of 
planks.  The  labor  involved  a  party  of  twelve  or 
fourteen  hands  with  teams  for  ploughing,  scrap- 
ing, rolling,  etc.,  and  these  could  lay  from  thirty 
to  forty  rods  per  day,  at  an  expense  of  perhaps 
$200  per  mile.  The  approximate  total  cost  of  a 
road  built  of  three-inch  white  oak  planks  was 
given  as  $2,000  per  mile. 

While  Owen,  with  the  bias  of  an  advocate,  per- 
haps, figures  that  a  white  oak  road  would  do  good 
service  for  at  least  twelve  years,  as  a  matter  of 
fact  those  constructed  in  this  State  would  seem 
to  be  much  shorter  of  life.  Within  ten  years  the 
decadence  had  plainly  set  in,  for  a  law  of  1859 
prohibits  the  collection  of  tolls  on  roads  that  are 
not  kept  up,  and  about  this  time  plank  road  legis- 
lation disappears  from  the  statutes.  The  dififi- 
culty  was  not  only  decay,  but  the  warping  and 
working  loose  of  the  planks. 

Introduction  of  Gravel  Roads. — In  1858  we 
find  the  first  statutory  mention  of  gravel  roads, 
and  the  introduction  of  this  material,  presum- 
ablv  about  that  time,  was  the  beginning  of 
a   ])ossible   permanent   excellence.      Why   it   was 

*  Owen  on  "Plank  Roads,"  New  Albany,  1850. 





not  earlier  used  is  not  easy  to  learn,  but  it 
is  probable  that  prior  to  the  clearing  up  of 
the  country,  when  the  drift-choked,  forest-en- 
vironed streams  flowed  with  a  fuller  volume, 
gravel  bars  were  at  once  much  less  in  evidence, 
and  much  less  accessible  than  at  a  later  day.  Con- 
struction with  this  new  material  went  on  under 
private  enterprise,  the  State  became  well 
traversed  with  toll-roads,  and  the  ubiquitous  little 
toll-house,  with  its  long  sweep  pole,  is  still  fresh 
in  the  memories  of  most  of  us. 

The  next  turn  in  legislation  was  a  provision 
(as  early  as  1879)  for  the  county  control  of  free 
turnpikes  and  the  authorization  of  tax  levies  for 
that  purpose.  Under  these  laws  the  improved 
roads  have,  one  by  one,  been  bought  up  by  the 
several  counties,  and  the  abolishment  of  the  toll- 
gate  is  becoming  general.* 


Strictly  speaking  the  railroad  era  of  Indiana 
began  when  the  Madison  &  Indianapolis  road 
went  into  operation  in  1839,  but  the  sudden  de- 
velopment of  first  roads  that  grew  into  the  sys- 
tem of  later  years  is  a  distinguishing  feature  in 
the  history  of  the  early  fifties.  The  Madison 
road  was  completed  to  Indianapolis  in  1847,  and 
its  prosperity  following  that  completion  was  a 
tremendous  stimulus  to  railroad  construction. f 
Capital,  hitherto  timid  and  distrustful  of  invest- 
ment in  this  direction,  now  flowed  freely  and  by 
the  latter  part  of  1850  six  new  roads  were  under 
way  with  a  total  of  142  miles  built  in  addition  to 
the  eighty-six  miles  of  the  M.  &  I.lj: 

On  the  maps  of  1852  and  1853  we  find  the 
State  traversed  in  all  directions  by  something 
like  a  score  of  roads,  some  of  them  then  in  opera- 
tion, and  seven  of  these  centered  at  Indianapolis, 
while  an  eighth,  the  Jeffersonville,  was  directly 
tributary  to  it. 

Sketches  of  First  Roads. — Brief  sketches  of 
these  pioneer  roads  in  the  order  of  their  begin- 
ning are  here  given : 

The     Indianapolis     &     Lawrcncchnrg. — This 

*  It  has  been  stated  that  there  are  now  but  two  toll-gates  in 
the  State. 

t  As  the  Madison  road  was  extended  into  the  interior  its  re- 
ceipts increased  from  $22,110  in  1843  to  $235,000  in  1849,  and 
the  daily  travel  from  25  to  200  passengers.  Its  stock  rose  until, 
in   1852,  it  sold   for   $1.60.      (Chamberlain's   Gazetteer.) 

%  By  1860  this  mileage  had  increased  to  2,125.75  (census  re- 

road,  afterward  known  as  the  "I.,  C.  &  L.,"  se- 
cured its  first  charter  as  early  as  1832  and  in  its 
first  steps  toward  actual  construction  antedated 
the  M.  &  I.  by  four  years.  It  encountered  much 
opposition  from  the  M.  &  I.,  and  was  not  com- 
pleted until  1853.  By  connecting  central  Indi- 
ana with  Cincinnati  and  the  east  this  line  became 
a  formidable  competitor  of  the  M.  &  I.  The  first 
year  after  its  completion  the  receipts  were  $299,- 
433.66;  the  second  year  this  was  nearly  doubled, 
and  much  of  this,  presumably,  drew  directly 
from  the  receipts  of  the  M.  &  I.  Afterward  it 
took  the  name  of  the  Indianapolis,  Cincinnati  & 
Lafayette,  and  is  now  one  of  the  "Big  Four" 

The  Jeffersonville  Road. — This  line,  under  the 
original  name  of  the  Ohio  &  Indiana  Railroad 
Company,  was  first  chartered  in  1832,  then  in 
1837,  and  again  in  1846.  Finally,  in  1848,  its 
promoters  secured  still  another  charter  more  lib- 
eral than  the  preceding  ones,  and  got  to  work. 
In  1849  the  name  was  changed  to  the  Jefiferson- 
ville  Railroad  Company.  In  1852  it  was  finished 
to  Columbus,  where  it  met  the  M.  &  I.  Here 
trouble  began.  The  monopolistic  M.  &.  I.,  then 
under  the  control  of  John  Brough,  afterward 
governor  of  Ohio,  was  not  disposed  to  brook  any 
rival,  and  it  refused  to  co-ordinate  its  running 
schedule  with  that  of  the  new  road.  The  latter, 
in  retaliation,  extended  its  scheme  and  started 
for  Indianapolis,  side  by  side  with  the  M.  &  I., 
which  then  capitulated  and  the  two  formed  a! 
junction.  Like  the  camel  which,  having  got  its' 
nose  into  the  tent,  gradually  wedged  in  its  whole 
body,  the  Jefifersonville  road  soon  dominated  its' 
rival,  and  in  1866  the  two  were  consolidated  as 
the  Jeffersonville,  Madison  &  Indianapolis,  which 
name  it  retained  for  many  years.  It  is  now  a 
branch  of  the  Pennsylvania  system.  Like  the 
Cincinnati  road  to  the  east,  this  one,  by  opening 
the  way  to  Louisville  and  the  south  was  a  great 
contributory  factor  to  the  decadence  of  the! 
State's  first  road,  which,  when  it  reached  Madi-I 
son,  was  effectually  barred  from  getting  farther. 

TJie  Belief ontaine  &  Indianapolis. — This  road.! 
afterward  known  as  the  C,  C,  C.  &  I.,  and  now' 
a  ]xirt  of  the  "Big  Four"  system,  was  the  first 
line  that  opened  up  a  way  directly  with  the  east 
and  northeast.  It  was  begun  in  1848,  being  the 
second  road  running  out  of  Indianapolis,  and  in 
1852  reached  Union  Cilv,  at  the  State  line,  where 



it  connected  with  an  Ohio  Hne  and  with  eastern 
points.  Before  making  that  connection  its  traf- 
fic, draining  toward  Indianapohs,  contributed  to 
the  prosperity  of  the  Madison  road,  but  after- 
ward it  was  a  formidable  competitor,  diverting, 
as  it  did,  the  commerce  of  the  interior  toward  the 
east.  Its  chief  promoter  and  first  president  was 
Oliver  H.  Smith,  well  known  as  lawyer,  politi- 
cian and  United  States  senator. 

The  Pern  &  Indianapolis. — The  next  road  out 
of  the  capital  was  the  Peru  &  Indianapolis.  It 
was  running  to  Nobles ville  by  the  spring  of  1851 
and  reached  Peru  in  1854.  It  is  said  that  "in  its 
'earlier  days  it  brought  into  Indianapolis  immense 
quantities  of  lumber,  and,  at  a  later  day,  much 
grain  and  produce."  For  a  while  the  Peru  and 
;the  Madison  roads  were  consolidated,  the  aim 
being  to  establish  a  through  route  from  the  Ohio 
river  to  the  Wabash  &  Erie  canal  and  thence,  by 
iwater,  to  the  east.  This,  it  was  thought  would 
put  the  M.  &  I.  on  a  footing  with  its  rivals  that 
were  afifording  outlets  eastward,  but  for  some 
jreason  the  merger  did  not  last  long.  The  Peru 
&  Indianapolis  subsequently  became  the  Indian- 
apolis, Peru  &  Chicago,  and  is  now  the  Lake 
Erie  &  Western. 

\  The  Terre  Haute  &  Indianapolis. — This  road 
[was  to  have  bisected  the  State  east  and  west,  with 
iTerre  Haute  and  Richmond  as  its  two  termini. 
jThe  idea  originally  agitated  was  that  it  should 
be  one  link  in  a  larger  railroad  scheme  that  would 
[extend  without  break  from  St.  Louis  to  Cincin- 
nati. This  plan,  however,  was  evidently  too  am- 
^bitious  for  that  day  and  generation  and  it  settled 
[down  to  a  line  connecting  Terre  Haute  with  Indi- 
anapolis. It  was  finished  in  1852,  and,  like  the 
other  roads  centering  at  Indianapolis,  was,  in  the 
beginning,  a  feeder  for  the  M.  &  I.  It  is  now 
[called  the  "Vandalia." 

I  The  Indiana  Central. — This  road,  for  many 
jyears  known  as  the  "Panhandle,"  and  now  as  a 
ilink  in  the  Pennsylvania  lines,  connected  Indian- 
apolis with  Richmond,  Ind.,  and  was  the  fulfil- 
lment of  the  preceding  plan  for  a  Terre  Haute 
and  Richmond  road.  It  was  begun  in  1851  and 
'completed  in  1853,  being  the  first  line  to  estab- 
lish (by  way  of  Cincinnati)  a  connection  with 
fthe  east.  It  paralleled  the  National  road  and  was 
!a  large  factor  in  reducing  the  travel  over  that 
;.t     The  Indianapolis  &  Lafayette. — As  the  Indi- 





ana  Central  carried  out  the  scheme  of  connecting 
Terre  Haute  with  Richmond,  so  the  Indianapolis 
&  Lafayette  road  completed  the  original  idea  of 
a  Madison,  Indianapolis  and  Lafayette  line,  as 
contemplated  in  the  internal  improvement  law  of 
1836.  It  was  finished  in  1852,  and  was  especially 
important  as  forming  a  link  in  a  connection  be- 
tween the  Ohio  river  and  Chicago.  In  1866  it 
was  consolidated  with  the  Cincinnati  road  and 
the  two  took  the  name  of  the  Indianapolis,  Cin- 
cinnati &  Lafayette.  The  line,  now  known  as 
the  C,  C,  C.  &  St.  L.  (Big  Four),  connects  Cin- 
cinnati with  Chicago. 

Ohio  &  Mississippi. — This  road,  crossing  the 
southern  part  of  the  State,  was  the  first  to  form 
a  link  in  a  continuous  route  that  connected  the 
Mississippi  river  with  the  seaboard.  The  com- 
bination consisted  of  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi,  the 
Marietta  &  Cincinnati,  and  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio, 
which,  together,  reached  from  St.  Louis  to  Bal- 
timore. When  completed  it  was  the  longest  con- 
tinuous route  in  the  world,  and  the  opening  in 
1857  was  signalized  by  a  great  railroad  celebra- 
tion. The  first  train  over  the  road  was  a  "Cele- 
bration Train,"  filled  with  railroad  dignitaries 
and  government  officials,  which  was  greeted  with 
display  and  popular  enthusiasm  all  along  the 

Other  Roads. — Other  roads  of  this  pioneer 
era,  beside  those  centering  at  the  capital,  were 
the  Neiv  Albany  &  Salem,  traversing  the  length 
of  the  State  from  New  Albany  to  Michigan  City ; 
the  Northern  Indiana  (Michigan  Southern)  ;  the 
Toledo,  Wabash  &  Western,  completed  in  1857, 
which,  traversing  the  Wabash  valley,  supplanted 
the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal,  and  the  Pittsburgh, 
Fort  Wayne  &  Chicago,  finished  in  1856,  which 
became  an  important  factor  in  the  development 
of  northern  IncHana.  The  "Junction"  (C,  H.  & 
D.)  was  built  from  the  eastern  State  line  to  Rush- 
ville,  but  did  not  reach  Indianapolis  until  the  lat- 
ter sixties,  and  the  Vincenncs  road  was  finished 
about  the  same  time,  though  promoted  much 
earlier.  Besides  these  there  were  various  short 
lines  of  the  kind  facetiously  known  as  "jerk- 
water," though  they  have  all  long  since  been 
merged  in  the  great  system  and  taken  other 

Beginnings  of  a  System. —  licforc  the  end  of 

•  A    good-sized    illustrative    book    descriptive    of    this    occasion 
may  be   found   in   the   State  Library. 

the  fifties  the  various  Indiana  roads  with  their 
interstate  connections  had  begun  to  take  the  form 
of  a  system  much  more  extensive  than  the  one 
that  had  been  contemplated  by  the  internal  im- 
provement law  of  1836.    Not  only  were  the  vari- 
ous sections  and  principal  cities  of  the  State  put 
into  communication  with  each  other,,  but  a  num- 
ber of  the  lines  reached  much  farther  by  the  inter- 
state connections.    The  Terre  Haute,  Cincinnati, 
Indiana  Central,  Belief ontaine,  the  Ohio  &  Missis-^ 
sippi,  the  Toledo,  Wabash  &  Western  and  the 
Pittsburgh,  Ft.  Wayne  &  Chicago  roads  became 
links  in  roads  leading  to  the  east ;  the  New  Al- .' 
bany  &  Salem  connected  the  Ohio  river  and  the' 
great  lakes,  and  this  knitting  and  extending  proc- ; 
ess  carried  on  continuously  from  that  time  has; 
created  the  vast  and  complex  railroad  system  of 
the  present  day. 

Influences  of  the  Railroad. — Aluch  interest- 1 
ing  matter  pertaining  to  the  railroads  belong  tot 
this    period.      Within   the    decade    Indiana    was; 
fairly  transformed,  not  only  by  the  vast  stimulus; 
given  to  commerce  and  by  the  multiplication  of, 
industries,  but  by  the  sharp  turn — the  new  trend; 
given  to  the  State's  development.     For  examplej 
the  radical  change  in  transportation  methods  de- 
termined a  new  arrangement  of  population  cen- 
ters.    Before  that  the  streams  were  a  great  fac- 
tor in  the  locating  of  settlements  but  with  the 
advent  of  the  new  order  these  were  left  to  dwin- 
dle in  isolation,  and  many  a  one  that  started  out. 
with  glowing  hopes  and  good  reasons  for  them 
are  now  but  a  memory.     On  the  other  hand,  the 
railroads  straight  across  country  supplied  a  new, 
reason  for  the  location  of  towns,  and  the  local 
histories   will   show  that  a   vast  percentage   of 
these  date  their  origins  from  the  coming  of  the 
railroads.     Navigable  streams  and  water  power 
for  mill  seats  no  longer  cut  a  figure.     It  is  said 
that  old  James  B.  Ray,  who  is  credited  with  be-j 
ing  our  most  erratic  governor,  as  far  back  as  the 
twenties  had  a  vision,  and  preached  it,  to  thej 
effect  that  one  day,  along  a  system  of  railroads  | 
radiating  from  Indianapolis  as  from  a  hub,  there' 
would   be    villages    or   towns    every    five   miles,, 
while  every  twenty  there  would  be  a  city.     He' 
was,  of  course,  laughed  to  scorn,  but  that  was 
exactly  what  came  to  pass.     In  a  word,  but  for 
the  introduction  of  railroads  the  distribution  of, 
population  throughout  the  State  would  have  been 
vastly  different  from  what  it  is.  not  only  as  re- 



*'ards  the  location  of  centers,  but  also  in  the 
frowth  of  centers  as  determined  by  industries 
ind  commercial  wealth. 

The  effect  of  the  railroad  upon  manufactures 
,s  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  from  the  output 
lalue  of  $19,199,681  as  given  by  the  Indiana  Ga- 
'etteer  of  1850,  there  was  a  sudden  increase  that 
or  the  next  ten  years  averaged  $41,840,434  per 
f'car,  with  20,755  persons  employed  in  manufac- 
uring  industries  and  also  heavy  investments  in 
he  places  with  railroad  facilities. 

*  The  "Erie  War." — The  important  relation  of 
he  railroad  to  commercial  prosperity  is  shown 
ly  what  is  known  in  history  as  the  "Erie  War," 
vhich  occurred  in  1853.  At  that  time  the  rail- 
oads  had  not  established  a  uniform  gauge,  or 
vidth  between  the  rails,  so  that  rolling  stock 
ould  not,  as  now,  travel  over  any  and  every 
oad.  At  Erie,  Pa.,  one  gauge  from  the  east 
aet  another  gauge  from  the  west,  in  consequence 
if  which  all  through  passengers  and  freight  traf- 
'ic  had  to  be  transferred  from  one  road  to  the 
ither.  This  meant  great  inconvenience  and  ex- 
lense  to  travelers  and  shippers,  and  great  profit 
0  Erie.  The  latter  came  to  regard  her  transfer- 
ing  industry  as  a  vested  right— so  much  so,  in- 
eed,  that  when  an  attempt  was  made  to  unify 
he  gauges  her  citizens  forcibly  interfered  with 
he  laying  of  rails  in  the  streets.  The  wrath  in 
he  west  at  Erie's  hoggishness,  and  the  execra- 
lOns  heaped  upon  the  town  by  the  press  and  in 
idignation  meetings  were  loud  and  universal, 
'he  Indianapolis  Journal  for  December  17,  24, 
5  and  28,  1853,  gives  glimpses  of  the  public 
The  Railroads  and  Madison. — The  influence 
f  the  railroad  as  a  factor  in  the  making  and  un- 
laking  of  localities  is  well  illustrated  by  the  rise 
nd  decline  of  Madison.  Throughout  the  forties, 
/hen  the  one  railroad  in  the  State  brought  the 
iusiness  of  the  interior  to  the  favored  city  on 
le  Ohio,  she  became,  as  one  of  her  citizens  ex- 
ressed  it,  "the  first  city  of  Indiana — first  in  com- 
jierce,  population,  wealth,  literature,  law.  reli- 
ion,  politics  and  social  enjoyment."  The  Ohio 
iver  traffic  here  made  connection  with  the  rail- 
oad  traffic,  and  we  hear  stories  of  the  big  river 
teamboats  lying  in  lines  beside  the  wharves, 
4iere  the  bags  of  wheat  were  piled  high  and  the 
warehouses  were  filled  to  their  roofs  with  mis- 
sUaneous  freight,  while  countless  barrels  of  mess 

pork  packed  for  shipment  to  the  south  as  far  as 
the  gulf,  and  to  the  east  as  far  as  Europe,  occu- 
pied all  the  river  front  and  reached  up  into  the 
by-streets.  As  a  pork  market  it  was  second  only 
to  Cincinnati,  and  there  is  record  of  200,000 
hogs  being  slaughtered  and  packed  there  in  a  sin- 
gle month.  Because  of  its  importance  as  an 
entrepot  it  became  known  as  the  "Gateway  to  the 
State."  The  wealth  that  accumulated  there  has 
left  its  traces  in  the  quaint  old  mansions  that 
stand  to  the  present  day.  and  the  long  list  of  able 
men  who  formed  a  galaxy  there  have  left  their 
impress  on  Indiana  history — such  men  as  Joseph 
G.  Marshall,  Jeremiah  Sullivan,  Jesse  D.  and 
Michael  G.  Bright,  J.  F.  D.  Lanier,  and  others. 

This  prosperity  of   Madison  continued  to  in- 
crease so  long  as  the  M.  &  I.  road  had  no  com- 

Old  Union  Depot  at  Indianapolis,  built  in  1853. 
(See  next  page.) 

petitors.  The  first  roads  to  reach  out  from  Indian- 
apolis, into  near  territory,  such  as  the  Bellefon- 
taine,  the  Peru  and  the  Terre  Haute  lines,  were 
feeders  rather  than  rivals  to  the  M.  &  I.,  but 
when  the  Bellefontaine  and  the  Indiana  Central 
made  connections  with  the  east  the  tide  began 
to  turn,  while  the  connections  with  Cincinnati  and 
the  falls  cities  by  the  Indianapolis  &  Lawrence- 
burg  and  the  Jeft"ersonville  roads  was  the  begin- 
ning of  a  swift  decline  for  the  M.  &  I.  It  fought 
desperately  against  its  fate,  and  one  of  the  curi- 
osities of  railroad  literature  is  a  report  of  1854 
in  which  it  complained  that  the  State  was  instru- 
mental in  inflicting  serious  damage  on  it  by  pass- 
ing a  law  which  "opened  the  door  for  the  con- 
struction of  other  railroads."  Its  most  damaging 
competitor  was  the  Jefferson ville  road,  which 
finally  swallowed  it.  and  after  the  consolidation 
the  part  from  Columbus  southward  was  simply 
the  Madison  branch.  The  city  of  Madison  suf- 
fered proportionately,  and,  from  being  the  first 
city  in  the  State  it  has  long  since  taken  rank  far 
down  the  scale  as  an  Indiana  center — its  chief 



fame  now  being  thai  of  a  (juaint  and  charming 
place,  speaking  of  a  ])icturcs(|ue  past. 

The  Railroads  and  Indianapolis. —  The  capi- 
tal, from  the  beginning  of  the  new  era  was  re- 
garded as  a  logical  railroad  center  and  in  the 
construction  of  the  early  fifties  the  city  was  made 
the  focusing  point  of  not  less  than  eight  lines, 
connecting  it  witli  (jther  ])oints  in  all  directions. 
Prior  lo  that  it  was  but  a  small  country  town, 
with  few  industries.  Of  the  change  wrought  in 
the  place  by  the  new  order  we  have  this  account 
in  "Holloway's  Indianajjolis :" 

"Manufacturers  appeared  ;  stores  that  had  for- 
merly mixed  up  dry  goods,  groceries,  grain,  hard- 
ware, earthenware  and  even  books  on  their  stock, 
began  to  select  and  confine  themselves  to  one  or 
two  classes  of  their  former  assortment.  .  .  . 
Business  showed  its  growth  in  its  divisions ;  the 
]irices  of  i)roperty  advanced;  a  city  form  of  gov- 
ernment was  adopted  ;  a  school  system  was  inau- 
gurated. I^verybody  felt  the  impulse  of  pros- 
perity. .  .  .  New  hotels,  manufactories  and 
business  houses  also  appeared.  The  Bates  house 
and  Sherman  house  were  built ;  Osgood  & 
Smith's  peg  and  last  factory ;  Geisendorfif's 
woolen  mill,  Drew's  carriage  establishment,  Shel- 
lenbarger's  planing  mill  and  Macy's  pork  house 
swelled  our  industries,  and  various  blocks,  school- 
houses,  railroad  shops  and  other  buildings  were 
added  to  our  improvements."  A  glance  at  the 
local  press  of  the  fifties  confirms  this  description 
of  prosperity  and  hustle.  Three- foitrths  of  the 
space,  at  a  guess,  are  taken  up  by  advertisements ; 
the  columns  are  dotted  with  little  cuts  of  engines 
.and  cars,  with  accompanying  time-tables  ;  pictures 
of  trains  are  incorporated  in  the  newspaper  heads, 
and  a  semi-literary  weekly,  the  first  of  its  kind 
in  the  city,  saw  fit  to  take  the  name  of  "The  Lo- 

The  Union  Depot." — The  early  creation  of  a 
railroad  center  at  Indianapolis  resulted  in  the 
iirsl  "Union  Depot"  in  the  country.  The  orig- 
inating of  this  structure,  and  the  particulars  of 
it  ])y  our  who  knew  at  first  hand,  is  worth  giving. 
It  was  written  by  Mr.  William  N.  Jackson,  of 
Indiaii.ipolis,  and  w;is  first  ])ul)lished  in  the  "In- 
diaii;i|H,li.  journar'  for  July  29.  1900.  Mr.  Jack- 
son sa\s :  \ 

•  .Sec   piiTi-diiif,'   p.iKc 

t  William  N.  Jackson,  wlinsi-  iinnioiy  is  in  Itulianap- 
olis,  was  identified  with  the  railroad  Inisincss  frimi  pioneer  tlays. 
"Jackson   I'lacc,"  adj.icciit  In  ilie  Tninn  S'a'ion,  is  named  for  him. 

"Chauncey  Rose,  of  the  Terre  Haute  &  Rich- 
mond ;  John  Brough,  of  the  Madison  &  Indian- 
ajjolis,  and  Oliver  H.  Smith,  of  the  Bellefontaine 
line,  met  in  their  office  in  the  middle  of  the  Cir- 
cle in  1850,  and  planned  and  carried  into  execu^ 
tion  soon  after  a  union  station  at  IndianapoUs] 
and  erected  the  first  one  that  was  ever  builtj 
For  this  a  union  track  was  needed  from  the  mid- 
dle of  Tennessee  street  northeasterly  to  the  mid- 
dle of  Washington  street  at  Noble  street,  and  thq 
right  of  way  for  which  was  taken  by  the  Terre 
Haute  &  Richmond  (now  Vandalia)  to  Pennsyl-| 
vania  street,  and  from  there  onward  and  north- 
easterly to  the  center  of  Washington  street  by  th{ 
Bellefontaine  and  Peru  roads.  A  few  miles  oi 
each  road  had  been  made  previous  to  this.  Thf 
right  of  way  from  the  Madison  &  Indianapoh; 
depot  on  South  street  to  Meridian  street  wa;| 
given  by  Austin  W.  Morris.  The  right  of  waj 
from  Pennsylvania  to  New  Jersey  streets  was 
purchased  from  Mrs.  McCarty.  The  Unior 
Station  was  opened  September  20,  1853,  th( 
building  being  finished  at  that  period.  Mr 
Chauncey  Rose  was  president  of  the  company  anc 
Mr.  W.  N.  Jackson  secretary,  treasurer  anr 
ticket  agent. 

"The  Lawrenceburgh  &  Upper  Mississipp. 
railroad  entered  this  station  in  the  spring  of  185- 
as  the  Indianapolis  &  Cincinnati  Railroad  Com 
pany ;  the  Indiana  Central  at  the  same  time,  am 
the  Lafayette  a  little  later,  followed  by  the  Indian i 
apolis  &  Vincennes ;  the  Indiana,  Bloomington  & 
Western ;  the  Indianapolis,  Decatur  &  Springs 
field ;  the  Cincinnati,  Hamilton  &  Indianapolisi 
and  the  Monon  branch  of  the  Louisville,  Ne\\| 
Albany  &  Chicago  road."  i 

The  LInion  Company  owned  all  the  tracks  ir) 
the  city  and  the  Union  Depot  independently  o| 
the  various  roads.  The  building,  which  wa; 
planned  by  Gen.  T.  A.  Morris,  was  420  feet  loni 
by  120  wide,  but  in  1866  it  was  widened  to  2(X 
feet.  It  was  rejilaced  by  the  present  building  ii 
1888  (Dunn). 

Equipment  of  the  Pioneer  Roads. — Wher 
the  Madison  &  Indianapolis  road  was  begun  b} 
the  State  in  1836  the  T  rail  had  been  invented 
It  then  ran,  we  are  told,  about  forty-five  pounds 
to  the  yard,  or  less  than  half  the  weight  of  the 
best  rails  to-day.  In  a  previous  section  mentior 
has  been  made  of  the  extravagant  constructior 
plunged  into  by  the  State,  one  feature  of  whicl: 

Scenes  in  "Shades  of  Death,"  Parke  County. 



was  tlic  iniportation  from  l-Jigland  at  a  hi.i,'h  cost, 
of  these  improved  rails.  When  the  road  went 
into  the  hands  of  a  private  company  the  cost  of 
constrnction  was  reduced  from  $58,000  per  mile 
to  about  $1 1,000,  and  the  primitive  style  of  it  was 
the  same  as  was  adopted  by  the  other  roads  of 
the  fifties.  This  may  be  briefly  described.  The 
foundation  of  the  road  was  long,  heavy  hewn 
timbers,  known  as  ''mudsills,"  laid  end  to  end 
aii<l  bed<ied  in  the  earth.  On  these  were  laid 
crossties  three  or  four  feet  apart,  and  on  the 
ties,  in  turn,  were  laid  jjarallel  lines  of  oak  string- 
ers, about  6x6,  which  were  secured  in  place  by 
stout  wooden  i)ins  driven  through  auger-holes 
that  ran  through  the  ends  of  the  stringers  and 
into  tin-  ties.  The  inner  edges  of  the  stringers 
were  chamfered  oft,  or  sloped  so  as  to  allow  for 
the  flanges  of  the  wheels,  and  along  the  cham- 
fered edge  were  spiked  the  rails,  which  con- 
sisted simply  of  bars  of  iron  about  two  and  a  half 
inches  wide  by  five-eighths  of  an  inch  thick. 

This  crude  equipment  was  anything  but  safe 
beneath  the  wear  and  tear  even  of  engines  and 
cars  that  now  seem  diminutive.  The  yielding 
flat  bar  would  crush  into  the  wooden  stringer, 
the  spikes  would  work  loose,  and  the  loosened 
rails  curling  up  at  the  ends  formed  what  the  local 
liumori.sts  dubbed  "snake-heads,"  doubtless  from 
the  appearance,  which  suggested  a  snake  with  its 
head  raised.  These  up-raised  ends,  threatening 
the  moving  train  with  puncture  and  derailment, 
increased  the  dangers  of  traveling  by  rail. 

'1  he  rolling  stock  was  correspondingly  primi- 
tive. The  development  of  the  locomotive  was 
retarded,  doubtless,  by  the  frail  character  of  the 
rail  and  roadl)e(l.  At  first  it  weighed  but  ten  to 
fifteen  tons  as  against  the  hundred-ton  engine  of 
to-day,  and  liad  neither  cow-catcher  nor  cab,  the 
latter,  indeed,  being  objected  to  by  the  engine- 
man  as  a  dangerous  trap  in  case  of  accident.     It 


heads."  The  water  supply  was  replenished  by 
stopping  at  some  wayside  stream  and  dipping  up 
with  leathern  buckets,  a  number  of  which  were 
carried  on  hooks  at  the  side  of  the  tender.  The 
term  "jerkwater,"  as  humorously  applied  to 
cheap,  out-of-date  roads  no  doubt  had  its  origin 
in  this  custom. 

Statistical  Survey. — An  agricultural  survey 
by  the  census  of  1860  shows  that  at  that  period 
about  one-half  of  the  available  land  of  the  State 
was  improved,  its  cash  value  being  estimated  at 
$344,902,776,  as  against  $136,385,173  for  1850.* 
That  there  had  been  a  great  advance  in  the 
methods  of  farming  is  indicated  by  the  appraised 
value  of  farm  machinery  in  use,  which  was  given 
at  $10,457,897.  The  value  of  live  stock  within 
the  ten  years  had  almost  doubled,  with  a  great 
many  working  oxen  (117,687)  still  in  use,  but 
far  outnumbered  by  horses  and  mules  for  draft 
purposes.  Swine  were  still  the  leading  animal 
product,  as  corn  was  still  the  principal  crop  prod- 
uct, amounting  in  1860  to  71,588,919  bushels, 
which  was  far  in  advance  of  any  previous  yield. 
Crops  generally  showed  a  corresponding  in- 
crease, and  sorghum  had  been  introduced  as  a 
new  crop  in  this  section  of  the  country,  the  out- 
put of  syrup  in  1860  being  881,049  gallons. 

Manufactories  had  greatly  increased,  there  be- 
ing 5,110  establishments  of  various  kinds  with  a 
total  investment  of  $17,881,586  and  an  output 
valued  at  $41,840,434.  The  leading  manufactur- 
ing counties  were  Wayne,  Jefiferson,  Tippecanoe, 
Vigo,  Marion,  Vanderburg,  Fayette,  Montgom- 
ery, Floyd,  Dearborn,  Tipton  and  Putnam,  all  of 
which  had  railroads. 

In  the  census  of  1850  no  satisfactory  figures 
as  to  manufactures  are  given,  but  the  invested 
capital  in  1860  is  about  ten  times  more  than  the 
amount  given  for  1840. 

The  population  of  the  State  had  grown  to 
1,350,428  as  against  988,416  in  1850,  and  685,866 
in  1840,  showing  a  tolerably  uniform  rate  of  in- 

would  haul  twelve  or  fifteen  freight  cars  capable 
)f  carrying  about  three  tons  each,  and  twenty 
"es  an  hour   for  passenger  service  was  good      crease  over  the  twenty  years 

speed.     A   not   uncommon   occurrence   was   the      

stopping  of  the  train  till  a  trainman  went  ahead 
with   a   slcdge-hanuner   to   spike   down   "snake- 

*  According  to  a  statement  in  the  census  report,  it  was  "not 
too  much  to  say  that  one-half  this  increase  has  been  caused  by 



Antecedent    Conditions. — The    overshadow- 

t[g  fact  of  the  sixties  was  the  great  Civil  War, 
hich  during  its  continuance,  dominated  public 
;hought  and  action  and  put  a  corresponding 
.;heck  upon  the  State's  development.  Preceding 
the  final  outbreak,  and  part  and  parcel  of  our 
war  history,  was  a  period  of  turmoil  and  fierce 
:onflict  of  opinion  which,  while  it  prevailed  over 
the  country,  playing  about  the  ever-agitated  ques- 
tion of  slavery,  was  particularly  acrid  here.  Our 
mixed  population  with  its  large  element  from 
the  south  that  was  southern  in  its  sympathies,  im- 
periled our  standing  as  a  union  and  anti-slavery 
State.  As  an  evidence  of  the  anti-negro  sen- 
timent that  existed  the  constitution  of  1850  had 
in  it  a  clause  prohibiting  all  negroes  or  mulattoes 
from  coming  into  or  settling  in  the  State.*  The 
democratic  party  of  the  State  was  for  years  in 
the  ascendency,  and  its  endorsement  and  support 
of  federal  legislation  that  made  for  the  exten- 
sion of  slave  territory  was  so  pronounced,  and, 
from  the  northern  viewpoint,  so  flagrant,  that 
many,  after  fruitless  protests  seceded  from  its 
ranks.  Conspicuous  among  these  seceders  was 
Oliver  P.  Alorton,  who.  at  a  democratic  State 
convention,  held  in  Indianapolis  in  1854,  walked 
out  amid  taunts  and  hisses,  after  taking  a  stand 
against  the  Kansas-Nebraska  bill,  which  gave 
those  two  great  States  over  to  the  slave  power. 

Throughout  the  early  fifties,  owing  to  this 
vexed  slavery  ghost  that  would  not  down,  the 
elements  of  a  new  party,  not  yet  crystallized, 
were  segregated  under  such  names  as  "Free 
Soilers,"  "Abolitionists,"  "Free  Democracy," 
"Barnburners,"  and  the  "People's  Party,"  which 
latter  "was  the  preliminary  organization  of  the 
republican  party"  in  this  State.f  Other  parties, 
such  as  the  prohibition  and  "Know-nothing"  or- 
ganizations were  in  the  field,  but  the  political 
movement  at  the  times  of  greatest  historical  im- 
port was  the  one  that  was  feeling  its  way  toward 

*  This  provision  stood  until  1881,  when  it  was  stricken  out  and 
an   amendment    substituted. 

t  William  Dudley  Foulke's  "Life  of  Morton,"  one  of  the  best 
books  on  the  war  period  in   Indiana. 

alignment  on  the  nation's  greatest  problem,  that 
of  slave  versus  free  labor — a  problem  that  in- 
volved both  economics  and  morals. 

These  various  currents  finally  merged  in  the 
organization  that  was  destined  to  work  out  the 
country's  salvation — the  republican  party,  which 
took  definite  form  at  a  convention  held  in  Pitts- 
burgh on  the  22d  of  February,  1856.  That  year 
O.  P.  Morton,  as  candidate  of  the  "people's 
party"  for  governor  of  Indiana,  canvassed  the 
State,  and  during  the  campaign,  according  to  his 
biographer  (Foulke,  p.  58),  he  "organized  the 
republican  party  in  Indiana." 

The  new  party  rapidly  became  a  power  in  the 
land  and  in  the  State.  This  first  campaign  Mor- 
ton was  beaten  by  Ashbel  P.  Willard,  a  democrat, 
but  four  years  later,  as  running  mate  with  Henry 
S.  Lane,  he  was  elected,  along  with  a  republican 
majority  in  the  General  Assembly. 

The  wrangling  between  the  parties  during  the 
latter  fifties  was  a  discredit  to  the  State.  Through 
their  refusal  to  act  together  they  failed,  in  the 
Legislature  of  1857,  to  make  an  appropriation 
for  the  expenses  of  the  State  government,  and 
Governor  Willard  borrowed  enough  to  pay  the 
interest  on  the  public  debt,  while  the  State  insti- 
tutions had  to  be  temporarily  closed.  Also  the 
democrats,  by  an  irregular  proceeding,  elected 
Jesse  D.  Bright  and  Graham  N.  Fitch  to  the 
United  States  Senate.  The  next  Legislature,  the 
republicans  being  then  in  the  ascendency,  de- 
clared the  previous  irregular  proceedings  ille- 
gal and  elected  Henry  S.  Lane  and  William  M. 
McCarty,  but  the  United  States  Senate,  which 
was  democratic,  did  not  recognize  these  repub- 
lican contestants. 

In  a  word  the  irreconcilable  antagonism  be- 
tween the  free  and  the  slave  States  which  grew 
more  and  more  bitter  as  the  great  issue  was  re- 
peatedly forced  upon  the  people,  found  in  Indi- 
ana full  expression. 

The  Secession  Issue  and  Morton's  Stand. — 
When  the  brewing  storm  between  the  north  and 
south  threatened  the  division  of  the  nation  by 
the  secession  of  the  southern  States,  men  found 




themselves  fronted  b}-  an  issue  not  to  be  shunted 
off  for  future  solution — an  issue  sharp  and  im- 
mediate, and  so  far-reaching  in  its  consequences 
that  the  vast  majority   were  at   sea  as  to  what 
pohcy  ought  to  be  i)ursued.     (  )ught  ihe  rebellious 
States,  resting  on  the  sacred  doctrine  of  State's 
rights,    be    allowed    to    wiih<h-aw    in    peace;    or 
should   the   preservation   of   the    Union   and   the 
nation's  future  be  the  paramount  consideration? 
Leaders  were  timid,  temporizing  ant!  uncertain, 
and  there  was  need  of  strong  men  to  take  the 
jio.sitive  and  unequivocal  stand.     Such  a  man  in 
I n« liana   was  Oliver  P.   Morton.     At  a  meeting 
held  in  the  Marion  county  courthouse  on  Novem- 
ber 22,  1<%0,  he  delivered  a  speech  which  stamped 
him  as  the  man  of  the  hour  and   revealed  the 
(|ualities  that  were  to  make  him  famous  as  Indi- 
ana's great  "war  governor."     He  was  then  the 
newly-elected     lieutenant-governor.      Henry     S. 
Lane,  the  governor-elect,  who  was  noted  as  an 
orator,  also  spoke  and  was,  presumably,  regarded 
as  the  headliner  of  the  occasion,  but  what  he 
said  was,  in  view  of  the  temper  of  the  times,  in- 
consequential  as   compared    with    Morton's   ad- 
dress.    There  w'as  no  shilly-shally  in  the  latter. 
The  speaker  stood,  first  of  all,  for  the  right  of 
the  nation  to  preserve  its  existence  and  integ- 
rity, and  he  analyzed  the  situation  point  by  point. 
To  grant  one  State  the  right  to  secede  at  this 
crisis  was  to  grant  the  same  right  to  any  State  at 
any  time,  and  that  meant  the  dissolution  of  the 
nation  whenever  such  States  might  see  fit.     To 
(|Uote  : 

"  The  right  to  secede  being  conceded,  and  the 
way  to  do  it  having  been  shown  to  be  safe  and 
easy,  the  prestige  of  the  republic  gone,  the  na- 
tional pride  extinguished  with  the  national  idea, 
secession  would  become  the  remedv  for  every 
State  or  sectional  grievance,  real  or  imaginary, 
and  in  a  few  short  years  we  should  witness  the 
total  dissolution  of  that  mighty  republic  which 
has  been  the  hope  and  the  glory  of  the  world. 
.  .  .  We  must,  then,  cling  to  the  idea  that  we 
are  a  nation,  oni'  and  indivisible,  and  that,  al- 
though subdivided  by  State  lines  for  local  and 
domestic  purposes,  we  are  one  peo])le,  the  citi- 
zens of  ;i  common  country,  having  like  institu- 
tions and  manners,  and  possessing  a  common 
interest  in  that  inheritance  of  glory  so  richly  pro- 
vid.'d  bv  our   t.ithers.     We  must,  therefore,  do 

no  act,  we  must  tolerate  no  act,  we  must  concede! 
no  idea  or  theory  that  looks  to  or  involves  the  dis-  ■ 
memberment  of  the  nation."* 

This  speech,  the  elTect  of  which,  according  to 
Foulke,  "was  of  incalculable  efifect,  not  only  in 
the  State  but  over  the  entire  country,  was  deliv- 
ered shortly  before  South  Carolina  took  the  first 
step  in  actual  secession.  Exactly  in  line  with 
the  firm  stand  of  Lincoln  it  foreshadowed  the  un- 
wavering support  which,  as  governor  of  the 
State,  he  was  to  extend  to  the  nation's  chief  ex- 
ecutive in  the  trying  years  to  follow,  and  it  re- 
vealed the  strong  hand  which  was  to  deal  with 
internal  difficulties  during  those  times  of  danger. 
Fortunately  the  office  of  lieutenant-governor  was 
the  stepping-stone  to  the  governorship.  On  the 
15th  of  January  Governor  Lane  was  made 
United  States  senator,  and  Morton  succeeded  to 
the  gubernatorial  chair. 

Condition  at  Beginning  of  the  War;  Mor- 
ton's Activity. — When,  with  the  assault  on 
Fort  Sumter,  April  12,  1861,  the  smoldering  fires 
of  hostility  burst  into  living  flames  and  the  war 
was  on  us,  Indiana's  state  of  unpreparedness  was 
about  as  bad  as  it  could  be.  She  had  neither 
money  nor  munitions,  the  latter,  according  to 
Adjutant-General  Terrell's  statement,  consisting 
of  "perhaps  less  than  five  hundred  stands  of  ef- 
fective first-class  small  arms,  besides  eight  pieces 
of  weather-worn  and  dismantled  cannon  and  an 
unknown  number  of  old  flint-lock  and  altered-to- 
percussion  muskets,  the  most  of  which  were  scat- 
tered throughout  various  counties  in  the  hands 
of  private  individuals  and  members  of  disbanded 
companies  of  militia."t  Also,  such  militia  sys- 
tem as  the  State  once  maintained,  had  virtuallv 
gone  to  pieces;  the  military  reputation  w^e  had 
carried  over  from  the  Mexican  war  on  account 
of  injurious  reports  as  to  the  conduct  of  our  sol- 
diers at  Buena  Vista,  was  not  good ;  our  credit 
was  not  good,  and  "there  was  a  certain  evil  re- 
l)ute  wdiich  everywhere  hung  over  the  name  of 
'Hoosier' "  (Foulke).  Added  to  all  was  the 
strong  hostile  element  wdthin  our  borders  ready 
to  throw  every  obstacle  in  the  way  of  an  aggres- 
sive loyal  policy.  Notwithstanding  this  discour- 
aging  situation    Morton,   on   the    15th   of   April, 

*  I'or   full   text   see   Foulke's  "Morton,"  pp.   87-96. 
i-  Adjutant-General   Terrell's   reports,   vol.   i — a   valuable   history 
of  the  war  period  in   Indiana. 



iind  on  the  heels  of  the  news  that  Sumter  had 
jtallen,  telegraphed  to  the  president  this  message : 

'To  Abraham  Lincoln,  president  of  the  United  States: 
"On  behalf  of  the  State  of  Indiana  I  tender  to  you, 
or  the  defense  of  the  nation,  and  to  uphold  the  author- 
ty  of  the  government,  ten  thousand  men. 

(Signed)         "Oliver  P.  Morton, 

"Governor  of  Indiana." 

The  thing  that  made  possible  such  an  offer  was 
;he  temper  of  a  majority  of  the  people.  The 
(Jnion  sentiment  was  at  a  white  heat  and  over- 

discharged.  Indianapolis  had  been  designated  as 
a  place  of  rendezvous,  and  the  State  fair  grounds, 
a  recently-acquired  tract  of  thirty-six  acres,  then 
at  the  north  edge  of  the  city  but  now  far  within 
it  and  known  as  "Morton  Place,"  was  christened 
"Camp  Morton"  and  put  at  the  service  of  the 
troops.  The  problem  sometimes  presented  of 
insufficient  volunteers  was  reversed,  the  question 
being  to  choose  out  of  the  many  that  presented 
themselves.     To  quote  the  adjutant-general's  ac- 

Old  State  House.    From  Photograph  taken  April  30,  1865,  the  day  Lincoln's  body  lay  in  state. 

whelmingly  dominated  the  adverse  minority.  The 
tiring  on  Fort  Sumter  banished  all  uncertainty 
from  the  minds  of  those  who  had  hitherto  wa- 
vered, and  those  who  had  differed  before  were 
now  one  for  the  preservation  of  the  nation.  The 
forming  of  companies  proceeded  at  once.  The 
day  after  the  first  call  for  troops  there  were  500 
in  camp  at  Indianapolis,  and  within  three  days 
2,400,  with  new  arrivals  coming  by  every  train. 
By  the  seventh  day  there  were  12,000,  which  was 
far  more  than  were  required.  The  Indiana 
quota  was  fixed  at  six  regiments  of  infantry  or 
riflemen,  making  4,683  officers  and  men,  who 
were  to   serve    for  three  months  unless   sooner 

count,  the  response  was  as  gratifying  as  it  was 
universal,  and  left  no  doubt  as  to  the  entire  and 
lasting  devotion  of  Indiana  to  the  fortimes  of 
the  Union.  .  .  .  The  'old  flag'  at  once  became 
sacred  and  was  proudly  displayed  in  every  breeze 
from  the  highest  peaks  of  churches,  school- 
houses  and  private  dwellings.  The  presentation 
of  a  stand  of  national  colors  by  patriotic  ladies 
to  each  company  was  rarely  omitted,  and,  when- 
ever practicable,  brass  bands  were  provided  to 
escort  them  to  the  general  camp"  (Terrell).  The 
people  generally,  among  the  Unionist  element, 
rallied  to  the  occasion.  \'olunteers  were  freely 
furnished  with  such  supplies  as  the  authorities 



could  not  at  once  provide,  and  in  many  instances 
the  men  were  carried  free  by  the  railroads ;  pri- 
vate citizens  and  local  authorities  contributed 
monev  to  aid  the  cause,  while  banks  and  capital- 
ists offered  to  a.lvance  whatever  money  might  be 

Extra  Session  of  the  Legislature. — Governor 
Morton,  to  meet  the  exigencies,  called  a  special 
session  of  the  Legislature,  which  convened  on 
the  24th  of  April.  By  his  recommendation  it 
authorized  a  war  loan  of  $2,000,000,  to  be  ap- 
plied as  follows:  For  general  military  purposes, 
$1,000,(X)0;  for  the  purchase  of  arms,  $500,000; 
for  contingent  military  expenses,  $100,000;  for 
organizing  and  supporting  the  militia  for  two 
years.  $140,000.  Laws  were  also  passed  to  or- 
ganize the  Indiana  militia  ;  to  provide  for  six  regi- 
ments of  State  troops;  to  provide  for  a  State 
paymaster;  to  authorize  counties  to  appropriate 
moneys  for  the  protection  and  maintenance  of 
the  families  of  volunteers,  for  the  purchase  of 
arms  and  equipments,  and  for  raising  and  main- 
taining military  companies ;  to  provide  for  the 
punishment  of  persons  guilty  of  giving  material 
aid  and  comfort  to  the  enemies  of  this  State  or 
of  the  United  States  in  time  of  war   (Terrell). 

Six  First  Regiments. — The  consecutive  num- 
bering of  our  regiments  dates  from  the  Mexican 
war.  The  first  five  w^ere  in  that  war,  and  conse- 
quently the  Sixth  was  the  first  Indiana  regiment 
to  go  into  the  civil  war.  The  six  regiments  above 
mentioned,  constituting  the  first  Indiana  quota, 
were  commanded  as  follows  : 

Sixth,  Col.  Thomas  T.  Crittenden ;  Seventh, 
Col.  l-Lbenezer  Dumont ;  Eighth,  Col.  William  P. 
Ilenton;  Ninth,  Col.  Robert  H.  Milroy ;  Tenth. 
Col.  Jose])h  J.  Reynolds;  Eleventh,  Col.  Lewis 

These  regiments  made  up  the  First  I'rigade  of 
Indi.ina  X'olunteers,  with  Thomas  A.  Morris  as 
brigadier-general.  I'.y  the  27th  of  A])ril  they 
were  fully  organized  and  after  being  well  armed 
and  e(|uip])ed  they  went  under  Cieneral  McClel- 
lan's  coniniaiid  in  western  \'irginia.  That  the\- 
ac(|uitt(.-d  themselves  well  is  testified  by  a  com- 
nuinic-.ation  from  CuMur.d  McClellan  to  C.ovenior 
.Mnrloii  ulu'ii  they  retuinnl  from  iJuMr  three- 
months'  siTvicT.  "I  li.ivi'."  he  wrote,  "directed 
the  three-months'  regiments  from  Indiana  to 
'iiove  to  lndi,inai>olis,  there  to  l)e  mustered 
out  and   reor.L^.mi/A'd    for  three  ve.irs'  service.     1 

can  not  permit  them  to  return  to  you  without; 
again  expressing  my  high  appreciation  of  the  dis- 
tinguished valor  and  endurance  of  the  Indiana 
troops,  and  my  hope  that  but  a  short  time  will 
elapse  before  I  have  the  pleasure  of  knowang 
that  they  are  again  ready   for  the  field." 

The  First  Brigade  was  at  once  reorganized  for 
the  three-years'  service. 

Organization  of   State   Troops;   Subsequent 
Regiments. — The  next  six  Indiana  regiments, 
from  the  Twelfth  to  the  Seventeenth,  inclusive, 
may  be  specifically  mentioned  because  their  or- 
ganization serves  to  illustrate  the  initiative  and 
forehandedness  of   Governor  Morton.     As  said 
above,  the  response  to  the  first  call  for  troops 
was  far  in  excess  of  the  quota  requested  by  thej 
federal  government,  which  was  less  than  5,000 
men.    Considerably  more  than  that,  after  the  five 
regiments  were  formed,  were  still  anxious  for  the 
opportunity  to  enlist,  and  out  of  this  material 
Morton,  on  his  own  responsibility,  and  under  the, 
power  vested  in  him  as  commander-in-chief  of' 
the  militia  of  the  State,  formed  five  other  regi- 
ments,  ostensibly    for   the    State's    defense,   butj 
really  in  anticipation  of  a  further  call  when,  as 
bodies  already  organized  and  in  process  of  train- 1 
ing,    they    would    be    acceptable   to   the    United 
States.     To  further  insure  their  probable  future 
usefulness  the  men  were  enlisted  for  a  year  and: 
the  governor  retained  the  authority  to  transfer' 
them  to  the  government   service,   or  to  tempo- 1 
rarily  retire  them,  if  advisable,  after  they  had 
been  sufficiently  drilled  and  disciplined,  with  the 
power   to    recall    them   to    active    service    when 
needed.     Of  these  regiments,  the  Twelfth,  Thir- 
teenth and  Seventeenth  rendezvoused  at  Indian- 1 
apolis,  the  Fourteenth  at  Terre  Haute,  the  Fif- 
teenth at  Lafayette  and  the  Sixteenth  at  Rich- 
mond.   As  a  matter  of  fact  these  regiments  were 
hardly  organized  imtil  there  was  a  demand  for 
four  of  them  at  the  front  and  they  entered  serv-1 
ice   for  three  years,   while  the   other  two    (the 
Twelfth  and  Sixteenth)  were  transferred  by  the 
middle  of  the  summer  and  served  out  their  year 
in  the  Army  of  the  Potomac. 

A  detailed  account  of  the  origin  and  services 
of  Indiana  regiments  does  not  come  within  our 
scope.  Stiffice  it  to  say,  in  this  connection,  that 
during  the  first  year  at  least,  the  patriotic  fervor 
of  the  people  made  recruiting  easy,  and  though 
the  calls  came  repeatedly  as  the  conflict  grew  in 



magnitude,  the  volunteers  were  in  excess  of  the 
demand.  In  1861  more  than  fifty  infantry  regi- 
ments, besides  three  of  cavalry  and  twelve  of  ar- 
tillery batteries  were  put  in  the  field  and  most  of 
these  prolonged  their  services  by  re-enlistments. 
As  the  war  progressed  with  fluctuating  for- 
tunes, alternate  reverses  and  successes,  combined 
with  other  influences,  affected  volunteering  here 
as  elsewhere.  Here  as  elsewhere,  there  was  some 
drafting  when,  in  emergencies  of  the  conflict, 
large  quotas  were  demanded,  but  the  figures  of 
Adjutant-General  Terrell  show  that  while  cer- 
tain of  the  townships  in  the  State  fell  short  in 

fought  in  every  seceding  State,  except  Florida, 
and  in  every  other  State  that  was  invaded. 
"Three  Indiana  regiments  took  part  in  the  first 
battle  of  the  war,  and  an  Indianian  was  the  first 
to  yield  up  his  life,  on  the  battlefield,  for  the 
Union.  .  .  .  The  last  battle  of  the  war  was 
fought  by  Indiana  troops ;  the  last  gun  fired  at 
the  enemy  was  by  an  Indianian,  and  the  last 
Union  soldier  killed  in  battle  was  John  J.  Will- 
iams, of  Company  B,  Thirty-fourth  Indiana  Reg- 
iment" (W.  H.  Smith). 

The    Hundred-Days'    Troops. — Eight    regi- 
ments of   Indiana  infantry    (132d  to   139th,  in- 

Morton  Monument  on  State  House  Grounds. 

their  quota  of  volunteers,  the  others  were  in  ex- 
cess, and  the  State  as  a  whole,  at  the  close  of  the 
war  had  offered  an  excess. 

Altogether  Indiana  contributed  to  the  war  a 
larger  proportion  of  her  population  of  the  mili- 
tary age  than  any  other  State,  except  Delaware 
(J.  P.  Dunn),  the  grand  total,  after  deducting 
11,718  re-enlistments,  being  197,649.  Of  these 
24,416  were  killed  or  died  of  diseases,  and  13,779 
were  "unaccounted  for"  (Terrell).  There  were 
151  infantry  regiments,*  fourteen  cavalry  regi- 
ments, twenty-seven  artillery  companies,  and  va- 
rious miscellaneous  organizations  (adjutant-gen- 
eral's statistics).  During  the  service  they  were, 
as  one  writer  affirms,  more  widely  distributed 
than  the  soldiers  of  any  other   State  and  they 

*  The  first   infantry  regiment   formed   was  the   6th   and   the  last 
the  156th. 

elusive)  organized  in  1864,  and  known  as  the 
"Hundred-Day"  men,  because  their  enlistment 
was  for  that  period,  were  somewhat  distinctive 
in  their  origin.  Campaigns  on  a  huge  scale 
against  Atlanta  and  Richmond  were  intended, 
and  the  demand  for  men  exceeded  the  response. 
Both  Grant  and  Sherman  were  urging  more  sup- 
port, but  the  country  had  been  drained  by  re- 
peated calls.  In  this  contingency  the  governors 
of  Indiana,  Ohio,  Illinois,  Iowa  and  Wisconsin, 
led,  it  is  claimed,  by  IMorton,  met  in  conference 
and  devised  a  plan  for  raising  volunteers  on  short 
enlistment  who  might  aid  the  proposed  campaigns 
by  guarding  railroads,  depots,  and  fortifications 
in  the  rear  of  the  armies,  or  doing  similar  serv- 
ice, thus  relieving  disciplined  troops  who  could 
be  used  at  the  front.  By  arduous  eft'ort  IMorton 
succeeded  in  raising  7,415  men,  and  these  served 



ill  'J'cniK-sscc  and  Alabama  \>y  releasing  veterans 
lor  (lutv  on  the  firing  line,  thus  materially 
strengthening  the  arm,\-  in  the  Atlanta  campaign. 

The  Indiana  Legion. — W  hat  was  known  as 
liie  "Indiana  J.egiun'"  \\a.N  the  active  militia  or- 
ganized within  the  State  for  internal  defense. 
<  )ur  jiroximitv  to  Kentucky  which,  even  it  not  a 
seceding  State,  ])romised  to  be  trotiblesomc  terri- 
tory, warranted  a  fear  of  invasion — which  fear, 
as  we  shall  see,  was  justified.  Moreover,  the 
dangers  within  from  the  disafTected  element,  that 
made  its  presence  known  before  the  war  was  very 
far  advanced,  rendered  imperative  a  home  mili- 
tar\  force  under  the  command  of  the  governor. 

'i"he  State  militia,  though  an  institution  of  long 
standing,  had  become  decadent,  but  an  act  of  May 
11.  1861.  re-established  it.  dividing  it  into  two 
classes — the  sedentary  and  the  active.  The  first 
consisted  of  "all  white  male  persons  subject  to 
bear  arms  under  the  constitution  of  Indiana,  and 
who  do  not  belong  to  the  active  militia."  The 
latter  was  made  up  of  volunteers  between  the 
ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five  years,  and  was 
organized  into  nine  brigades,  though  this  repre- 
sented an  uncertain  number  of  men,  as  the  or- 
ganization of  companies  in  many  localities  was 
incomplete  and  impermanent.  The  southern 
counties,  ])articularly  those  along  the  Ohio  river, 
had  greatest  need  for  efficient  defensive  or- 
ganization, while  those  in  the  north,  having  less 
need,  were  correspondingly  slack.  As  this  im- 
j)lies,  the  brigades  as  units  represented  diiTerent 
groups  of  contiguous  counties.  The  history  of 
the  Legion  seems  to  l)e  largely  a  history  of  the 
southern  regiments,  which  protected  the  interior 
from  the  guerrillas  of  Kentucky  much  as  the  old 
frontier  farther  nijrlh  had.  in  an  earlier  day, 
guardrd  the  ri\ci-  counties  from  Indian  forays. 
Many  companies  that  were  organized  in  the 
northern  sections  were  not  even  sui)plicd  Avith 
arms  and  ]»ai(l  little  attention  to  niilitarv  drilling. 
The  "sedeiUary"  militia  was  never  called  U])on. 
Indet'd,  the  Legion  as  a  wholv  in  its  ine(|ualities, 
corresponding  lo  the  degrev  of  stress,   illustrate 

strikingly    what    had    been    illustrated    before 

namely,  our  people  have  so  little  taste  and 
aptitudi-  for  milit.irism  that  onlv  dire  eniergencv 
can  arouse  them  to  it.  I'.ul  the  limes  aNo  i>ro\e(l 
that  when  once  ihoroughly  roused  the  militarv 
zeal  burned  fiercely.  (  )iie  service  of  the  Legion 
where   best    organized    was   ;is   ;i    training   school 

and  a  feeder  to  the  quotas  that  went  to  the  front 
as  Indiana  responded  to  the  numerous  calls  from 
the  government. 

Invasions  of  the  State ;  Johnson  and  Hines. 
— In  the  course  of  the  war  there  were  three 
raids  into  Indiana  that  might  be  called  invasions 
of  the  State,  though  the  first  two  were  little  more 
than  forays. 

On  the  18th  of  July,  1862,  Adam  R.  John- 
son, a  citizen  of  Kentucky,  who  had  been  terror- 
izing Union  sympathizers  in  this  State,  crossed 
the  Ohio  river  with  about  thirty  men  to  the  town 
of  Newburg  in  Warrick  county,  some  fifteen 
miles  above  Evaiisville.  The  citizens  were  taken 
by  surprise,  the  place  was  pillaged,  considerable 
plunder  was  sent  across  the  river,  and  after  re- 
maining a  few  hours  the  marauders  returned  to 
the  Kentticky  shore.  They  were  aided  in  this 
exploit  by  rebel  sympathizers  living  in  Newburg, 
and  two  of  these  were  afterward  killed  by  their 
outraged  fellow  townsmen.  .As  a  result  of  this 
freebooting  expedition  a  good-sized  militia  force 
from  Indiana,  by  the  initiative  of  Governor  Mor- 
ton, invaded  Kentucky  to  clear  the  country  of 
guerrilla  bands  that  were  harassing  Kentucky 
Unionists  and  threatening  our  borders. 

On  the  17th  of  June,  1863,  Capt.  Thomas 
H.  Hines,  with  sixty-two  men,  crossed  the  river 
at  a  point  eighteen  miles  above  Cannelton.  This 
"invasion"  might  be  called  a  horse-stealing  raid, 
and  it  was  not  lacking  in  humorous  features. 
With  a  monumental  audacity  he  represented  to 
the  Hoosiers  that  his  little  force  was  a  detach- 
ment from  the  army  of  General  Boyle,  the  Union 
commander  of  the  District  of  Kentucky,  and  that 
he  was  in  search  of  deserters.  Incidentally  he 
needed  better  horses,  and  he  took  his  pick  from 
the  countryside  at  liberal  prices,  giving  vouchers 
for  the  same  upon  the  federal  quartermaster  at 
Indianapolis.  This,  presumably,  was  better  than 
the  risk  of  having  to  fight  for  them,  but  the  ruse 
did  not  work  long,  and  by  the  second  day  the 
alarm  spread  through  the  adjacent  counties  and 
the  local  companies  of  the  Indiana  Legion  were 
soon  on  the  trail.  Hines  marched  northward 
through  three  counties  to  a  point  about  seven 
miles  northwest  of  f^aoli,  in  Orange  county; 
thence  he  turned  east  into  Washington  county 
and  made  southward  again  toward  the  Ohio 
river,  deeming  it  high  time  to  be  getting  home. 
Meanwhile  one  body  of  militia  was  following  the 



marauders ;    another,    apprised    of    their    move- 
ments, cut  across  from  the  west  to  intercept  them 
at  the  Ohio  ford,  and  an  armed  steamboat  pushed 
up  the  river  to  prevent  the  escape  across.     As  a 
result  they  were  closed  in  on  at  the  fording  place 
at  Blue   River   Island,   about  three  miles  above 
j  Leavenworth,  and  the  entire  force  captured  with 
i  the  exception  of  four  or  five  who  were  killed  and 
i  drowned  and  three  who  escaped,  one  of  the  latter 
being  Captain  Hines  himself. 

The  Morgan  Raid. — The  raid  of  John  Mor- 
|i  gan  was  the  one  invasion  of  the  war  which  is 
I  famous  in  our  annals.     It  was  on  a  much  larger 
'  scale  than  the  visitation  of  Hines.     The  size  of 
( the  invading   force   is   not  agreed   upon,   but   it 
i  probably    was    not   less    than   2,500    men.      The 
i  object  of  the  leader  was  to  create  a  diversion 
that  should  be  of  aid  to  the  southern  army  in 
I  Tennessee,  and  he  counted  on  the  rallying  of  the 
,  disaffected  population  to  his  support.     Had  the 
plan  carried  the  whole  State  would  have  been  in 
imminent  peril.     It  was  a  bold  dash  that  threat- 
ened disaster  or  promised  brilliant  success  to  the 
executor,  but,  as  the  sequel  showed,  the  risk  was 
far  greater  than  he  had  counted  on. 

Morgan  was  a  dashing,  reckless  leader,  whose 
mounted  command,  composed  of  men  after  his 
own  heart,  had  already  cut  a  romantic  figure  in 
other  campaigns.  His  spectacular  invasion  of 
Indiana  was  contrary  to  the  orders  of  his  su- 
perior ofiicer.  General  Bragg.  On  the  7th  of 
July,  1863,  he  appeared  at  Brandenberg,  Ky.,  a 
town  on  the  Ohio,  opposite  Harrison  county,  and 
two  miles  above  Maukport,  Ind.  Here  he  cap- 
tured two  steamboats,  and  in  the  face  of  opposi- 
tion from  the  Indiana  shore  and  from  river  craft 
he  transferred  his  troop.  The  opposition  melted 
away  and  Morgan  struck  northward,  heading 
first  for  Corydon,  where  a  showing  of  raw  mili- 
tia, hastily  got  together,  put  up  a  brisk  fight  in 
which  twelve  men  lost  their  lives  and  thirty-five 
were  wounded,  most  of  these  being  the  invaders. 
The  odds,  however,  were  overwhelmingly  against 
the  defenders,  and  after  acquitting  themselves 
thus  gallantly  they  surrendered  to  the  number  of 
345.  Then  followed  an  orgy  of  looting.  Stores 
were  raided ;  levies  of  money  were  laid  on  the 
three  flouring  mills  of  the  town  under  penalty  of 
burning  if  refused;  the  county  treasury  was 
robbed  of  its  money ;  private  houses  were  pil- 
laged and  the  women  compelled  to  prepare  meals 

for  the  unwelcome  visitors.  Also,  not  less  than 
five  hundred  fresh  horses  were  gathered  up  in 
the  vicinity  and  appropriated  as  the  spoils  of  war. 

From  Corydon,  Morgan,  leaving  his  wounded 
men  behind  him,  proceeded  still  northward  to- 
ward Salem,  Washington  county,  dividing  his 
force  so  as  to  better  sweep  the  country  and  strike 
the  railroads  and  telegraph  lines.  The  entire 
troop  reached  Salem  on  the  morning  of  July  10, 
and  after  a  skirmish  with  "minute  men"  took 
possession  of  the  town.  Here  the  depredations 
were  worse  than  at  Corydon.  The  railroad 
tracks  were  torn  up,  the  depot  and  bridges 
burned  and  pillage  ran  riot.  Basil  \V.  Duke,  one 
of  the  raiders,  thus  writes  of  it : 

"This  disposition  to  wholesale  plunder  ex- 
ceeded anything  that  any  of  us  had  ever  seen  be- 
fore. The  great  cause  for  apprehension  which 
our  situation  might  have  inspired  seemed  only  to 
make  the  men  reckless.  Calico  was  the  staple 
article  of  appropriation.  Each  man  who  could 
get  one  tied  a  bolt  of  it  to  his  saddle,  only  to 
throw  it  away  and  get  a  fresh  one  at  the  first 
opportunity.  They  did  not  pillage  with  any  sort 
of  method  or  reason.  It  seemed  to  be  a  mania, 
senseless  and  purposeless.  One  man  carried  a 
bird-cage  with  three  canaries  in  it,  two  days. 
Another  rode  with  a  chafing  dish,  which  looked 
like  a  small  metallic  cofiin,  on  the  pommel  of  his 
saddle  until  an  officer  forced  him  to  throw  it 
away.  Although  the  weather  was  intensely 
warm  another,  still,  slung  seven  pairs  of  skates 
around  his  neck  and  chuckled  over  his  acquisi- 
tion. They  pillaged  like  boys  robbing  an  orchard. 
I  would  not  have  believed  that  such  a  passion 
could  have  been  developed  so  ludicrously  among 
any  body  of  civilized  men."* 

Meanwhile,  even  before  Morgan  had  crossed 
the  Ohio  Governor  Morton  was  apprised  of  the 
danger,  and,  with  characteristic  vigilance  took 
steps  to  forestall  it.  Indiana  was  practically 
stripped  of  experienced  troops,  those  that  she 
ought  to  have  had  being  sent,  by  his  request, 
to  General  Boyle,  commander  of  the  District  of 
Kentucky.  With  the  first  intimation  of  Mor- 
gan's intentions,  Morton  telegraphed  three  times 
to  Boyle  for  official  information  of  the  situation, 
requesting  that  defensive  steps  be  taken  by 
Boyle,  as  he  had  all  our  regular  troops.  The  first 
two  messages  were  not  answered,  but  the  third 

"History  of   Morgan's   Cavalry,"  by   Basil   W.    Duke. 



elicited  the  cheering  information  that  the  enemy 
was  on  Indiana  soil  and  that  "your  cities  and 
towns  will  be  sacked  and  pillaged  if  you  do  not 
bring  out  your  State  forces."  Morton  ])roceeded 
to  bring  them  out.  L'nder  date  of  July  9  he  is- 
sued the  following  "(general  Military  Order:" 

".Satisfactory  cvick-ncc  having  hccii  received  that  the 
rel)els  liave  invaded  Indiana  in  considerable  force,  it  is 
hercl.y  ordered  and  required  tliat  all  able-bodied  white 
male  citizens  in  the  several  counties  south  of  the  Na- 
tional road  forthwith  form  themselves  into  companies 
of  at  least  sixty  persons,  elect  officers  and  arm  them- 
selves with  such  arms  as  they  may  be  able  to  procure. 
Said  companies  will  perfect  themselves  in  military  drill 
as  rapidly  as  possible,  and  hold  themselves  sijbject  to 
further  orders  from  this  department.  It  is  desired  that 
they  should  be  mounted  in  all  cases  where  it  is  possible. 
The  peoi)le  in  all  other  parts  of  the  State  are  earnestly 
refjuested  to  form  militarj'  companies  and  hold  them- 
selves subject  to  orders.  Prompt  reports  of  the  forma- 
tion of  companies  should  be  forwarded  by  telegraph. 

"All  officers  of  the  Indiana  Legion  are  charged  with 
the  execution  of  this  order,  and  all  United  States  of- 
ficers are  requested  to  render  such  assistance  as  may  be 
in  their  power." 

'{"lie  news  of  the  invasion  had  spread  like  wild- 
fire, the  whole  State  was  in  excitement,  and 
within  two  days  after  the  governor's  call  20,000 
men  were  mustered  at  Indianapolis  and  45,000 
more  were  rejtorted  as  ready  for  service.  "The 
fanners  left  their  grain  to  rot  in  the  tield,  me- 
chanics (Iropi)ed  their  tools,  merchants  aban- 
doned their  stores  and  professional  men  their 
desks ;  clerks  forgot  their  ledgers,  and  students 
their  textbooks,  and  young  and  old  alike  all 
swarmed  in  constantly  thickening  throngs  to  the 
ca])ital  or  the  nearest  place  of  rendezvous,  as  if 
there  were  no  duty  or  interest  of  that  hour  but 
the  safety  of  the  State"  (Terrell).  Beside  the 
mustering  at  Indianapolis  there  was  rapid  organ- 
ization at  various  |)oints  in  the  south  part  of  the 
State,  and.  in  addition.  General  Hobson,  from 
kciitncky,  witli  a  force  of  United  States  troops, 
was  giving  a  stern  chase,  having  crossed  the  Ohio 
at  r.randenberg  about  eighteen  hours  after  the 

l'>y  the  time  Morgan  reached  Salem  he  began 
to  realize,  apparently,  the  hornets'  nest  he  was 
running  into,  and  turning  al)ruptly  eastward  the 
invasion  became  a  flight  and  a  forced  march  to- 
ward some  crossing  ])oint  on  the  (  )hio,  though  he 
took  time  to  dt-stroy  more  or  less  railroad  prop- 
erly and  telegraph  lines,  .md  to  forage  on  the 
coinitry  as  he  went  along.  Mis  route  l.iy  by  wav 
of  \ifnna.  ni  Srolt  connty.  wlu're  ;i  (le])ol  .and 
briilgr  were  lnuiieij  ;  theut-e  to  l.i'xinglon  ;  ijience 

northward  to  Vernon  in  Jennings  county,  with  a 
view  to  destroying  important  railroad  property, 
but  which  was  prevented  by  armed  resistance; 
thence  southward  to  Dupont  on  the  Madison  rail- 
road, where  tracks  were  torn  up,  tw^o  bridges  and 
a  warehouse  burned  and  a  pork  house  and  sun- 
dry barns  robbed  ;  thence  to  Versailles,  in  Ripley 
county,  where  he  captured  about  three  hundred 
"minute  men"  and  $5,000  of  public  funds; 
thence,  by  way  of  Osgood  and  Sunman  in  two 
divisions  to  Harrison,  on  the  State  line,  where 
they  arrived  on  July  13  after  being  on  Indiana 
soil  for  five  days. 

Morgan's  erratic  course  during  these  five  days 
was  in  large  part  determined  by  the  uprising 
local  militia  that  sprang  up  at  numerous  turns, 
and  which,  particularly  at  Vernon,  presented  an 
opposition  that  thwarted  his  purpose.  His  object, 
apparently,  was  to  avoid  fighting  as  much  as  pos- 
sible. On  the  other  hand  the  uncertainty  and 
rapidity  of  his  movements  by  the  aid  of  fresh 
horses  constantly  supplied  from  the  countryside, 
confused  and  thwarted  the  pursuers,  mostly  un- 
motmted  infantry,  who  sought  to  close  in  on 
him,  else  he  probably  would  never  have  got  out 
of  the  State.  His  men  rode  night  and  day  to  the 
point  of  exhaustion,  and  finally  most  of  them 
were  captured  in  southern  Ohio  at  a  point  where 
they  had  hoped  to  recross  the  river  into  Ken- 
tucky. Morgan  himself  with  part  of  his  men  es- 
caped this  time,  but  was  followed  up  and  caught 
a  few  days  later. 

The  loss  to  the  citizens  occasioned  by  this  raid, 
as  meastired  by  claims  presented  and  allowed, 
was  $413,599.48  (Terrell).* 

The  Disloyal  Element. — As  has  been  stated 
there  was  in  Indiana  a  strong  element  who  did  not 
sympathize  with  the  North  in  its  efifort  to  coerce 
the  seceding  States.  During  the  patriotic  fervor  of 
the  first  year  or  so  of  the  war  this  disailected  mi- 
nority was  not  much  in  evidence,  but  with  the 
dragging  out  of  the  conflict  and  with  its  reverses, 
making  the  ultimate  success  of  the  North  more 
and  more  doubt fttl,  the  opposition  began  to  be 
expressed  both  in  the  anti-administration  news- 
papers and  among  the  people.  Public  utterances 
that  were  not  only  critical  but  hostile  to  the  point 
of  treason  became  common  and  active  opposition 

•  A  careful  study  of  Morgan's  raid  by  Margrette  Boyer  may 
be  found  in  vol.  iv,  No.  4,  of  the  Ind.  Quar.  Mag.  of  Hist. 
See  also  Terrell's  report,  vol.   i,  and  Basil  W.   Dulce's  account. 



was  manifested  by  the  encouragement  of  deser- 
tion from  the  ranks  and  by  armed  resistance 
when  the  authorities  sought  to  arrest  runaways. 
So  common  did  this  abandonment  of  the  stand- 
ard become  by  reason  of  this  encouragement  that 
it  is  said  "no  less  than  2,300  desertions  were  re- 
ported in  the  single  month  of  December,  1862." 
Acts  of  violence  in  defense  of  these  deserters,  in 
resistance  to  the  draft,  and  against  loyal  neigh- 
bors were  by  no  means  uncommon  in  some  locali- 
ties, where,  indeed,  the  conditions  came  little 
short  of  internal  warfare  on  a  small  and  disor- 
ganized scale.  The  governor's  life  was  threat- 
ened and  once  an  attempt  was  made  to  assassi- 
nate him  as  he  was  leaving  the  State  House.  By 
the  fall  of  1962  Morton's  vigorous  war  policy 
was  so  out  of  favor  that  at  the  election  in  No- 
vember the  democrats  got  a  majority  of  the  Leg- 
islature, and  the  session  that  ensued  was  one  of 
opposition  and  obstruction.  The  governor's  an- 
nual message,  which,  this  year,  was  of  unusual 
importance,  was  denied  the  courtesy  of  a  hear- 
ing, and  he  was  otherwise  treated  with  con- 
tumely. An  attempt  was  made  to  take  from  him 
his  authority  as  commander-in-chief  of  the  State 
militia,  which  would  have  fatally  crippled  him  in 
his  efiforts  to  support  the  national  administration. 
His  policy  was  fought  inveterately  at  every  turn, 
and  the  crowning  embarrassment  was  to  leave 
him  without  any  appropriations  for  State  or  mili- 
tary expenses.  In  short,  a  weaker  and  less  deter- 
mined man  than  Morton  would  have  been  smoth- 
ered completely  by  his  political  enemies  during 
these  darker  war  days.  He  triumphed  over  all 
such  opposition,  however.  He  borrowed  all  the 
money  he  needed  on  the  credit  of  the  State,  and 
with  a  strong  hand  took  autocratic  control  of  the 
situation  generally.  The  next  Legislature  was  in 
harmony  with  him,  and  took  over  the  obligations 
to  which  their  predecessors  had  been  false. 

Treasonable  Organizations;  the  "Sons  of 
Liberty." — The  opposition  element  in  Indiana 
may,  in  fairness,  be  divided  into  two  classes — 
those  who  simply  were  not  in  sympathy  with  the 
war  and  with  the  policy  of  the  North  in  prevent- 
ing secession  by  force  of  arms ;  and  those  who 
were  distinctly  pro-southern  in  their  sentiments. 
These  latter,  to  whom  the  opprobrious  names  of 
"copperhead"  and  "butternut"  were  given,  made 
a  treasonable  and  dangerous  element  in  the  popu- 
lation.    They  were  regarded  as  a  useful  leaven 

by  the  South,  and  it  is  affirmed  that  John  Mor- 
gan, when  he  invaded  the  State,  confidently 
counted  upon  the  active  support  of  such  citizens. 
Prior  to  the  war  there  existed  in  the  South  a 
secret  order  known  as  the  "Knights  of  the 
Golden  Circle"  which  had  for  its  object  the  exten- 
sion of  slavery.  With  the  outbreak  of  the  war 
chapters  of  this  society  were  organized  among 
southern  sympathizers,  first  in  the  border  States, 
then  spreading  northward  into  Ohio,  Indiana. 
Illinois  and  Missouri.  Here  they  took  the  name, 
"Sons  of  Liberty,"  and  the  order  secretly  grew 
till  in  1862,  according  to  the  report  of  an  investi- 
gating grand  jury,  it  had  something  like  fifteen 
thousand  members  in  Indiana,  with  local  "cas- 
tles" or  lodges,  and  an  elaborate  system  of  signs, 
grips,  words  and  signals  for  mutual  identifica- 
tion and  communication.  The  investigation 
above  referred  to  made  by  the  Grand  Jury  of  the 
United  States  Circuit  Court,  was  the  result  of 
repeated  interference  with  enlistments,  the  en- 
couragement of  desertion  and  protection  of  the 
deserters,  resistance  to  the  draft  of  1862,  and 
other  manifestations  of  violence  that  awakened 
alarm.  The  report  of  the  jury  gave  new  cause 
for  alarm  as  to  what  might  be  expected  in  the 
way  of  outbreak,  but  no  active  steps  against  the 
order  were  then  taken.  One  good  efTect  of  Mor- 
gan's raid  the  following  summer  was  to  stir  up 
anew  all  the  patriotism  of  the  State,  and  this,  in 
connection  with  important  successes  to  the  north- 
ern arms  and  Governor  Morton's  vigilant  sur- 
veillance of  the  society  discouraged  the  "Sons  of 

Their  secret  signs  and  passwords  were  di- 
vulged and  the  name  of  the  order  became  so 
odious  that  it  assumed,  or  tried  to  assume  a  new 
name,  the  "Order  of  American  Knights."  though 

*  Morton's  remarkable  talent  for  taking  a  situation  in  hand 
and  getting  in  toucli  with  its  details  is  illustrated  by  an  inci- 
dental event  that  is  usually  spoken  of  as  "the  battle  of  Pogue's 
Run."  On  May  20,  1863,  "Sons  of  Liberty"  and  their  sympa- 
thizers came  to  Indianapolis  ostensibly  to  attend  a  Democratic 
rally,  but  really  with  the  intention  of  making  an  armed  demon- 
stration, the  weapons  being  concealed  on  their  persons.  Morton, 
fully  apprised  of  their  purpose,  overawed  them  with  a  few  armed 
soldiers  on  the  streets.  As  a  train  full  of  them  were  leaving 
the  depot,  homeward  bound,  some  one  in  a  spirit  of  bravado 
made  the  first  "demonstration"  by  firing  a  pistol  from  the  car 
window.  In  response  a  company  of  soldiers,  on  their  own  in- 
itiative, held  up  and  boarded  the  train.  The  panic-stricken  vis- 
itors threw  revolvers  and  knives  into  the  waters  of  Pogue's  Run 
that  flowed  beside  the  tracks,  and  many  more  were  captured  by 
the  soldiers.  The  contempt  and  ridicule  brought  upon  the  "Sons" 
by  "this  fiasco  went  far  toward  banishing  the  fear  of  them  as 
actual  revolutionists. 



this  name  has  found  no  lodgment  in  the  pnbHc 
mind  or  in  history. 

The  snake,  though  scotched,  was  by  no  means 
killed,  however.  Treasonable  sentiment  and  ef- 
fort continued  to  work  beneath  the  surface, 
though  to  this  day  it  is  a  matter  of  surmise  just 
how  treasonable  the  secret  order  was  and  what 
the  scope  of  its  intent.  One  writer  (J.  P.  Dunn) 
affirms  that  the  majority  of  those  connected  with 
these  secret  organizations  "never  had  any  idea 
that  anything  treasonable  was  intended."  It  is 
generally  believed,  however,  that  the  order  was 
sinister  and  dangerous  and  that  it  aimed  at  noth- 
ing less  than  an  organized  insurrection  through- 
out several  States,  including  Indiana,  and  the  es- 
tablishment of  a  "Northwestern  Confederacy" 
that  was  to  separate  from  the  Union.  At  any 
rate  a  quantity  of  arms  and  ammunition  con- 
cealed in  packages  or  boxes  and  marked  "Sun- 
day-school books"  were  found  in  the  establish- 
ment of  Harrison  H.  Dodd,  Grand  Commander 
of  the  Sons  of  Liberty  of  Indiana.  He  was  ar- 
rested on  the  charge  of  conspiracy  against  the 
United  States,  and  then  followed  the  famous 
"treason  trials"  by  a  military  tribunal  at  Indian- 
apolis. This  trial  began  on  the  22d  day  of  Sep- 
tember, 1864,  and  the  commission  that  conducted 
it  was  composed  of  General  Silas  Colgrove,  Col. 
William  E.  McLean,  Col.  John  T.  Wilder,  Col. 
Thomas  J.  Lucas,  Col.  Charles  D.  Murray,  Col. 
Benjamin  Spooner,  Col.  Richard  P.  De  Hart  and 
Col,  Ambrose  A.  Stevens.  A  number  of  men  be- 
sides Dodd  were  implicated,  and  the  examinations 
of  witnesses  brought  out  much  sensational  evi- 
dence bearing  on  an  intended  uprising,  the  re- 
leasing and  arming  of  rebel  prisoners,  the  as- 
sassination of  Governor  Morton  and  other  revo- 
lutionary plans.  In  the  course  of  the  trial  Dodd 
himself  esca]:)ed  and  made  his  way  to  Canada. 
The  court  found  him,  William  A.  Bowles,  Lamb- 
din  P.  Milligan,  Stephen  Horsey  and  Andrew 
1  lumphreys  guilty  of  treason.  Bowles,  Milligan 
and  Horsey  were  sentenced  to  death  and  Hum- 
])hreys  to  imprisonment,  but  all  were  subse- 
(|uentlv  ])ardone(l. 

Senator  Bright's  Disloyalty. — In  connection 
with  ill  is  ])hase  of  our  history  may  be  mentioned 
the  expulsion  from  the  United  States  Senate  of 
Jesse  D.  Bright.  Bright  was  a  Madison  man,  a 
leading  Democrat,  and  wliat  in  this  day  would  be 
called  a  ])()litical  "boss."     In  1862  he  commended 

a  friend  who  had  an  improvement  in  firearms  to 
Jeft'erson  Davis,  whom  he  addressed  as  "His  Ex- 
cellency, Jefferson  Davis,  President  of  the  Con- 
federation of  States."  This  was  regarded  as 
treasonable  and  Bright  was  unseated,  ex-Gov- 
ernor Joseph  A.  Wright  taking  his  place. 

The  Draft. — Despite  the  overwhelming  ap- 
plications for  enlistment  in  the  earlier  days  of 
the  war  and  the  free  response  of  Indiana 
throughout,  as  compared  with  other  States,  some 
counties  failed  to  contribute  their  proportion  to 
the  State's  quota  in  the  course  of  the  seven  dif- 
ferent calls  that  were  issued  before  the  war  was 
over.  Consequently  these  localities  fell  subject 
to  the  conscription  system  that  the  government^ 
was  obliged  to  adopt.  The  drafts  that  operated' 
in  Indiana  were  those  of  1862,  1864  and  1865,  in 
which,  altogether,  nearly  18,000  men  were  drawn. 

The  draft  included  in  its  plan  an  enrolment  in 
each  county  of  every  able-bodied  white  male  citi- 
zen between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five. 
When  a  new  call  was  made  for  troops  if  a  State 
did  not  fill  out  its  quota  the  draft  was  resorted  to, 
the  names  of  the  enrolled  citizens  being  written 
on  ballots  and  placed  in  a  wheel  or  box.  From! 
these  a  person  who  was  blindfolded  drew  enough 
ballots  to  complete  the  deficient  local  quota.  Thej 
persons  whose  names  were  drawn  were  then 
served  with  a  notice  by  the  marshal  and  required 
to  report  at  the  county  seat  within  five  days. 
Those  who  did  not  report  were  classed  as  desert- 
ers (Terrell).  One  efifect  of  a  draft  was  tc 
stimulate  volunteering,  many  regarding  conscrip- 
tion as  a  disgrace.  One  provision  of  the  drafting 
system  that  caused  much  dissatisfaction  was  that 
by  the  payment  of  $300  the  conscript  was  re- 
lieved from  serving.  By  this,  it  was  complained 
the  rich  man  was  virtually  exempt,  whereas  foi 
the  poor  man  there  was  no  escape.  At  one  iimi 
there  was  a  provision,  also,  that  those  who  wen 
conscientiously  opposed  to  bearing  arms  should 
if  drafted,  be  considered  non-combatants  and  b( 
assigned  to  hospital  or  some  similar  service,  un- 
less they  preferred  to  pay  the  $300  commutation 

Bounties. — Local  bounties  paid  by  the  vari 
ous  townships  of  the  State,  to  stimulate  enlist 
mcnt  and  also  for  the  purpose  of  benefiting  th( 
families  of  those  who  volunteered  for  the  serv- 
ice, should  be  noted.  These  local  bounties  rangeo 
at  dift'erent  periods  from  $10  to  $500.  and  in  th< 
aggregate  amounted  to  $15,492,876. 

State  Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Home  at  Lafayette.  1.  Gateway  and  Entrance.  2.  Commandant's  Residence  and 
Executive  Building.  3.  Adjutant's  Residence  and  Offices.  4.  Main  Dining  Room.  5.  Old  People's  Home. 
6.  Old  Men's  Home.    7.  Hospital.    8.  Assembly  Hall. 




A  large  proportion  of  the  townships  paid  these 
bounties  when  it  became  difficult  to  fill  out  the 
local  quotas,  and  one  of  the  causes  of  the  system 
was  the  desire  to  avoid  the  drafts.  Abuses  grew 
out  of  the  plan,  one  of  which  was  the  practise  by 
unprincipled  floaters  of  recruiting  and  securing 
the  bounty  money,  then  deserting  and,  under  as- 
sumed names  repeating  the  process  over  and 
over,  perhaps,  in  different  localities.  This  was 
the  nefarious  business  known  as  "bounty  jump- 
ing," and  it  proved  so  profitable  that  it  developed 
into  an  art  or  system  with  the  collusion,  it  is  said, 
of  a  class  of  "brokers"  who  took  contracts  to  fill 
out  quotas,  and  even  with  corrupt  recruiting  offi- 
cers who  thus  found  a  short  and  easy  cut  to  un- 
earned gains. 

Steps  were  taken  to  abate  this  evil,  and  several 
culprits,  after  trial  by  court  martial,  were  pub- 
licly shot  at  Indianapolis,  which  had  a  salutary 

Indiana's  Care  for  Her  Soldiers. — The  dan- 
gers of  battle  were  not  the  only  and,  perhaps,  not 
the  most  trying  of  the  evils  our  soldiers  had  to 
suffer.  The  hardships  of  the  field  were  particu- 
larly taxing  to  a  citizen  soldiery  uninured  to 
rigor  and  exposure.  Add  to  that  the  government, 
an  unmilitary  nation,  was  not  prepared  to  care 
adequately  for  the  comfort  and  health  of  its  rap- 
idly augmenting  armies.  In  consequence  there 
was  much  suffering  and  a  vast  amount  of  disease. 
This  was  relieved,  in  part,  personally  by  such 
comforts  and  helps  as  friends  at  home  could 
send,  but  the  need  of  some  more  systematic  and 
more  dependable  help  soon  became  apparent. 
Governor  Morton,  with  a  solicitude  for  his  sol- 
diers that  was  almost  paternal,  early  gave  this 
need  attention.  In  1861,  as  the  winter  ap- 
proached, he  issued  an  appeal  to  "The  Patriotic 
Women  of  Indiana"  calling  for  contributions  of 
articles  in  addition  to  those  furnished  in  the  reg- 
ular army  supplies — extra  blankets,  warm,  strong 
socks,  woollen  gloves  or  mittens,  woollen  shirts 
and  underwear. 

The  "Military  Agency." — With  the  generous 
response  that  followed  this  ap])eal  arose  the  ne- 
cessity of  an  adequate  plan  for  distribution,  and 
out  of  this  grew  the  "General  Military  Agency 
of  Indiana,"  which  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
organized  effort  of  any  State  to  su]iplement  the 
government's  provisions   for   its   soldiers.      This 

agency,  created  in  1862,  with  Dr.  William  Han- 
naman,  of  Indianapolis,  as  its  head,  had  in  charge 
the  supervision  of  all  matters  relating  to  the  re- 
lief of  soldiers,  and  the  organizing  of  ways  and 
means.  Local  agents  in  field  and  hospital  re- 
ported to  the  head  of  the  General  Agent  who 
was  thus  kept  apprised  of  existing  needs,  and 
who  saw  that  they  were  relieved.  Field  agents 
were  expected  to  interest  themselves  in  the  men. 
individually,  to  write  letters  for  them  when  nec- 
essary, to  take  charge  of  commissions  to  rela- 
tives and  friends,  or  of  relics  consigned  to  them 
by  the  dying,  to  see  that  the  dead  were  decently 
buried,  and  to  keep  record  of  all  facts  that  might 
be  of  interest  to  the  families  of  the  dead.  Books, 
newspapers  and  other  reading  matter  for  both 
hospital  and  field  were  secured,  and  soldiers  both 
sick  and  well,  both  in  and  out  of  the  ranks,  were 
helped  in  numerous  ways,  not  least  of  the  services 
being  the  looking  after  bounty  claims  and  back 
pay,  whereby  many  thousands  of  dollars  were 
saved  to  the  beneficiaries.  In  short,  the  ^Military 
Agency  seems  to  have  been  the  forerunner  of  the 
modern  Red  Cross,  only  its  functions  were  wider 
than  those  of  the  latter  famous  organization. 

The  "Sanitary  Commission." — The  organiza- 
tion for  the  relief  of  the  State's  soldiers  soon 
created  the  need  for  supplies  to  relieve  them 
with,  and  the  raising  of  these  supplies  in  a  de- 
pendable way  also  called  for  an  organized  plan 
Out  of  this  came  the  "Indiana  Sanitary  Commis- 
sion," which  was  created  by  Governor  Morton  in 
February,  1862,  with  Dr.  Hannaman  as  presi- 
dent and  Alfred  Harrison,  of  Indianapolis,  as 
treasurer.  The  commission  was  organized  to 
thoroughly  canvass  the  State  for  needed  clothing 
kinds  of  food  not  included  in  the  government  ra- 
tions, delicacies  for  sick  soldiers,  bedding,  books, 
and  whatever  w^ould  contribute  to  the  comfort  of 
the  men  at  the  front.  The  organization,  as  a 
whole,  consisted  of  a  central  office  or  clearing 
house  at  the  capital,  and  a  large  number  of  auxil- 
iary societies,  located,  usually,  at  the  various 
county  seats.  These  were  the  central  local  socie- 
ties, and,  in  addition  to  them,  smaller  contrib- 
uting societies  were  established  in  neighborhoods. 
These  reached  the  public  far  and  wide,  and  the 
contributions  thus  gathered  in  were  forwarded  tcj 
the  Indianapolis  office.  To  stimulate  the  gen-, 
erosity  of  donors,  particularly  in  the  matter  of 



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cash  contributions,  soliciting  agents  were  em- 
ployed, who  traveled  over  the  State  urging  the 
support  of  the  movement  and  setting  forth  the 
existing  needs. 

By  way  of  still  further  aid  numerous  local 
"sanitary  fairs"  were  held  over  the  State,  and 
with  the  co-operation  of  the  State  agricultural 
fair  of  1863,  a  "State  sanitary  fair,"  held  at  In- 
dianapolis, raised  about  $40,000.  Altogether  the 
commission  secured  in  contributions,  including 
cash  and  the  estimated  value  of  goods,  $606,- 
570.78  (Terrell).  Including  contributions  by 
counties,  townships,  cities  and  towns  in  their  cor- 
porate capacity,  the  sum  given  for  the  relief  of 
soldiers  and  their  families  amounted  to  over 
$5,000,000,  besides  gifts  of  which  no  definite 
record  was  kept. 

Relief  of  Soldiers'  Families. — The  relief  of 
soldiers  individually  and  directly  was  not  the 
only  expression  of  appreciation  and  generosity 
on  the  part  of  the  citizens  of  Indiana.  As  was 
previously  said  the  large  sums  paid  locally 
for  bounties  were  in  part  for  the  benefit  of  sol- 
diers' families — not  altogether  for  the  purpose  of 
inducing,  but  to  enable  men  to  enlist.  The  relin- 
quishing of  one's  business  and  the  leaving  home 
for  the  pay  of  a  private  in  the  ranks  in  very 
many  cases  worked  positive  hardship  on  the  fam- 
ilies thus  left  to  thus  shift  for  themselves  on  a 
meager  income.  The  bounties  helped  out,  but, 
particularly  when  the  enlistment  was  for  the 
three-years'  service,  it  by  no  means  sufficed.  On 
November  14,  1862,  the  ever-watchful  Morton 
issued  "An  Appeal  to  the  People  of  the  State  of 
Indiana"  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  the 
wages  of  a  common  soldier,  $156  a  year,  even  if 
it  could  all  come  home  to  the  family  (which  in 
most  instances  it  could  not)  was  a  very  scanty 
support,  and  with  the  oncoming  winter  with  its 
high  prices  for  the  necessities  of  life,  there  would 
be  much  actual  need.  The  helping  of  these  fam- 
ilies while  their  natural  providers  were  braving 
the  perils  of  the  battlefield  was  the  solemn  duty 
of  the  patriotic  and  liberal  civilians.  In  anticipa- 
tion of  the  argument  that  these  civilians  had  al- 
ready given  largely  and  sacrificed  heavily  in  re- 
sponse to  other  appeals,  the  governor  asked : 
"What  is  the  sacrifice  of  the  man  living  comfort- 
ably at  home,  even  though  he  give  half  his  in- 
come, to  that  of  the  man  who  has  left  his  family 
and  home  and  gone  to  the  field  ?"    He  urged  the 

organization  of  a  State- wide  system  of  aid  soci- 
eties and  solicited  the  co-operation  of  all  minis- 
ters of  the  gospel,  township  trustees  and  others. 

The  response  to  this  was  immediate  and  liberal, 
the    movement    rivaling    that    for    the    Sanitary 
Commission  in  aid  of  the  soldiers  at  the  front. 
"Soldiers'    Aid    Societies"    were    formed,    fairs 
were    held,    and    the    contributions    poured    in. 
Frequently    inspired    by    the    local    newspaper 
or  some  energetic  citizen  of  standing,  the  resi- 
dents of  a  neighborhood  would  bring  their  gifts 
on  a  fixed  day  to  some  central  place  and  give 
what    in    modern   parlance    would   be    called  a  i 
"shower"    of    donated    provisions    and   clothing.  | 
Or,    the     farmers    of    different    neighborhoods  • 
would  "collect  together  early  in  the  morning  and 
at   the   appointed   time    drive    into   the    country 
town  with  wagons  loaded  with  wood,  and  with  [ 
barrels  of   flour,  or  apples,  or  potatoes  heaped  | 
high  on  the  wood,  with  their  horses  decorated  i 
with  flags,  sometimes  carrying  banners ;  and  as  j 
the  long  procession  of   gratitude  and  liberality 
marched   along   the   streets   the   crowded   pave-| 
ments  welcomed  it  with  cheers  as  for  the  return; 
of  a  victorious  army.    Emulation  ran  wild  in  ef-; 
forts  to  show  the  biggest  loads  and  make  thei 
most  striking  display"  (Terrell,  p.  357).  i 

Another  source  of  help  was  the  "State  Bakery" 
established  at  Indianapolis  for  the  purpose  of 
supplying  the  camps  there.  In  1864  and  1865  itj 
distributed  free  to  soldiers'  families  63,540  i 
loaves,  worth  10  cents  each. 

All  of  these  aids,  however,  were  hardly  ade-^ 
quate  to  the  increasing  needs  as  the  war  dragged, 
on,  and  as  late  as  March  4,  1865,  an  act  for  the 
"relief  of  the  families  of  soldiers,  seamen  and 
marines"*  was  passed  by  the  Legislature. 

This  law,  in  brief,  authorized  the  collection  ofj 
three  mills  on  each  dollar's  valuation  of  prop-j 
erty  and  one  dollar  on  each  taxable  poll,  to  be  ap- 
plied as  specified.  The  fund  thus  raised  was  ap- 
portioned to  the  various  counties  in  sums  rangingj 
from  $2,278.56  for  Benton  to  $42,605.84  for| 
Marion.  The  total  number  of  beneficiaries  (inj 
"families"  only)  were  203,724.  The  township 
trustee  was  the  disbursing  officer  and  was  em- 
powered to  determine  who  came  under  the  pro- 
visions of  the  act.  The  law  did  not  operate  long,: 
as  the  war  ended  soon  after  its  passage.  1 

Temporary  and  Permanent  "Homes." — The 

*  This  act  also  included  relief  for  sick  and  wounded  soldiers. 



first  thing  in  the  way  of  a  soldiers'  "home," 
Within  the  State,  was  one  provided  and  equipped 
oy  the  general  government  and  the  State  at  Indi- 
anapoHs,  in  1862.  The  capital  was  the  central 
knd  chief  rendezvous  for  the  State,  and  of  the 
large  numbers  of  soldiers  who  came  and  went 
many,  from  sickness  or  other  causes,  could  not 
be  cared  for  at  the  military  camps.  The  building, 
erected  in  a  grove  near  White  river,  was  fur- 
lished  and  managed  by  the  Sanitary  Commission, 
and  it  aimed  to  be  a  place  where  the  soldiers  in 
:ransit  could  get  a  taste  of  "home"  comforts,  free 
bf  cost.  In  1863  a  "Ladies'  Home"  was  also  estab- 
f.ished  for  the  benefit  of  soldiers'  wives  and  fami- 
lies who  came  to  Indianapolis  to  meet  and  visit 
with  them. 

I  At  the  close  of  the  war  there  were  many  men 
iisabled  beyond  self-help,  to  whom  aid  was  justly 
due,  and  the  question  arose  of  a  permanent  home 
for  those  who  might  take  advantage  of  it.  Again 
in  appeal  was  made  to  the  people  and  with  the 
;funds  thus  raised  by  voluntary  subscriptions  a 
property  containing  fifty-four  acres  at  Knights- 
town,  Henry  county,  was  purchased.  It  had  been 
;i  resort  on  account  of  medicinal  springs  there, 
!a,nd  a  large  hotel  building  and  several  cottages 
were  on  the  land.  In  the  spring  of  1866  these 
were  occupied  as  a  home  for  soldiers  and  also 
for  soldiers'  orphans.  On  the  4th  of  July,  1867, 
jche  corner-stone  of  a  large  brick  building  was 
laid  under  the  auspices  of  the  Grand  Army  of  the 
Republic.  Previous  to  that  the  State  had  adopted 
lit  as  one  of  the  public  benevolent  institutions. 
^Subsequently  the  veterans  were  removed  from 
;this  place  and  it  became  a  home  and  school  for 
(the  orphans  of  soldiers  and  sailors. 
:  By  an  act  of  1890  the  United  States  established 
I  branch  of  the  National  Soldiers'  Home  at  Ma- 
rion, and  another  by  the  State  was  established 
aear  Lafayette  by  a  legislative  act  of  1895.  Sev- 
enty-five thousand  dollars  were  appropriated  for 
the  erection  of  the  main  buildings  at  the  La- 
fayette home,  and,  in  addition  to  these,  various 
,:ounties  have  put  up  cottages. 



i  The  "Underground  Railroad."— The  "Under- 
ground Railroad,"  a  famous  feature  of  the  anti- 
slavery  crusade  for  twenty  years  or  more  preced- 
ing the  Civil  war,  was  a  system  of  transportation 

routes  over  which  fugitive  slaves  were  secretly 
conveyed  from  the  Ohio  river  into  Canada,  where 
they  were  safe  from  the  slavery  laws  of  the 
United  States.  These  routes,  as  they  were  estab- 
lished in  Indiana,  have  been  traced  by  Mr.  Lewis 
Falley  of  Lafayette,  whose  map  is  here  produced. 
Cincinnati,  Lawrenceburg,  Madison,  New  Al- 
bany, Leavenworth  and  Evansville  were  the 
points  where  the  fleeing  slaves  could  cross  the 
Ohio   with   some  hope   of   finding   friends,   who 

Map  of  the  "Underground  Railroad"  in  Indiana. 
— By  Lewis  Falley,  of  Lafayette. 

would  help  them  northward,  and  these  friends 
would  convey  them  from  one  "station"  to  an- 
other, usually  by  night,  or  sometimes  concealed 
beneath  what  seemed  to  be  a  wagonload  of  pro- 
duce on  its  way  to  market.  The  "stations"  were 
friendly  houses  where  the  fugitives  were  con- 
cealed until  they  could  be  safely  forwarded.  The 
people  most  zealous  in  this  risky  humanitarian 
work  were  the  Quakers,  and  the  most  famous 
of  the  various  routes  was  the  one  that  traversed 
the  chief  Quaker  settlements  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  State.  Wayne  county  was  the  most  con- 
spicuous anti-slavery  center,  and  Newport,  now 



Fountain  City,  about  nine  miles  north  of  Rich- 
mond, was  its  hub. 

Levi  Coffin,  the  most  active  and  persistent  of 
the  crusaders  against  slavery,  lived  there.  As 
early  as  1840,  Arnold  liuffum.  an  abolitionist 
1-Viend  from  Massachuselis.  visited  Newport  and 
started  the  movement  for  the  ori(anizing  of  anti- 
slaverv  sncielies.  and  these  were  formed  and 
npenlv  attended,  there  being  no  attempt  at  se- 
crecv.  In  the  hniiaua  Quarterly  Magazine  of  His- 
tarv  for  September,  1907,  an  article  by  Dr.  O.  N. 
IIulV.  (»n  "The  Unnamed  .\nti-Slavery  Heroes  of 

Old  Newport,"  revives  the  memory  of  many  who 
courageously  and  actively  entered  the  fight 
against  slavery  and  wdio  helped  many  a  black 
man  to  liberty. 

An  autobiography  of  Levi  Coffin  gives  much 
information  as  to  the  operation  of  the  "railroad" 
in  that  part  of  the  State,  but  data  as  to  the  other 
routes  are  bvtt  fragmentary.* 

*  As  late  as  1857,  it  is  known  that  a  man  by  the  name  of  Pur- 
.dum,   in    Hamilton    county,   bequeathed    one   thousand   dollars,  as 
stated  in  his  will,  "to  be  used  to  assist  fugitive  slaves  to  freedom 
in  the  North." 

View  ill  Brown  County,  nortlieast  of  Nashville. 


A  General  Survey  of  Indiana  as  Developed 
Since  the  Civil  War 




Immediate  Influence  of  the  War. — In  a  study 
of  "Indianapolis  and  the  Civil  War,"*  the  author, 
Mr.  John  H.  Holliday,  speaks  of  the  influence  of 
the  war  upon  the  capital  city.  "The  grim  era," 
he  says,  "closed  upon  a  new  Indianapolis.  The 
quiet  town  with  its  simple  life  was  gone  forever 
and  in  its  place  was  the  hustling  city  with  new 
ideas,  new  aspirations,  new  ways.  Much  more 
than  half  the  population  were  newcomers.  As 
it  had  changed  materially,  it  had  changed  in  other 
respects.  Its  life  was  different.  .  .  .  There 
was  more  luxurious  living  and  ostentation.  The 
inevitable  demoralization  of  war  had  to  be  reck- 
oned with  and  both  morality  and  religion  were 
affected.  Hundreds  of  young  men  had  become 
addicted  to  intemperance  and  the  general  moral 
tone  had  been  lowered.  Extravagance  had  in- 
creased in  many  things  and  was  driving  out  the 
former  simplicity.  .  .  .  Without  the  war  In- 
dianapolis would  have  changed  at  some  time,  but 
it  would  have  taken  a  generation  for  it  instead 
of  being  hammered  out  in  the  white  heat  of  the 
four  years'  conflict." 

This,  with  little  modification,  might  be  applied 
to  the  State  at  large,  and  the  complex  results 
make  an  interesting  phase  of  our  history.  On 
the  one  hand,  approximately  25,000  men,  the 
flower  of  the  land,  physically,  had  been  lost  to  the 
State,  and  more  than  that  many  millions  of  dol- 
lars had  been  expended  that,  if  applied  to  the  arts 
of  peace,  would,  it  seems,  have  vastly  advanced 
our  progress ;  and  in  addition  the  moral  set-back, 
though  it  can  not  be  calculated,  was  by  no  means 
negligible.  On  the  other  hand,  the  stress  and 
excitement  of  those  four  years  appears  to  have 
been  a  tremendous  awakener — a  stimulus  that 
engendered  new  energy  and  created  new  condi- 
tions. One  writer  (Dunn)  states  that  "to  many 
men  the  war  experience  had  been  a  liberal  educa- 
tion. The  soldiers  had  much  to  do  besides  fight- 
ing. There  were  roads  to  make,  bridges  to  build, 
railroad  and  telegraph  lines  to  replace  during  the 
great  contest,  and  there  were  few  soldiers  who 

did  not  return  with  increased  ability  to  do  any- 
thing that  came  to  hand."*  During  and  immedi- 
ately after  the  war  period  prices  w^ere  high,  prop- 
erty values  rose,  there  was  much  paper  currency 
afloat,  and  this  begat  business  activity.  In  July 
of  1865,  we  are  told,  there  were  in  Indianapolis 
"thirty-four  wholesale  houses  running,  with  five 
more  to  open  up  as  soon  as  buildings  could  be  fin- 
ished." Rents  rose  to  unheard-of  figures ;  "more 
banks  and  insurance  companies  were  organized, 
railroads  were  projected,  a  steamboat  built  on  the 
river,  real  estate  boomed,  and  expansion  was 
everywhere"  (Holliday).  Not  only  an  expanded 
currency  but  an  increased  protective  tariff  en- 
couraged the  growth  and  multiplication  of  manu- 
facturing industries,  and  this  not  only  wrought 
a  great  change  in  the  industrial  character  of  the 
State,  which  had  previously  been  largely  agricul- 
tural, but  by  inducing  considerable  foreign  immi- 
gration the  character  of  the  population  was  much 
modified.  In  1870  the  population  exceeded  that 
of  1860  by  330,209,  and  the  next  four  decades 
added  something  over  a  million  more — a  growth 
that  could  hardly  have  been  approached  in  that 
period  under  the  old  agricultural  regime,  since 
by  1860  the  lands  of  the  State  were  pretty  well 
taken  up. 

Politics  of  the  Period. — If  Indiana's  political 
history  following  the  war  had  any  bearing  upon 
the  State's  real  development,  the  fact  is  not 
very  obvious  and  hence  we  give  but  little  space 
to  it.  The  aftermath  of  the  conflict  was,  of 
course,  bitterness  and  hate  between  the  opposing 
factions  that  had  existed  here,  and  the  State  cam- 
paigns of  1866  and  1868  were  particularly  acri- 
monious. The  Republicans  remained  in  the  sad- 
dle until  1873,  and  the  Republican  party  in  In- 
diana, like  that  party  at  large,  was  not  above 
abusing  the  power  and  prestige  it  had  gained  by 
the  successful  prosecution  of  the  war.  The  Dem- 
ocratic minority,  being  made  of  the  same  sort  of 
stuff,  the  resultant  "legislation"  was  a  game  of 
petty  chicanery.   For  example,  when  the  fifteenth 

Indiana    Historical    Society    Publications,    vol.    iv. 

History  of   Indianapolis. 




amendment  to  the  Federal  constitution,  giving 
the  negroes  the  right  of  suffrage  and  overriding 
all  State  laws  on  this  question  came  up  for  ratifi- 
cation the  DeniDcralic  senators  and  representa- 
tives resigned  in  a  l)ody  blocking  not  only  this, 
hut  all  other  legislation.  Lieutenant-Governor 
Baker,  then  acting  governor  in  Morton's  absence, 
took  proper  steps  to  fill  the  vacancies.  Again  the 
amendment  came  u])  and  again  the  Democrats 
attempted  to  bolt  but  were  cunningly  overreached 
by  locking  the  senate  doors  while  the  recalcitrant 
members  were  within,  thus  securing  an  enforced 
(luorum  for  the  business  in  hand.  Tactics  of 
jirettv  much  the  same  complexion  were  exercised 
in  the  house,  and  the  votes  of  the  Republicans 
passed  the  resolution  of  ratification.  The  fol- 
lowing session,  the  Democrats  being  in  the  ma- 
jority, an  attempt  was  made  to  rescind  the  reso- 
lution. The  same  irregular  methods  w^ere 
employed,  with  the  parties  reversed,  but  without 
the  same  success.  Meanwhile  the  interests  of 
the  public  were  a  secondary  consideration.* 

In  the  fall  of  1872  the  Democrats  secured  their 
first  Governor  since  the  election  of  1856,  Thomas 
A.  Hendricks.  After  that  the  political  forces 
were  so  evenly  divided  as  to  the  two  controlling 
parties  that  the  years  of  their  respective  ascend- 
ency was  almost  alternate.  This  frequent  shift- 
ing of  power  continues  to  the  present,  and  it  may 
be  said  that  the  uncertainty  of  tenure  of  any  one 
party  is  increased  in  later  years  by  the  w^eaken- 
ing  of  the  old  rigid  party  loyalty  and  the  growth 
of  political  independence. 

During  this  period  the  State  has  figured  con- 
spicuously several  times  in  national  politics. 
In  1876  Thomas  A.  Hendricks  was  the  unsuc- 
cessful candidate  for  Vice-President,  running  on 
the  ticket  with  Samuel  J.  Tilden.  In  1880  Will- 
iam II.  ICnglish.  rtinning  with  Winfield  S.  Han- 

•  One  of  the  most  tiotalilc  instances  of  this  sort  of  flagrant 
party  strife  occurred  in  1887.  Senator  Alonzo  Greene  Smith 
was  president  pro  tern,  of  the  upper  house,  Lieutenant-Governor 
Mahlon  D.  Manson  having  resigned.  As  Governor  Gray  was  a 
candidate  for  the  United  States  Senate  the  question  arose  whether 
in  the  case  of  his  election  a  pro  tern,  president  of  the  Senate 
could  l.-Kally  succeed  to  the  governorship,  or  whether  a  duly 
elected  lieutenant-governor  only  was  eligible  to  the  office.  There 
was  no  provision  for  such  a  contingency  as  existed,  and  to  avoid 
irregularity  can.lirlatcs  for  the  office  of  lieutenant-governor  were 
p\it  on  the  ticket  at  the  regular  election  of  1886.  R.  S.  Robert- 
si. n.  a  U.inil.lic.iii,  was  elected,  but  the  Democratic  Senate  re- 
fused to  recognize  him.  The  House  supported  him  and  admin- 
i.Mcre.l  the  oath  of  office.  Between  the  House  and  Senate  arose 
a  strife  amounting  to  physical  conflict.  The  House  refused  to 
act  with  the  .Senate,  the  time  of  the  session  was  wasted,  and  the 
public  paid  for  it  all. 

cock,  was  the  unsuccessful  candidate  for  Vice-' 
President.  In  1884  Hendricks  again  ran,  coupled 
with  Grover  Cleveland,  and  this  time  was  elected. 
Benjamin  Harrison  was  elected  President  of  the 
United  States  in  1888,  being  the  only  Indiana 
citizen  who  has  ever  attained  to  that  high  ofifice, 
unless  his  grandfather,  William  Henry  Harrison, 
be  considered  an  Indianian.  In  1902  Charles  W. 
Fairbanks,  on  the  ticket  with  Theodore  Roose- 
velt, was  chosen  Vice-President,  and  in  1912 
Thomas  R.  Marshall  succeeded  to  this  office  as 
running  mate  with  Woodrow  Wilson. 


Increase,  Distribution  and  Character  of  Pop- 
ulation.— As  a  sort  of  basis  or  starting  point  for, 
a  study  of  the  State's  growth  during  this  devel-i 
opmental  period  we  may  appropriately  consider 
that   ftindamental    factor,   the   population   in   its 
various  statistical  aspects. 

Increase  by  Decades  and  Analysis. — When 
Indiana  became  a  State  in  1816  the  population 
was  estimated  at  about  70,000,  having  increased 
to  this  number  from  5,641  in  1800.  Since  that 
it  has  increased  to  approximately  3,000,000,  the 
last  official  enumeration,  that  of  1910,  being 
2,700,876.  The  ratio  of  increase  by  decades  can 
best  be  shown  by  the  following  table,  which 
starts  with  the  census  of  1820: 

Census  of 


Increase  by  Decades 

...  i  147,178 

...  i  343,031 

...  !  685,866 

...  I  1,350,428 

...  i  1,680,637 

...  '  1,978,301 

1890 i  2,192,404 

1900 2,516,462 

1910 I  2,700,876 


1820  to  1830 95,853 

1830  to  1840 342,835 

1840  to  1850........  302,550 

1850  to  1860 362,012 

1860  to  1870 330,209 

1870  to  1880 297,664 

1880  to  1890 214,103 

1890  to  1900 324,058 

1900  to  1910 184,414 

From  the  table  it  will  be  seen  that  the  increase  i 
ran  heaviest  from  1830  to  1870.    Various  causes  I 
may  be  assigned  as  factors.     Up  to  the  latter 
forties  new  lands  were  being  acquired  from  time  1 
to  time   from  the  Indians  and  thrown  open  to 
settlement ;  hence  the  rapid  increase  of  the  agri- 
cultural population.     During  the  thirties  the  in- 
ternal improvement  movement  brought  in  a  for- 
eign element,  largely  Irish,  as  laborers  upon  the 
iniblic  works.     From   1850  to   1860.  the  decade 



of  Heaviest  increase,  the  railroad  labor,  like  the 
canal  work  of  nearly  twenty  years  before,  doubt- 
less played  its  part.  The  influx  of  the  forties, 
which  fell  below  that  of  the  preceding  and  the 
next  following  decades,  evidently  suffered  some 
check,  and  this  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact 
that  during  that  period  the  State's  enormous 
debt  following  the  internal  improvement  col- 
lapse discouraged  immigration. 

Growth  of  Urban  Population.* — In  1860 
only  hve  i)er  cent,  of  the  total  population  of  the 
State  lived  in  cities  and  towns.  By  1870  the 
percentage  of  urban  population  had  doubled,  and 
the  increase  continued  till  in  1910  it  was  42.4  per 
cent.  (U.  S.  Census  reports).  At  the  latter 
time  the  urban  population  was  contained  in 
eighty-one  cities  and  seven  incorporated  towns. 
Indianapolis,  by  far  the  largest  of  these,  had 
233,650  inhabitants ;  four — Evansville,  Fort 
Wayne,  South  Bend  and  Terre  Haute — each  ex- 
ceeded 50,000;  twenty  had  from  10,000  to 
25,000;  twenty-six  from  5,000  to  10,000,  and 
thirty  from  2,500  to  5,000.  As  a  contrast  to  this 
urban  growth  the  rural  population  has  actually 
decreased.  In  1900  it  was  1,653,773  and  in  1910 
it  had  fallen  to  1,557,041,  a  loss  of  96,732. 

Population  as  Affected  by  Manufactures. — 
The  reasons  for  this  great  change  in  the  char- 
acter of  the  population  must,  of  course,  have 
been  industrial ;  or,  more  specifically,  an  increase 
and  multiplication  of  urban  industries.  The  fig- 
ures show  that  in  1850  the  total  manufactured 
products  of  Indiana  were  valued  at  $18,725,000. 
In  1870  they  had  grown  to  $100,000,000,  and  in 
1910  to  $579,075,000,  the  State  at  the  latter  date 
ranking  ninth  in  this  respect.  The  manufactur- 
ing industries,  as  computed  in  1910,  employed 
218,263  persons,  and  these,  with  their  families, 
swelled  the  urban  population,  particularly  in  the 
larger  cities,  where  by  reason  of  superior  trans- 
portation facilities  and  various  conditions  indus- 
tries best  thrived.  During  the  era  of  natural 
gas  that  resource  as  a  cheap  fuel  was  a  great 
factor  in  swelling  the  population  of  the  gas  belt. 
Today  the  area  of  greatest  density  is  a  block  of 
counties  stretching  from  Marion  northeast  to 
Allen  and  eastward  to  Wayne  ;  the  northern  tier 
of  counties  from  Lake  to  Elkhart ;  Vigo  on  the 
west,  and  Vanderburg  on  the  Ohio  river.     The 

*  See  population  charts,  pp.    154,   155,   157. 

rank  of  these  counties  is  largely  due  to  urban 
growth,  the  only  ones  that  have  gained  at  all  in 
rural  population  for  the  last  ten  or  fifteen  years 
numbering  less  than  twenty,  scattered  irregularly 
over  the  State,  though  mostly  south  of  the  Na- 
tional road. 

Elements  of  Population. — With  growth  by 
immigration  the  population  of  the  State  has  be- 
come more  diversified,  though  the  native  whites 
of  American  parentage  have  always  been  far  in 
excess  of  any  other  element  and  in  excess  of  the 
ratio  in  many  other  States.  The  negroes  in  1910 
were  60,320,  or  2.2  per  cent,  of  the  total.  Of 
foreign-born  whites  there  were  159,322,  and  of 
this  total  more  than  fifty  per  cent,  were  Ger- 
man, the  Irish  coming  next  with  10.4  per  cent. 
Altogether  upward  of  a  score  of  foreign  nations 
have  contributed  to  our  residents,  ranging  in 
numbers  from  a  few  hundreds  to  as  many  thou- 
sands. This  foreign  element  is  largely  segre- 
gated in  the  manufacturing  centers,  the  ratio  be- 
ing largest  in  Lake  county,  owing  to  Gary  and 
contiguous  industrial  towns. 

Inter-State  Migration. — A  factor  that  has 
figured  in  the  fluctuations  of  our  population  is 
the  inter-state  migrations.  The  restless  Ameri- 
can with  illimitable  new  fields  of  promise  forever 
opening  up  before  him  has  been  much  of  a  mi- 
grant, and  a  series  of  charts  of  1890  (Statistical 
Atlas  of  Eleventh  Census)  shows  some  interest- 
ing facts  in  our  population  history.  By  an  esti- 
mate based  on  the  places  of  birth  of  those  then 
residing  in  the  different  States  it  was  computed 
that  the  emigration  of  native  Indianians  to  other 
States  had  been  more  than  550,000,  while  the 
immigration  from  other  States  to  ours  was  under 
450,000.  The  various  Eldorados"  of  our  native 
Hoosiers  were,  first,  Illinois,  Missouri  and  Kan- 
sas. In  lesser  numbers  they  were  scattered  to 
Michigan,  Ohio,  Kentucky,  Tennessee,  Arkansas, 
Oklahoma,  Colorado,  Nebraska,  Iowa,  Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin  and  far-away  Washington,  while 
some  were  traced  to  Massachusetts,  Connecticut. 
New  York,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Dela- 
ware, Maryland,  Virginia,  West  Virginia,  Flor- 
ida, Georgia,  Alabama,  Mississippi,  Louisiana, 
Texas,  the  Dakotas,  Montana,  Wyoming,  Utah, 
Idaho,  Oregon  and  California,  making  in  all 
not  less  than  thirty-eight  States  with  an  infusion 
of  Hoosier  citizenship.  This  scatters  our  na- 
tive  Indianian    from   ocean   to   ocean   and    from 



Canada  to  Mexico  and  the  gulf.  On  the  other 
hand,  we  have  received  citizens  from  no  less 
[than  thirty-one  States,  the  chief  contributors  be- 
jing  Kentucky,  Ohio,  Michigan,  Tennessee,  Vir- 
ginia, North  Carohna  and  Pennsylvania.  It  is  a 
rather  curious  fact  that  several  States  that  con- 
itributed  to  Ilhnois  and  Ohio  and  other  contigu- 
lous  localities  sent  no  emigrants  to  Indiana. 

The  tables  of  the  last  census  show  no  change 
in  the  tendencies  of  two  decades  ago.  The  net 
[loss  of  Indiana  by  inter-state  migration  is  shown 
;to  be  about  275,000,  and  the  foreign  immigration 
has  not  equaled  that  number.* 

Centers  of  Population. — The  center  of  popu- 
lation of  the  United  States,  as  it  moved  steadily 
; westward  since  1790,  was  located  in  Indiana  in 
1890,  or  was,  at  least,  then  first  published,  and  it 
•still  rests  there.  In  1890  it  was  twenty  miles 
ieast  of  Columbus,  Bartholomew  county.  In  1900 
it  was  six  miles  southeast  of  Columbus,  and  by 
jthe  last  census  (1910)  it  was  in  Bloomington, 
Monroe  county. 

The  center  of  population  of  the  State  of  Indi- 
ana was  in  1880  at  New  Augusta,  in  Marion 
Icounty.  After  that  it  moved  slowly  northward, 
and  in  1910  rested  at  Zionsville,  Boone  county. 


From  the  war  period  until  the  close  of  the 
century,    when   the   electric   railway    was    intro- 

tduced,  transportation  improvement  was  directed 
to  roads  and  steam  railroads,  and  an  account  of 

ithe  development  of  these  logically  precedes  that 
of  the  industrial  development,  since  the  latter,  to 

'a  great  degree,  followed  as  a  result  of  trans- 
portation facilities. 

I  :  Wagon  Roads. — The  old  question  of  w^agon 
roads,  with  which  the  State  and  various  counties 
have  wrestled  from  the  beginning,  still  engages 

[the  citizens  of  the  State  as  an  unsettled  problem. 
There  are  still  many  miles  of  bad  roads  that 
operate  as  a  handicap  to  the  rural  population  and 

lafifect  the  market  profits  of  agriculture,  but  the 
situation  is  vastly  improved.  As  has  been  set 
forth  elsewhere  in  this  volume  the  first  system  of 
roads  that  opened  up  the  country  consisted  of  so 
many  mere  openings  through  the  forests  that 
were  fairly  untravelable  for  parts  of  the  year. 
From   these,    road-making   progressed   to   the 

:  macadam,  the  plank  and  the  gravel  roads.     Up 

The  State's  gain  must  be  referred  to  the  birth-rate. 

to  the  time  of  plank  roads  all  the  highways  were 
publicly  owned  and  maintained.  With  the  intro- 
duction of  the  comparatively  expensive  plank  im- 
provement private  capital  was  invested  and  many 
roads  were  surrendered  to  corporations  that  did 
the  improving  and  got  their  returns  from  the 
travel,  the  mileage  being  charged  and  collected 
at  toll-gates  located  at  intervals  along  the  way. 
This  private  ownership  of  roads  continued  much 
more  extensively  after  improvement  by  gravel 
set  in.  In  time,  however,  the  tide  of  sentiment 
turned  once  more  to  free  roads  maintained  at 
public  expense,  and  in  1889  a  law  was  passed 
providing  that  the  toll  roads  of  any  township 
could  be  purchased  upon  a  vote  of  a  majority  of 


- 1 





^^^^^H^7  " 

mf0a    ^^^ 



^^^^^^^E^'<- ' 










^iwP^PI^^^—^"'         ^"""^ 

The  Ox-team  was  a  primitive  but  sure  way  of 
transportation  in  the  pioneer  days. 

the  citizens  in  the  township.  A  petition  of  fifty 
freeholders  to  the  county  commissioners  could 
bring  the  question  to  vote,  and  if  it  carried  and 
the  purchase  was  made  county  bonds  were  to  be 
issued  and  a  special  tax  levied  in  the  township. 
Since  then  the  roads  have  been  bought  up  until 
very  few  remain.  Indeed,  as  far  back  as  1899 
(the  last  available  statistics  on  this  point)  there 
remained  but  141  miles  of  toll  roads,  this  total 
existing  in  seven  southern  counties.  There  were 
at  that  time  11,027  miles  of  free  gravel  road. 

The  statistics  for  1911  (Fourteenth  Biennial 
Report,  Department  of  Statistics)  show  that  the 
total  mileage  of  free  gravel  roads  was  25,289.76 
in  addition  to  37,235  miles  not  graveled.  The 
total  expenses  for  gravel  road  repairs,  exclusive 
of  bridges,  that  year  was  $1,555,300.57,  and 
for  bridges  $1,269,644.21.  Other  costs,  such 
as     "viewing,"    surveying,     etc.,     amounted     to 



$21,114.04,  making  a  grand  total  of  $2,846,058.82 
that  Indiana  spent  in  one  year  on  her  free  gravel 
roads,  exclusive  of  the  road  work  exacted  from 
the  rural  citizens  for  the  upkeep  of  the  37,235 
miles  of  "unimproved"  or  common  dirt  roads. 
The  gravel  road  bonds  that  were  outstanding 
amounted  in  all  to  $23,441,332.37. 

An  inquiry  as  to  the  distribution  of  this  im- 
provement reveals  that  the  expenditures  ran  all 
the  way  from  $15  in  Floyd  county  to  $91,406.72 
in  Marion,  and  the  mileage  all  the  way  from  one 
mile  in  Steuben  to  1,000  in  Parke.  The  counties 
that  had  progressed  farthest  in  the  good-roads 
movement,  as  measured  by  the  improved  mileage 
at  that  date,  were  Parke,  1,000;  Wayne,  913.75; 
Clinton,  790;  Putnam,  741.50;  Madison,  732.48; 
Wells,  700;  Hamilton,  650;  Boone,  626;  Grant, 
623 ;  Randolph,  600 ;  Henry,  525 ;  Jackson, 
551.25;  Tipton,  550.  All  other  counties  have 
a  mileage  under  500. 

It  is  worthy  of  note  that  there  is  a  lack  of 
correspondence  between  the  road  expenditures 
in  the  various  counties  and  their  mileage.  For 
example,  Parke  with  its  1,000  miles,  expended 
for  repairs  in  1911  $23,125.06,  and  Wayne's 
913.75  miles  cost  $8,866.55.  On  the  other  hand, 
Marion  spent  $91,406.72  on  383.02  miles,  besides 
$112,257.83  for  bridges,  and  Vanderburg  put 
$30,150.64  on  130  miles.  Many  similar  discrep- 
ancies are  revealed  by  the  tables  and  the  deduc- 
tion is  twofold.  The  cost  of  road  building  varies 
in  the  various  counties  owing  to  the  presence  or 
absence  of  road  material ;  also  efficiency  and  hon- 
esty in  the  expenditure  of  road  funds  varies  with 
various  county  authorities,  which  proposition 
may  be  pretty  well  established  by  an  analysis  of 
the  tell-tale  statistics. 

It  is  undoubtedly  true  that  one  great  detriment 
to  general  and  uniform  road  improvement  is  the 
lack  of  State  supervision,  and  at  the  present 
writing  there  is  a  movement  afoot  looking  to  leg- 
islation that  shall  establish  such  supervision. 

State  Geologist  Blatchley's  report  for  1905 
is  devoted  almost  entirely  to  road-making  and 
the  distribution  of  road  materials.  In  it  may  be 
found  much  valuable  information  on  this  subject. 

It  may  be  added  that  interest  is  now  turning 
to  the  comparatively  recent  proposition  of  con- 
crete roads,  which  are  being  tried  in  some  lo- 

Expansion   of   the    Railroad    System. — In    a 

previous  chapter  we  have  dealt  with  the  begin- 
nings of  the  railroad  era  and  the  conspicuous 
impetus  this  new  system  gave  to  the  State's  de- 
velopment during  the  fifties.  As  to  that  begin- 
ning we  need  only  say  here  that  its  phenomenal 
activity  was  but  a  promise  of  the  tremendous  i 
growth  to  follow.  By  1860  there  were  2,126 
miles  of  track  laid  in  the  State.  The  mileage  by 
1870  was  3,177;  by  1880,  4,963;  by  1890,  7,431; 
by  1897,  8,606  (Bureau  of  Statistics  report  for 
1897).  This  meant  not  only  the  main  but  all 
auxihary  tracks.  In  1914,  by  the  figures  of  the 
State  Board  of  Tax  Commissioners,  the  total 
tracks  laid  amounted  to  20,277.90  miles,  and  thej 
mileage  covered  by  main  tracks,  representing  the  I 
actual  distance  traversed  by  the  various  roads, 
was  7,224.50.*  This  mileage  compassed  within 
an  area  less  than  150  miles  wide  by  250  miles 
long  means  a  network  of  roads,  the  entangled 
character  of  which  can  best  be  appreciated  by 
reference  to  a  present-day  railway  map.  There 
are  only  two  counties  in  the  State,  Switzerland  j 
and  Ohio,  on  the  Ohio  river,  that  are  untouched 
by  this  great  modern  innovation.  In  the  other 
ninety  counties  there  are  few  spots  that  are 
not  within  wagon-hauling  distance  of  some  rail- 
way station,  and  the  great  majority  of  these 
counties  are  traversed  by  more  than  one  line. 
More  than  a  score  of  county  seats  and  other 
towns  may  be  called  railroad  centers,  being  the 
meeting  points  of  three  or  more  lines,  while  four- 
teen lines  radiating  like  spokes  from  Indianapolis 
make  it  the  railroad  hub  of  the  commonwealth. 
As  many  may  be  found  streaming  from  various 
directions  to  the  northwest  corner  of  the  State  to 
focus  at  Chicago,  the  great  mart  of  the  lakes,  and 
this  fairly  gridirons  the  counties  in  that  locality, 
particularly  Lake  and  Porter.  The  multiplication 
of  lines  has  been  by  far  the  greatest  throughout 
the  central  and  northern  parts  of  the  State,  and 
this  is  an  index  to  the  localities  of  greatest  devel-j 
opment  in  all  directions. 

This  alone  reveals  a  growth  of  the  transporta- 
tion system  that  far  outstrips  the  dreams  of  the 
most  sanguine  promoters  of  fifty  years  ago,  but 
what  the  map  does  not  show  is  the  tremendous 

*  The  trunk  lines,  branches  and  local  roads  as  severally  named 
for  appraisement  by  the  State  Board  of  Tax  Commissioners  num- 
ber something  like  a  hundred  and  fifty,  and  the  separate  mileage 
runs  from  .30  of  a  mile  for  the  "Central  Railroad  Company," 
of  Indianapolis,  to  391.20  miles  for  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis 
&  Louisville  Railway  Co.  This  road,  which  traverses  the  length 
of  the  State,  has  also  two  or  three  collateral  branches.  ] 



advancement  in  eqxiipnient  as  well  as  in  increased 
mileage.      The   changes    in    roadbeds,    rails    and 

I -oiling  stock  are  a  vast  factor  in  the  results  ef- 
'ected  by  the  railroads.  Where  a  locomotive  of 
he  fifties  hauled  perhaps  fifty  tons  over  a  frail 
•ail  of  strap  iron,  one  of  to-day  will  pull  more 
i.han  a  thousand  tons,  exclusive  of  the  weight  of 
the  cars,  over  a  ponderous  T  rail  laid  on  an  im- 
proved  roadbed,  and  mcreased  speed  and  greater 
frequency  in  running  are  part  of  the  story  when 

reached  the  vast  sum  of  $208,941,570 — certainly 
a  very  respectable  contribution  to  the  taxables  of 
the  State.  As  an  industrial  factor  they  have  been 
of  no  less  importance.  With  the  innovation  of 
the  locomotive  an  adverse  argument  raised  was 
that  the  handling  of  traffic  on  a  large  scale  with 
a  minimum  of  manual  labor  would  throw  out  of 
employment  a  great  many  men  who  teamed  for  a 
living,  and  thus  ruin  an  industry.  It  did  not 
take  long  to  demonstrate  that  the  immense  stim- 

Washington  Street,  Indianapolis,  1902,  looking  east  from  the  corner  of  Illinois  Street.     It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  no  automobiles  are  seen  upon  the  street  at  that  date. 

we  consider  the  shifting  to  and  fro  of  the  State's 
traffic.  So  rapid  are  the  improvements  in  this 
respect  that  the  descriptions  of  a  few  years  ago 
are  now  obsolete. 

Railroad  Valuation. — As  a  factor  in  the 
wealth  of  the  State  the  railroads  have  figured 
immensely  since  their  introduction.  The  story 
of  the  increase  in  this  respect  is,  of  course,  the 
story  of  railway  development,  and  we  need  only 
note  the  present  status.  The  property  of  the 
various  roads,  including  tracks,  rolling  stock  and 
improvements  on  rights  of  way,  as  valued  by  the 
State   Board   of   Tax   Cominissioners    for    1914, 

ulus  to  traffic  created  a  labor-employing  industry 
beside  which  the  old  teaming  industry  was  triv- 
ial. As  against  the  comparatively  small  class  of 
wagoners,  office  employes,  trainmen,  yard  men, 
station  agents,  railroad  laborers,  shop  men  and 
others  came  newly  into  existence  as  so  many 
distinct  classes  of  wage-earners,  and  these  work- 
men have  increased  steadily  in  numbers  as  the 
roads  increased  until  to-day  there  is  an  army  of 
70,000  in  Indiana  alone  with  a  total  monthly 
payroll  running  into  the  millions.* 

*  Report    Public    Service    Commission,    1914.      In    the   tables   of 
this  report  34  "operating  roads"  are  listed. 





Rapid  Development  of  the  Interurban. — 
The  great  and  growing  rival  of  the  steam  rail- 
road is  the  electrical  railway  which  has  had  a 
dcvelojjment  in  Indiana  second  to  that  in  no  other 
State.  If  the  growth  of  the  former  has  been 
phenomenal  that  of  the  latter  has  been  amazing, 
and  electricity  as  well  as  steam  has  inaugurated 
its  own  era  of  change  and  progress.  As  a  sys- 
tem of  transportation  it  is,  virtually,  coeval  with 
the  century,  as  the  first  interurban  line  entered 
Indianapolis  in  1900.  That  city  now  has  fourteen 
lines,  radiating  to  all  points  of  the  compass,  and 
is  said  to  be  the  greatest  interurban  center  in  the 
world.  y\t  that  center  one  may  take  a  car  any 
hour  in  the  day  that  will  take  him  directly  to,  or 
reach  by  connection  almost  any  part  of  the  State. 
Without  change  of  cars  he  may  go  as  far  in  the 
four  cardinal  directions  as  Dayton,  South  Bend, 
Terre  Haute  or  Louisville.  The  total  interurban 
mileage  in  operation  April  30,  1914,  was  2,168.43 
(Report  of  Public  Service  Commission)  ;  and 
the  total  assessed  valuation  amounted  to  $27,- 
173,747.  More  than  9,000  persons  are  employed 
in  the  system  and  the  aggregate  salaries  and 
wages  of  the  employes  for  a  year  are  about  five 
and  a  half  millions  of  dollars. 

The  following  figures  furnished  by  Mr.  Joseph 
A.  McGowan,  of  the  T.  H.,  I.  &  E.  Traction 
Company,  give  some  idea  of  the  growth  of  traffic 
during  the  first  fourteen  years  of  interurban  ac- 
tivity :  In  1900  the  passengers  to  and  from  In- 
dianapolis amounted  to  378,000,  and  by  1903  the 
travel  had  increased  to  2,348,000  for  the  year. 
Other  figures  were:  3,275,000  for  1904;  4,000,- 
000  for  1905 ;  4,500,000  for  1906,  and  about  5,- 
000,000  for  1907.  In  1913  there  were  6,640,433, 
or  a  daily  average  of  18,192.  The  average  daily 
number  of  cars  that  arrived  and  dejjarted  in  1914 
was  676,  and  for  the  accommodation  of  this  huge 
and  growing  traffic  a  "terminal"  union  station, 
the  first  (jf  its  kind  in  the  country,  was  built  at 
a  cost  of  a  million  and  a  half  of  dollars. 

The  peculiar  advantag'es  of  the  electrical  sys- 
tnn  (jf  tr.insportation  are  derived  from  the  abil- 
ity to  transmit  power  over  long  distances  from 
a  pl;uit.  This  means  a  greater  economy 
in  a  system  of  train  service,  and  thus  we  find 
that  the  cost  of  traveling  has  been  reduced  at 
least    a    cent    per    mile    as    comi)ared    with    that 

which  formerly  prevailed  on  steam  railroads. 
Another  important  feature  is  the  frequency  of 
train  service,  the  schedule  being  hourly  instead 
of  hi-  or  tri-daily,  and  still  another,  the  greater 
accommodation  afforded  the  traveler,  the  electric 
car  making  stops  with  a  frequency  that  would 
be  altogether  impracticable  in  steam  train  service. 

Social  Effects  of  the  Interurban. — The  gen- 
eral result  of  these  conveniences  has  been  a  no- 
table social  modification  in  various  ways.  The 
wonderful  changes  wrought  by  the  locomotive 
have  been  carried  further  and  multiplied  with 
unparalleled  swiftness  and  impetus  by  the  trolley 
car.  In  the  first  place  the  vast  increase  of  travel 
among  people  who  formerly  traveled  little,  means 
a  more  mobile  population,  educated  as  the  gen- 
eration before  was  not  to  cosmopolitan  ideas. 
This  means  an  increase  of  enlightenment,  and 
enlightenment  is  a  stimulus  to  progress.  The 
rural  population  is  brought  nearer  to  the  city 
and  is  the  gainer  thereby.  It  has  also  brought 
the  urban,  population  nearer  to  the  country, 
within  limits,  by  opening  the  way  to  country  resi- 
dence, and  the  larger  element,  perhaps,  in  the 
"back-to-the-land"  movement  consists  of  those 
who  never  would  have  moved  beyond  city  limits 
but  for  cheap  and  convenient  transportation  to 
and  fro.  As  a  consequence  of  this  land  along 
the  interurban  lines  is  being  divided  into  small 
holdings  at  greatly  enhanced  prices.  Both  the 
steam  and  the  electric  railroads  have  added 
greatly  to  the  revenues  of  the  State  by  the  en- 
hancement of  property  values,  and  it  has  been 
affirmed  that  between  1900  and  1909  there  was 
an  increase  of  more  than  a  million  dollars  in  the 
valuation  of  farm  property,  due  to  the  develop- 
ment of  the  interurban. 

The  commercial  effects  of  the  new  transporta- 
tion system  are  also  notable.  Small  local  ship- 
ments can  be  sent  and  received  with  much 
greater  facility  where  there  are  points  of  deliv- 
ery and  acceptance  all  along  the  nearest  line.  A 
farmer  can,  with  ease,  ship  direct  to  a  customer 
in  the  city,  and  merchants  can  receive  directly 
and  with  dispatch  commodities  from  distant 
points.  As  an  illustration  of  the  convenience  and 
commercial  value  of  this:  New  Castle,  in  the 
eastern  part  of  the  State,  is  in  the  market  for 
roses  of  stiperior  quality,  but  the  fact  that  roses 
are  fragile  and  perishable  adds  to  the  risk  of 
1  production  in  proportion,  as  the  market  is  dif¥i- 



|:ult  of  access.  By  virtue  of  the  interurban  a 
lorist  in  Indianapolis  on  receiving  an  order  for 
loses  can  telephone  to  New  Castle,  have  them 
limt  on  a  certain  car,  meet  the  car  on  its  arrival 
ind  thus  within  two  or  three  hours  receive  his 
lowers  fresh  from  the  soil  where  they  grew. 
That  this  must  be  a  great  aid  to  the  flower  in- 
llustry  is  obvious,  and  other  industries  are  sim- 
ilarly stimulated. 
I  Urban  Effects  of  Electric  Transportation. — 

moved  outward,  old  residence  sections  have 
changed  in  character,  and  in  the  readjustment 
real  estate  values  have  fluctuated  in  a  way  that 
the  shrewdest  speculator  could  not  have  foreseen 
twenty-five  or  thirty  years  ago,  while  as  a  social 
factor  it  has  relieved  vastly  the  old-time  enforced 
congestion  of  large  centers.  In  brief,  nowhere 
has  the  new  departure  in  transportation  worked 
out  a  greater  revolution  than  in  city  life  and  city 


Indianapolis  Traction  and  Terminal  Station.  The  first  and  largest  union  terminal  station  in  the  country. 
Opened  to  the  public  State  Fair  week,  September,  1904.  Building  was  planned  by  and  built  under  the  di- 
rection of  Hugh  J.  McGowan. 

iThe  interurban  electric  system  dates  from  the 
[discovery  or  development  of  what  is  called  the 
'alternating  current,"  whereby  the  electrical 
force  could  be  transmitted  over  long  distances. 
[For  ten  years  or  more  prior  to  that  this  motive 
power  was  employed  in  urban  transportation, 
jand  the  changes  wrought  since  its  introduction 
are  quite  an  important  part  of  the  history  of 
icities.  In  the  first  instance  it  has  made  easily 
laccessible  the  outlying  contiguous  territory ;  this 
has  made  practicable  suburban  living,  and  the 
result  has  been  unprecedented  shif tings  of  urban 
population.     A    large    class    of    residents    have 

One  more  effect  should  be  noted,  and  that  is 
the  shifting  of  trade  as  a  result  of  interurban 
conveniences,  and  to  the  advantage  of  the  larger 
centers.  People  from  the  country  and  the 
smaller  towns  now  go  to  the  cities  for  their  shop- 
ping in  large  numbers,  and  it  is  said  that  the 
"trading  population"  of  Indianapolis  is  about 
twice  that  of  its  actual  residents.  On  the  other 
hand,  this  is  having  a  retroactive  eft'ect.  for  the 
country  tradesman,  under  the  spur  of  necessity 
and  in  order  to  exist,  has  adopted  new  methods 
and  put  new  energy  into  his  business.  In  nu- 
merous cases  the  countrv  store  has  vastly   im- 



proved ;  their  trade  is  not  only  coming  back  to 
them  but  increasing,  and  many  who  once  thought 
the  interurban  spelled  ruin  for  them  are  finding 
instead  that  it  means  prosperity. 

First  Electric  Lines  in  Indiana.* — The  first 
successful  operation  of  an  electric  railway  in  this 
country  was  in  the  city  of  Richmond,  Virginia, 
in  January  of  the  year  1889.  Not  long  after  this 
the  railway  in  the  city  of  Lafayette,  Indiana,  the 
first  in  the  State,  was  equipped  electrically.  Soon 
afterward  the  Fairview  Park  line  in  Indianapolis 
was  operated  with  electric  cars,  and  other  elec- 
tric raihvay  plants  followed  in  quick  succession. 

The  first  person  to  take  up  the  building  of  in- 
terurban electric  lines  in  Indiana  was  the  Hon. 
Charles  L.  Henry,  former  member  of  Congress. 
He  first  became  interested  in  electric  railways  in 
the  fall  of  1891,  in  the  city  of  Anderson,  and  soon 
thereafter  began  to  contemplate  the  possibilities 
of  interurban  electric  railways.  In  1893,  he  con- 
ceived the  idea  of  building  an  interurban  serv- 
ice between  what  w^as  then  known  as  the  "Gas 
Belt"  cities.  However,  the  panic  of  1893  brought 
everything  to  a  standstill,  and  for  many  months 
nothing  was  done.  In  the  winter  of  1893-94,  he 
made  the  first  estimates  of  cost  and  prospective 
earnings,  together  with  a  blue-print  map  covering 
the  lines  from  Anderson  to  Marion,  Anderson 
to  Elwood,  and  Muncie  via  Anderson  to  Indian- 
apolis, exactly  as  they  were  afterward  built,  ex- 
cept that  the  line  to  Elwood  was  first  planned  to 
run  through  Frankton  instead  of  west  from 
Alexandria,  as  it  was  finally  built.  Soon  after, 
he  commenced  securing  options  on  land  for  a 
private  right  of  way  for  a  line  from  Anderson 
to  Alexandria,  and  from  Anderson  to  Elwood. 
The  possibilities  of  the  enterprise  constantly  grew 
on  him,  but  he  could  not  convince  any  one  able 
to  furnish  the  necessary  capital  that  it  would  be 
a  profitable  venture,  so  that  no  substantial  prog- 
ress had  been  made  when  the  financial  depres- 
sion, incident  to  the  great  political  campaign  of 
1896,  spread  over  the  country,  paralyzing  all 
business  enterprises. 

In  the  meantime  the  desirability  of  interurban 
electric  railway  service  had  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  many  other  people.  Among  these  was 
Noah  J.  Clodfelter,  who  took  up  the  project  of 

*  Mr.  Henry  invented  the  word  "interurban"  for  this  class  of 
railroads.  Edited  by  M.  R.  Hyman  from  information  supplied 
by  Hon.   Charles  L.   Henry. 

building  a  line  from  Indianapolis,  via  Anderson, 
to  Marion,  and  was  much  heard  of  in  the  pub- 
lic prints  during  the  next  few  years,  and  finally, 
in  the  year  1898,  he  did  some  work  toward  build-  ■ 
ing  a  line  from  Marion  south  to  Fairmount.  He 
laid  rail  in  the  city  of  Fairmount,  which  after- 
ward passed,  by  receiver's  sale,  to  the  Marion  ' 
Street  Railway  Company,  and  was  used  as  a  part 
of  the  line  built  by  that  company  from  Marion, 
via  Fairmount,  to  Summitville. 

In  September,  1897,  Mr.  Henry  organized  the 
original  "Union  Traction  Company"  and  com- 
menced the  construction  of  an  interurban  line 
from  Anderson  to  Alexandria,  and  on  January  1, 
1898,  the  first  interurban  car  in  Indiana  ran 
from  Anderson  to  Alexandria,  a  distance  of 
eleven  miles.  Early  the  next  year  this  road  was 
extended  to  Summitville,  making  a  total  distance 
of  seventeen  miles,  at  which  point  connection 
was  afterward  made  by  the  line  built  from  Cla- 
rion, south  by  the  Marion  Street  Railway  Com- 
pany, a  like  distance  of  seventeen  miles,  giving 
a  continuous  line  of  thirty-four  miles  from  An- 
derson to  Marion,  but  owned  by  two  different 

The  successful  operation  of  the  cars  on  this 
first  section  of  the  interurban  system  induced 
him  to  take  up  with  George  F.  McCullough,  of 
Muncie,  who  then  owned  the  electric  railway  in 
that  city,  the  proposition  of  joining  their  interests 
and  building  a  line  from  Muncie,  via  Anderson, 
to  Indianapolis. 

Fortunate,  indeed,  for  the  future  of  electric 
railways  in  Indiana,  there  came  to  Indiana  on 
New  Year's  Day,  1899,  Mr.  Hugh  J.  McGowan. 
Coming  as  the  representative  of  the  Dolan-Mor- 
gan  Syndicate,  which  had  recently  purchased  the 
Indianapolis  street  railways,  he  at  once  com- 
menced the  development  of  that  system,  and 
soon  made  it  the  best  city  railway  system  in  the 
country.  To  Mr.  McGowan,  Mr.  Henry  presented 
the  interurban  project  then  under  consideration, 
and  later,  through  his  introduction,  Messrs. 
Henry  and  McCullough  took  up  the  matter  with 
Mr.  Randal  Morgan  of  Philadelphia,  who  agreed 
to  join  with  them  in  the  organization  of  the 
"Union  Traction  Company  of  Indiana,"  a  con- 
solidated company,  which  would  embrace  the 
electric  lines  in  the  cities  of  Muncie,  Marion, 
Anderson  and  Elwood,  and  interurban  lines  con- 
necting,  and   including  the   proposed   line   from 


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of  the  Interurban  Electric  Lines  in  Operation  in  Indiana  in 




Muncie,  via  Anderson,  to  Indianapolis.  The  final 
organization  of  this  consohdated  company  was 
completed  in  June,  1899,  and  work  was  at  once 
commenced  on  the  construction  of  the  Muncie- 
Indianapolis  line.  On  January  4,  1901,  the  line 
was  completed  and  its  first  car  ran  into  the  city 
of  Indianapolis. 

In  the  meantime  the  line  from  Alexandria  to 
Elwood  had  been  completed  and  the  system  as 
planned  in  1893,  was  at  last  a  reality,  just  three 
years  and  three  days  from  the  time  the  first  car 
ran  from  Anderson  to  Alexandria. 

Looking  forward  to  the  completion  of  the  line 
into  Indianapolis,  as  early  as  1894,  Mr.  Henry 
took  up  the  subject  of  a  contract  with  the  local 
company  for  running  cars  into  this  city,  and  in 
February,  1895,  secured  a  contract  with  the  Citi- 
zens' Street  Railway  Company,  then  controlled 
by  what  was  known  as  the  McKee  &  V6rner 
Syndicate  of  Pittsburg. 

The  first  corporation  formed  for  the  building 
of  an  interurban  electric  railway  was  the  "In- 
dianapolis, Greenwood  &  Franklin  Railroad 
Company,"  organized  November  9,  1894,  under 
the  steam  railroad  law,  and  being  promoted  by 
Henry  L.  Smith  of  Indianapolis.  The  road  from 
Indianapolis  to  Greenwood  was  afterward  built 
by  this  same  organization  under  the  ownership 
of  Joseph  I.  and  Wm.  G.  Irwin,  of  Columbus, 
Indiana,  who  took  charge  of  the  company  in 
June,  1899,  and  it  was  this  road  that  ran  the  first 
interurban  car  into  Indianapolis  on  the  first  day 
of  January,  1900.  This  company  was  succeeded 
by  the  "Indianapolis,  Columbus  &  Southern 
Traction  Company,"  owned  and  controlled  by 
the  Messrs.  Irwin. 

The  Automobile  Era. — Any  account  of  mod- 
ern economic  development  would  be  incomplete 
without  a  consideration  of  the  automobile  and 
the  part  it  is  coming  to  play  as  a  method  of 
transportation  that  for  convenience  and  as  an 
agent  of  mobility  is  as  far  ahead  of  the  trolley 
car  as  the  latter  is  ahead  of  the  steam  cars. 
Mother  Shipton's  famous  prophecy  that  car- 
riages would  go  without  horses  has,  like  some 
other  predictions,  been  fulfilled  far  beyond  the 
most  extravagant  dream  of  the  prophet. 

Twenty-five  years  ago  the  fact  of  a  "horseless 
carriage"  had,  indeed,  been  realized,  but  it  was 
little  other  than  a  freakish  curiosity,  of  no  prac- 
tical interest  to  the  mass  of  people.     As  late  as 

1899  it   was  negligible  to  the  statisticians.     At 
that  time  only  3,897  automobiles  were  reported 
in  the  United  States,  and  their  manufacture  was 
not  included  as  a  separate  industry  in  the  census 
of  1900.     By  1909  the  number  had  increased  to 
127,287,  with  a  total  value  of  $249,202,075,  and 
the  increase  since  that  date  has  been  advancing 
by  leaps  and  bounds.     A  very  large  percentage 
of  these  vehicles  are  private  family  conveyances, 
which  means  that  they  are,  in  perhaps  a  majority 
of  cases,  merely  an  added  pleasure  or  luxury,  , 
but    economic    effects   are   various.      The   inter- 
communication between  all  parts  of  the  country 
is  vastly  facilitated,  and  while  this  is  an  advan- 
tage to  business  generally,  it  is  especially  bene- 
ficial to  the  rural  population,  which  is  equipping  '. 
itself  more  and  more  with  motor  cars.     As  an 
illustration  of  the  gain  to  agriculture  we  may  cite  j 
the  growing  custom  of  county  tours  under  the  ' 
leadership  of  "county  agents"  in  which  numbers  ; 
of  farmers  visit  the  best  farms  in  the  county  for  j 
the  purpose  of  practically  studying  crops,  under  j 
the   guidance   of   a   scientific   specialist.     As  an  I 
educative   scheme  this  promises  to   be  of  great 
benefit  to  the  business  of   farming. 

One  of  the  important  results  to  be  looked  for 
from  the  general  use  of  automobiles  is  that  of 
road    improvement.      Indiana    now    has    a    law  j 
whereby    from  two  to   twenty   dollars   must  be 
paid  as  a  State  license  for  every  motor  vehicle,  | 
and   this   money,    less   the   cost   of    registration,  I 
numbering  plates,  etc.,  is  to  be  distributed  as  a  , 
road  fund  among  the  counties.     Under  the  first  i 
year  of  this  law  the  rather  handsome  sum  of 
$462,609.28  was  apportioned  out  among  the  coun- 
ties.    It  is  safe  to  say  that  this  income  will  an- 
nually increase  and  when  added  to  the  road  fund 
from  other  sources  it  gives  promise  of  a  material 
advance  in  road  improvement. 


Express    and    Transportation    Companies. — 

Logically  connected  with  transportation  facilities 
are  the  public  utilities  that  come  under  the  head- 
ing of  express  and  transportation  companies. 
The  former  as  public  carriers  of  all  kinds  of 
smaller  commodities  have  been  of  incalculable 
service  in  promoting  business  by  facilitating  in- 
teixhange.  The  first  of  these  companies  in  Indi- 
ana of   which  we   find   record   was   the  Adams 



Express,  which  opened  in  IndianapoHs  in  1847, 
ikvith  M.  M.  Landis  as  the  first  agent  (Hollo- 
l^ay's  "Indianapolis").* 

\  In  other  words,  their  origin  was,  virtually, 
Contemporary  with  that  of  the  railroad,  and  their 
jdevelopment,  in  extension  of  service,  has  kept 
oace  with  the  latter.  There  are  to-day  six  ex- 
Dress  companies  operating  in  Indiana.  These  in 
|the  order  of  their  importance,  as  measured  by 
'Iheir  assessed  valuation,  are  the  Adams  Express 
Company,  the  American  Express  Company,  the 
United  States  Express  Company,  the  Wells 
Fargo  Express  Company,  the  National  Express 
Company  and  the  Southern  Express  Company. 
These,  altogether,  operate  over  8,510.80  miles  of 
railway  within  this  State,  and  their  assessment 
on  this  mileage  (not  inckiding  real  estate,  office 
furniture,  etc.)  amounts  to  $824,044  (Tax  Com. 

I  Of  "transportation  companies,"  or  carriers  of 
(special  lines  of  merchandise,  there  are  no  less 
•than  one  hundred  and  twenty-one  listed  in  the 
tax  commissioner's  report  for  1914,  and  they  are 
assessed,  collectively,  at  $1,618,075. 


'  The  Telegraph. — Another  important  commer- 
cial factor  that  was  coeval  with  the  railroad,  and 
a  wonder  that  was  unique  until  the  advent  of  the 
telephone,  was  the  magnetic  telegraph.  The 
Legislature  first  authorized  the  incorporation  of 
telegraph  companies  on  February  14,  1848;  a 
line  was  soon  after  established  between  Indian- 
apolis and  Dayton,  Ohio,  and  on  May  12  of  that 
year  the  first  message  was  transmitted.  In  June 
a  merchants'  exchange  was  formed  for  the  trans- 
action of  telegraph  business,  but  there  was 
not  enough  to  justify  the  enterprise  (Dunn's 
"Indianapolis").  For  several  years  telegraphy 
seems  to  have  cut  very  little  figure  in  the  business 
of  the  State,  but  other  attempts  were  made  to 
introduce  the  service,  and  by  1856  several  lines 
were  in  existence,  among  them  the  since  familiar 
Western  Union,  which  in  that  year  made  an  ar- 
rangement with  the  Associated  Press- oi  Indian- 
apolis whereby  the  papers  were  supplied  with 
telegraphic  news.    This  was  a  great  innovation, 

putting,  as  it  did,  the  reading  public  in  daily 
touch  with  the  affairs  of  the  world.  Prior  to 
that  foreign  news  was  pretty  stale  by  the  time 
it  reached  the  editorial  sanctum  of  the  west. 

Of  the  various  companies  that  sprang  up  in 
the  earlier  day  the  Western  Union  alone  re- 
mains. Its  present  competitors  are  the  Postal 
Telegraph  and  Cable  Company  and  the  Fort 
Wayne  Telegraph  Company,  the  latter  operating 
locally  over  but  forty-four  miles  of  line.  The 
total  mileage  of  telegraph  lines  within  the  State 
is  63,684.86,  and  the  assessed  valuation  amounts 
to  $3,336,178.  By  virtue  of  this  utility,  space  is 
practically  annihilated.     The  newspaper  that  is 

*  Elsewhere  Holloway  says  1851,  with  Blythe  &  Holland  as 
the  first  agents.  The  American  company,  he  further  says,  was 
established  in   18S2  and  the  United   States  in   1854. 

In  1893  Ehvood  Haynes  commenced  work  on  a  gaso- 
line motor-driven  vehicle  which  he  had  originated 
and  designed,  and  which  he  termed,  for  want  of  a 
better  name,  the  "horseless  carriage."  On  July  4, 
1894,  he  made  a  successful  trial  trip  on  the  streets 
of  Kokomo  in  this  vehicle,  running  at  a  speed  of 
seven  or  eight  miles  per  hour. 

brought  to  our  door  before  breakfast  gives  us 
the  important  happenings  of  the  day  before,  or, 
indeed,  of  a  few  hours  before,  from  the  four 
quarters  of  the  globe,  and  business,  particularly 
of  a  large  character,  is  vastly  facilitated  by  quick- 
communication  regardless  of  distance,  to  say 
nothing  of  the  countless  instances  of  conve- 
nience, public  and  private. 

The  Telephone. — But  the  telegraph  as  an  in- 
strument of  intercommunication  sinks  into  a 
quite  secondary  place  as  compared  with  the  tele- 
phone. Like  the  automobile  in  transportation, 
only  to  a  far  greater  degree,  it  has  become  a 
popular  luxury  and  convenience  as  well  as  a 
business  necessity,  and  by  reason  of  its  intimate 



and  universal  uses  it  has  become  a  great  factor  in 
social  (levelo|)nient.  By  its  help  the  Imsiness 
world  has  acquired  a  quicker  pace:  time  and 
couiuless  stejjs  are  saved  at  every  turn;  town 
and  country  are  alike  served  and  knit  together; 
the  transactions  of  daily  life  generally,  from  the 
private  messages  between  friend  and  friend  to 
the  busy  messages  of  the  mart  are  vastly  facili- 
tated, and  if  ihe  tele])h(>ne  were  suddenly  abol- 
ished the  world  wuuld  lind  it  difficult  to  adapt 
ilsvlf  to  former  conditions. 

The  telephone  was  introduced  into  Indianap- 
(.h>  in  1S77  when  three  business  hrms,  almost 
simultanvously,  ran  wires  from  their  offices 
across  town  to  their  }ards  and  factories.  About 
a  year  later  the  "Indiana  District  Telephone 
C"ompany,  of  Indianapolis,"  was  organized  and 
the  council  solicited  for  permission  to  erect  wires 
and  poles  on  the  streets.  This  was  at  first  re- 
fused, but  in  February  of  1879  the  right  was 
given  to  hang  wires  on  the  fire  alarm  telegraph 
poles  if  the  company  would  keep  them  in  repair 
and  furnish  the  city  with  twenty-two  telephones 
ior  the  fire  houses,  free  of  charge,  with  addi- 
tional ones  if  other  houses  were  put  in  the  serv- 
ice. The  conditions  were  accepted  and  the  new 
company  started  with  something  less  than  a  hun- 
dred patrons.  It  was  succeeded  in  1880  by  the 
Telephone    Exchange    Company,    and    this,    in 

turn,  was  supplanted  by  the  Central  Union  Tele- 
phone Company.  In  those  days  "the  service  was 
poor ;  the  patronage  not  large ;  the  charges  high." 
When  the  Legislature  of  1885  set  the  maximum 
charge  for  telephone  service  at  $3  per  month 
the  company  contested  the  law  in  court,  and  on 
losing  its  case  announced  its  determination  to 
quit.  After  four  years  of  complications  the  re- 
strictive law  was  repealed  and  the  Central  Union 
has  remained  in  operation  to  the  present  day, 
being  by  far  the  most  valuable  telephone  prop-  ' 
erty  in  the  State.* 

The  telephone  service  has  expanded  until  In- 
diana is  to-day  fairly  netted  with  wires.     In  the 
tax   commissioner's    latest    report    (1914)    there 
are  listed  429  telephone  companies,  mostly  inde-  ■ 
pendent  of  each  other,  but  co-operative  so  that  I 
long-distance  service  can  be  had  from  any  point 
in  the  State  to  any  other  point.     The  distances  j 
covered  by  these  separate  lines  range  all  the  way  • 
from  two  miles  for  the  Fanners'  Mutual  Tele- 
phone Company,  of  Vevay,  to  152,296  miles  for  j 
the  Central  Union,  of  Indianapolis,  and  the  as- 
sessed values  of  the  properties  vary  accordingly.  | 
The   Central   Union,  which  runs  highest,  being  j 
$5,482,656.    The  total  mileage  is  375,471.28,  and 
the  total  value  $15,840,115. 

*  For    fuller    sketch    of    telephone    beginnings    in    Indianapolis, 
see   Dunn's   History  of   Indianapolis. 




Early  Forests. — The  forests  of  the  State 
'must  be  considered  as  a  passing  resource,  as  the 
Inative  woods  used  in  the  manufactures  are  grow- 
ijng  more  and  more  scarce.  Originally  no  region 
jin  the  world,  perhaps,  surpassed  ours  for  the 
jvariety  of  woods  that  are  valuable  in  the  manu- 
ifactures.  The  State  was  virtually  covered  by 
lone  vast  forest.  The  late  John  P.  Brown,  of 
jConnersville,  a  student  of  this  subject,  estimated 
that  out  of  the  35,910  square  miles  comprising 
the  total  area  of  the  State,  28,000  square  miles 
were  forested, f  and  Professor  Stanley  Coulter, 
of  Purdue  University,  says  that  "many  of  the 
most  valuable  hardwood  timbers  reached  their 
maximum  development,  both  as  to  size  and  num- 
bers, within  the  limits  of  the  State."  In  1836 
[Calvin  Fletcher,  Jr.,  of  Indianapolis,  traveled 
northward  over  the  Michigan  road,  then  newly 
cut  out,  and  he  speaks  of  the  "enormous  con- 
jtinuous  log  heap  of  white  oak"  that  had  been 
'cleared  ofT  the  right  of  way  and  piled  along  the 
,sides  of  the  road. 

j     Variety  and  Sizes  of  Trees. — Our  trees  rep- 
resented   a    wide    botanical    range.     Charles    C. 
Dean,   former  secretary  of  the   State  Board  of 
I  Forestry,  in  an  article  descriptive  of  the  "Trees 
of  Indiana"    (official  report   for   1911)    includes 
139  species  that  have  been  reported  as  native  to 
the  State.;};     These  are  classified  in  thirty-seven 
families  and  range  from  the  white  pine  of  the 
north  to  the  pecan  of  the  south.     Most  of  these 
have  some  and  many  of  them  a  great  economic 
'Value,    the    oaks,    hickories,    ashes,    tulip-poplar 
and  black  walnut  being  conspicuous  among  the 
more  valuable.     Many  of  these,  also,  before  the 
imonarchs   of   the    forest    fell   victim  to   the   ax, 
were  of  colossal   size,   if  tradition   is  to  be  ac- 

*  The  most  important  and  most  permanent  natural  resource 
,  is  the  soil,  but  as  consideration  of  the  soil  becomes  primarily  a 
study  of  the  products  of  the  soil  this  will  come  under  the  head 
of  "Agriculture." 

t  Address  before  the   State   Board   of  Commerce,   Feb.    8,    1900. 
}  Mr.   Dean  surmises  that  the  primitive  forests  contained  many 
,  species  of  trees  that  have  now  disappeared. 

cepted.  The  late  Doctor  Arnold,  author  of  a 
history  of  Rush  county,  affirmed  that  there  once 
stood  in  that  county  a  yellow  poplar  that  was 
twelve  feet  in  diameter,  a  black  walnut  that  was 
ten  feet  and  an  oak  that  was  eight.  In  the  same 
county  grew  a  mammoth  buckeye  which  tradition 
made  nine  feet  in  diameter,  but  which,  on  more 
careful  inquiry,  seems  to  have  been  about  four 
and  a  half  feet.  At  any  rate  its  bole  was  large 
enough  to  be  made  into  a  "dugout"  canoe  forty- 
five  feet  long,  which  was  mounted  on  wheels  and 
drawn  by  six  or  eight  horses  in  the  parades  of 
the  famous  campaign  of  1840,  being  filled  with 
gaily-appareled  damsels  as  an  attractive  cargo. 
Reliable  records  from  accurate  measurements 
made  in  recent  years  show  that  specimens  up  to 
twenty-two  feet  in  circumference  with  clear 
boles  running  up  to  seventy-five  feet  or  over,  and 
total  heights  exceeding  150  feet,  are  not  uncom- 
mon. A  yellow  poplar  twenty-five  feet  in  circum- 
ference and  190  feet  high  is  reported  from  the 
lower  Wabash  valley,  and  a  .sycamore  tree  in 
Daviess  county  (described  in  1880)  measured 
forty-eight  feet  in  circumference  (State  Board  of 
Forestry  Report,  1911).  One  nearly  the  same  size 
now  standing  in  Greene  county  about  a  mile  and 
a  half  southeast  of  Worthington  is  described  by 
Dr.  W.  B.  Clarke  in  the  Indianapolis  Ncivs  of 
June  28,  1915.  For  picture  of  this  tree  see 
sketch  of  Greene  county. 

Forest  Destruction. — To  the  pioneers  of  the 
State  the  forests  were  a  serious  obstacle  and  of 
value  only  as  they  contributed  material  to  the 
cabin,  the  rail  fence  and  the  fireplace.  The 
frequent  comment  on  the  wholesale  destruction 
of  valuable  timber  must  be  shorn  of  its  criticism 
when  we  remember  that  the  timber  was  not  valu- 
able then,  and  that  the  jirime  need  of  the  settlers 
was  tillable  soil.  Hence  the  era  of  the  ax  and 
the  indiscriminate  warfare  against  trees.  They 
were  "girdled"  and  killed  as  the  quickest  way  of 
getting  at  the  ground  ;  when  down  they  were  cut 
into  logs,  rolled  into  heaps  and  burned,  all  kinds 
together ;   preparations    for    such    holocausts   by 




"log  rolliiif,^"'  was  a  social  pastime,  and  "niggerin' 
off,"  or  burning  the  logs  into  chunks  more  han- 
(llcable,  was  an  art  of  the  day.  As  late  as  the 
sixties  the  finest  white  oak  trees  were  made  into 
fence  rails,  and  at  an  earlier  day  many  a  choice 
walnut  shared  the  same  fate. 

Early  Uses  of  Wood.— W  ith  the  introduction 
of  the  sawmill  and  the  substitution  of  frame 
houses  for  log  ones  timber  began  to  be  manu- 
factured into  lumber,  and  the  outj.ut  increased 
as  the  population  grew.  The  pioneer  cabinet- 
maker, too,  began  to  draw  on  the  finer  woods  for 
his  uses,  particularly  ihc  wild  cherry  and  walnut, 
and  not  a  few  modern  homes  retain  as  their 
prized  possessions  the  elegant  and  substantial 
furniture  made  by  those  early  artisans.  One  of 
the  latter,  Caleb  Scudder,  came  with  the  first 
immigrants  to  Indianapolis  and,  according  to  a 
chronicler  of  that  period,  the  very  first  sign 
painted  in  the  village  advertised  *'Kalop  Skodder, 
Kabbinet  Maker"  (Nowland's  "Prominent  Citi- 
zens"). In  the  flat-boating  days  when  large 
numbers  of  those  craft  carried  the  produce  of 
the  interior  down  the  streams,  much  lumber  went 
into  their  construction,  particularly  yellow  pop- 
lar, which  was  fashioned  into  broad  slabs  for  the 
sides  or  "gunnels."  The  incoming  of  the  rail- 
road created  a  demand  for  much  timber,  the 
early  style  of  construction  calling  for  "mudsills," 
ties  and  stringers,  and  the  plank  roads  took  heavy 
toll  of  the  finest  oak  for  their  miles  of  solid 

Manufactures  and  Forest  Resources. — With 
the  development  of  manufactures  there  came  an 
increasing  demand  for  woods  of  various  kinds 
and  for  many  purposes,  and  this  grew  until  the 
forest  j)roducts  became  an  important  element  in 
the  State's  wealth.  This  reached  its  high  tide 
about  1900.  At  that  time  J.  P.  Brown,  above 
cited,  wrote : 

"Fifty  thousand  citizens  of  Indiana  are  cm- 
])loycfl  in  wood  industries  and  each  year  receive 
$15.()CX).fX)0  in  wages,  while  a  ([uarter  of  a  million 
of  women  and  children  are  dependent  u])on  these 
employes  for  their  sui)])ort.  The  finished  prod- 
uct of  this  labor  brings  annually  $50.0CK),000  to 
Iiidiaii.i  manufacturers.  Indiana's  railway  com- 
ment is  borne  upon  30.000,000  wooden  cross- 
ties  wliich  must  be  renewed  at  the  rate  of  4.500,- 
<H)()  tics  aiinu.ill),  the  cost  of  wliich  is  fifteen  per 

cent,  of  the  entire  operative  expenses  of  the  rail- 
ways. Twelve  thousand  five  hundred  miles  of 
electric  wires  are  strung  upon  250,000  poles, 
which  require  frequent  renewals."* 

The  foregoing  was  written  in  1900.  After  that 
time  the  wood  industries  began  to  decline  and 
within  five  years  the  value  of  manufactured 
products  fell  from  $20,000,000  to  $14,500,000, 
while  Indiana  retrograded  from  the  seventh  to 
the  sixteenth  place  in  the  production  of  lumber. 
Even  at  that,  however,  wood-working  ranked 
fourth  among  the  industries  of  the  State.f 

Since  then  the  depletion  of  the  native  timber 
supply  has  been  going  on,  and  the  forests  to 
that  extent  have  ceased  to  be  one  of  our  great 
natural  resources.  The  industries  have  not  de- 
clined in  proportion,  as  the  transportation  ad- 
vantages for  products  more  than  balance  the 
disadvantages  of  importing  raw  material.  Out 
of  232  concerns  from  which  reports  were  se- 
cured by  Mr.  Breeze,  the  investigator  above 
cited,  thirty-three  used  no  lumber  at  all  from 
Indiana,  while  fifty-six  used  from  one  to  tw^enty- 
five  per  cent.  only.  All  of  them  depended  more 
or  less  upon  outside  supplies. 

It  should  be  noted  that  owing  to  the  growing 
scarcity  of  woods  many  kinds  that  were  once 
considered  as  fit  for  nothing,  except,  perhaps, 
firewood,  are  now  utilized  in  the  industries.  A 
list  of  those  used,  as  compiled  by  Mr.  Breeze,  in- 
cludes twenty- four  different  kinds,  and  among 
these  are  cottonwood,  gum,  elm,  basswood, 
beech  and  sycamore,  none  of  which  were  re- 
garded as  valuable  for  saw  logs  twenty-five  years 
ago.  Oak,  basswood,  cottonwood,  elm,  gum,  ; 
maple,  w-alnut  and  yellow  poplar  all  are  used  for 
veneers.  Indianapolis  is  one  of  the  great  veneer- 
ing centers  of  the  United  States. 

Twofold  Effect  of  Forest  Destruction. — The 
destruction  of  our  forests  have  had  this  harmful 
twofold  result : 

1.     The  continued  drain  upon  them  with  no 
attempt  to  replace  the  valuable  raw  material  they  j 
yield   has   depleted   them  as  a   natural   resource 
until  our  manufacturers  wdio  depend  upon  woods  I 
have  to  seek  their  material  elsewhere.     This  is  I 

*  "Tlic  I'orests  of  Indiana  the  Reliance  of  Her  Manufac- 
turers," l)y  J.  P.  Brown.  An  address  printed  I)y  ttie  Courier, 
C'onncrsville,   Ind. 

t  F.  J.  freeze:  A  Preliminary  Report  of  the  W'ood-Using  In- 
dustries of   Indiana.      St.   Bd.   Forestry  rept.   for   1911. 



an  economic  evil  which  the  forest  conservation- 
ists have  in  mind  in  their  propaganda  for  re- 

2.  The  removal  of  the  forests,  it  is  now  be- 
jing  discovered,  has  disturbed  the  balance  of 
nature  and  affected  the  cHmate,  the  conservation 
of  the  water  supply,  the  conservation  of  the  soil, 
jand  the  agricultural  status  as  it  depends  upon 
■  these.  Some  of  the  results  discussed  are  at  pres- 
.ent   hypothetical,    but    the    detrimental    changes. 

C.  Gobel  illustrates  the  first  surface  effect  by  the 
simple  idea  of  an  inclined  plane  covered  with 
loose  soil.  When  well  sprinkled  with  water  the 
downward  wash  of  this  soil  by  the  force  of  the 
descending  water  follows  as  a  matter  of  course ; 
but  if  it  is  covered  with  a  layer  of  cotton  batting 
and  the  batting  is  sprinkled  the  force  of  the  fall- 
ing water  is  taken  up  by  this  covering  and  the 
moisture  gently  permeates  the  earth.  If  in  addi- 
tion to  this  we  think  of  the  soil  as  reinforced  bv 

Forestr)'  Building,  State  Fair  Grounds,  Indianapolis.  This  building  was  erected  in  tlie  summer  of  1915  for  the 
purpose  of  maintaining  a  permanent  exhibit  of  everything  pertaining  to  forestry  and  forest  products  of 
Indiana.  The  building  was  dedicated  September  7,  1915,  Ex-Vice-President  Charles  W.  Fairbanks  and 
Governor  Ralston  participating.  The  names  of  persons  seated  reading  from  left  to  right  are  E.  A.  Glad- 
den, State  Forester;  Warren  T.  McCrea,  President  Indiana  State  Board  of  Agriculture;  Prof.  W.  C.  Gobel, 
Nashville;  Charles  W.  Fairbanks:  Curtis  D.  Meeker,  Monticello ;  W.  A.  Guthrie,  President  Board  of  For- 
estry.    Standing  is  Governor  Ralston. 

whatever  their  exact  relations,  are  sufficiently 
pronounced  to  have  brought  about  the  conserva- 
tion movement,  which  is  nation-wide. 

Physical  Effects  of  Forest  Destruction. — 
In  the  State  Board  of  Forestry  report  for  1913 
Professor  Glenn  Culbertson,  of  Hanover  Col- 
lege, sets  forth  in  an  interesting  and  informative 
article  some  physical  effects  of  forest  destruction, 
which  effects  are  more  far-reaching  than  we 
generally  suppose.     In  the  same  report  Mr.  W. 

many  interlacing  roots  the  wash  will  be  still  fur- 
ther minimized.  Moreover,  the  batting  takes  up 
a  part  of  the  water,  retaining  it  as  moisture, 
w^hich  affects  the  underlying  soil  for  some  time 
after.  This  fairly  represents  the  leaf-mulched 
surface  of  forested  areas  as  contrasted  with  bare, 
denuded  areas  which  shed  the  rains  before  they 
have  time  to  saturate  the  earth. 

Our     local     histories     repeatedly     state     that 
marked  changes  have  taken  place  in  the  normal 



How  of  our  streams  since  pioneer  times.  The 
explanation  is  that  the  waters  instead  of  being 
fed  gradually  from  the  mulched  soil,  go  oiT  with 
a  rush,  damaging  freshets  alternating  with  a 
normal  How  that  is  proportionately  small.  Pro- 
fessor Culbertson.  from  a  special  study  of  a  half- 
dozen  hill  counties  along  the  Ohio  river,  cites 
instances  of  the  freshet  damages  along  the 
streams  and  of  landslides  and  washings  on  the 
liilKides  that  have  left  the  lands  ruined  for  agri- 
cultural j)urposcs. 

The  estimate  has  l)een  made  that  of  the  total 
annual  rainfall  over  the  earth  some  6,000  cubic 
miles  of  water  finds  its  way  to  the  sea  by  the 
streams,  and  the  further  estimate  is  that  the 
"average  annual  immediate  run-ofT  from  these 
streams  to-day  is  at  least  50  per  cent,  greater 
than  that  from  the  same  regions  under  the  for- 
ested conditions  of  the  past." 

One  effect  of  this  rapid  disposition  of  the  rains 
is  the  lowering  of  the  water  level  in  the  ground. 
The  earth  does  not  become  thoroughly  saturated 
and  hence  springs  fail  and  wells  have  to  be  sunk 
deeper  and  deeper  to  find  strong,  reliable  veins, 
while  in  cases  of  drought  the  effects  are  felt 
much  quicker  and  more  severely. 

In  a  word,  under  forest  conditions  the  rains, 
wliich  otherwise  rush  away  and  in  large  degree 
are  wasted,  are  conserved  and  by  various  natural 
processes  made  to  serve  the  fullest  purpose.  The 
extent  to  which  the  State  has  been  deforested 
has  seriously  disturbed  the  balance  of  nature, 
and  the  question  of  remedy  is  now  being  forced 
upon  us. 

Supposed  Climatic  Effects. — The  physical 
c fleets  of  deforestation  as  above  cited  are  too 
well  established  to  be  speculative.  There  are 
other  more  remote  effects,  not  so  certain  of 
proof,  but  widely  accepted  nevertheless,  particu- 
larly as  they  regard  the  modifying  of  climate. 
Professor  Culbertson's  argument,  perhaj^s,  fairly 
covers  the  ground.  This  is  that  the  evaporation 
in  the  hot  season  from  a  soil  and  leaf-mulch  that 
are  saturated  is  very  considerable,  and  where 
such  area  is  extensive  the  moisture  contributed 
to  the  atmosphere  must  be  a  factor  in  the  pre- 

Again,  the  amount  of  moisture  taken  up  by 
trees  in  the  form  of  sap  and  evaporated  from 
tlie  leavi-s  is,  in  the  case  of  a  wliole  forest,  some- 
thing    enormous,     e\i)erinieiU     liaviiig     demon- 

strated that  one  large  tree,  under  certain  condi-; 
tions,  may  give  ofif  as  much  as  several  tons  within : 
twenty-four  hours.     That  this  must  have  some-- 
thing  to  do  with  increased  precipitation   seems 
altogether    plausible.      Moreover,    this    evapora- 
tion, it  is  said,  modifies  the  temperature  of  the 
air  and  creates  atmospheric  conditions  that  favor 

Still  another  effect  to  which  the  forest  contrib- 
utes is  the  gentle  "secondary  showers,"  following 
thunderstorms,  due  to  the  vast  amount  of  evap- 
oration from  wet  leaves ;  which  showers  saturate 
the  soil  much  better  than  the  beating  storm. 

Forestry  Movement  in  Indiana. — Experience 
and  observation  have  taught  in  Indiana  as  else- 
where   that    the    deforestation    of    the    country 
brings   about  detrimental  conditions   that  afifect 
economic  welfare  so  seriously  as  to  demand  at-; 
tention  and  attempt  at  prevention.     It  stands  to 
reason  that  we  can  not  restore  the  original  for-i 
ests  with  their  leaf-mulch  as  a  water  conserver,  | 
and  just  how  and  to  what  extent  reforestation! 
can   be  promoted   is   still   a  debatable   question.] 
The  theory  on  which  the  State  is  proceeding  to- 
day contemplates  both  conservation,  or  the  pres- 
ervation of  remaining  forests,  and  rehabilitation, 
or  the  re-establishment  of  woodlands.     The  the- 
ory is  that  certaiM  rough  areas  in  the  hilly  por- 
tions of  the  State,  of  little  value  for  agriculture, 
might  profitably  yield  timber  for  commercial  pur- 
poses, and  do  this  continuously  by  a  process  of 
scientific  forestry.     It  also  holds  that  through- 
out all   parts   of   the   State  are   scattered   small 
areas,  practically  waste,  that  should  be  given  to 
trees ;  it  is  figured  that  wood  crops,  such  as  catal- 
pas  for  fence  posts,  make  a  good  return,  and  the' 
maintenance  of  a  wood-lot  as  a  feature  of  every' 
farm  is  encouraged. 

Back  of  this  theory  is  a  practical  movement 
for  the  promotion  of  reforestation  which  will  bej 
briefly    described   in   this   connection,   though   it 
might    appropriately    come    under    the    head    of  j 
"governmental  activities."     Some  time  prior  toj 
1901  a  society,  under  the  name  of  the  "Indiana! 
Forestry  Association,"  was  formed,  with  Albert! 
Lieber,    of    Indianapolis,    as    its    president,    and 
John  P.  Brown,  of  Connersville  as  secretary.    Its 
aim  was  to  create  interest  in  agriculture  and  pro- 
mote the  passage  of  a  forestry  law,  and  in  1901  it 
succeeded  in  sectu'ing  such  a  law.     This  statute 
estal)lished  a  "State  Board  of  Forestrv,"  consist- 



ling  of  five  members,  one  to  be  from  the  member- 
ship of  the  Forestry  Association,  just  mentioned; 
one  from  the  Retail  Lumber  Dealers'  Associa- 
tion of  Indiana;  one  from  the  faculty  of  Purdue 
University;  one  from  the  woodworkers  of  the 
IState,  who  is  to  be  a  mechanic  actively  employed 
at  his  trade,  and  one  who  was  to  have  special 
■knowledge  of  the  theory  and  art  of  forest  pres- 
jervation  and  timber  culture  and  a  technical 
•knowledge  of  the  topography  of  the  State.  This 
'last  member  was  to  be  secretary  of  the  board 

part  of  Clark  county,  near  the  town  of  Henry- 
ville.  The  larger  part  of  this  was  in  the  wild 
state,  but  some  of  it  had  been  cleared  and  farmed, 
and  one  use  of  the  reserve  was  as  an  experi- 
mental nursery,  the  cleared  portions  being 
planted  to  various  kinds  of  native  forest  trees. 
The  rates  of  growth  and  the  success  of  the  plant- 
ings under  different  conditions  have  been  re- 
corded from  year  to  year  and  the  results  have 
been  put  before  landowners  over  the  State. 
The  work  of  the  forestry  office  is  largely  edu- 

Twin  Beeches.  These  twin  beeches  are  on  the  Purlee 
farm,  in  Pierce  township,  Washington  county.  It  is 
said  that  they  were  there  when  the  land  was  entered 
about  1821-22. 

^and  ex  officio  State  Forester,  at  a  salary  of 
$1,200  and  an  expense  allowance  not  to  exceed 
$600.*  The  duty  of  the  board  was  "to  collect, 
fdigest  and  classify  information  respecting  for- 
'ests,  timber  lands,  forest  preservation  and  timber 
culture,  and  for  the  establishment  of  State  forest 
[reserves,"  while  the  secretary's  office  was  to  be  a 
^bureau  of  information  on  such  subjects. 

State  Forest  Reserve.— In  1903  the  State 
purchased,  through  the  forestry  board,  2,000 
iacres  of  cheap,  broken  land  in  the  northwestern 

'     •The  salary  was  afterward  increased  to  $1,800. 

This  poplar  tree  in  Washington  county  is  18  feet  in  cir- 
cumference. The  first  hmb  is  75  feet  from  the 
ground.  The  owner,  Mr.  Carry  Morris,  refused  $500 
for  this  monarch  of  the  forest  in  1912. 

cational.  To  quote  from  one  of  its  reports : 
"The  question  has  been  presented  to  the  public 
through  the  press,  public  schools,  farmers'  insti- 
tutes, civic  federations,  women's  clubs,  etc.,  un- 
til now  almost  every  one  knows  something  about 
the  forestry  movement  and  many  wood-lot  own- 
ers are  practising  scientific  forestry."  One  fea- 
ture of  the  propaganda  is  "Arbor  Day,"  estab- 
lished by  law  "for  the  purpose  of  encouraging 
the  planting  of  shade  trees,  shrubs  and  vines." 
The  third  Friday  of  April  in  each  year  is  desig- 
nated as  a  dav  for  general  observance,  and  the 



governor  is  lo  make  proclamation  of  said  day 
in  each  year,  at  least  thirty  days  prior  thereto. 
The  observance  chiefly  liolds  in  the  schools,  it 
being  made  the  duty  of  county  and  city  sujterin- 
tendents  to  jjrepare  programs  of  exercise  for  the 
puj^ils.  In  this  law  Charles  Warren  Fairbanks 
is  especially  recognized  as  "the  leading  spirit  of 
Indiana  forestry  conser\alion." 

Conservation  of  Bird  Life. — Closely  con- 
nected with  arboriculture  and  of  such  economic 
importance  that  it  may  fairly  be  considered  a  nat- 
ural resource,  is  the  Ijird  population.  The  indis- 
criminate destruction  of  bird  life  has  been  yet 
more  wasteful  and  wanton  than  that  of  the  trees. 
'idle  result  has  been  an  increase  of  the  insect  pop- 
ulati(»n  that  is  a  standing  threat  to  vegetation. 
Pomology  in  particular  has  suffered  and  fruits 
that  once  thrived  with  little  ))rotection  can  now 
be  secured  oidy  by  a  continual  and  systematic 
fight  against  insect  enemies.  If  unchecked  these 
enemies  with  their  amazing  re])roductive  powers 
would  doubtless  overrun  the  globe  in  time  and  by 
their  destruction  of  ])lant  life  indirectly  destroy 
animal  life.  The  spread  of  the  San  Jose  scale, 
the  curculio,  the  codlin  moth  and  other  fruit 
devastators  is  a  familiar  story.  Among  the  for- 
est trees  each  has  its  peculiar  enemies  and  the 
same  is  true  of  each  plant  in  the  garden;  the 
wheat  has  its  chinch  bug  and  Hessian  fly  ;  the 
young  corn  its  cut  worm,  and  so  on,  ad  infinitum. 

In  the  nice  balance  of  nature  birds  are  the  nat- 
ural regulators  of  the  insect  population.  In  the 
ground.  l)eneath  the  bark  of  trees,  on  the  foliage 
and  in  the  air  they  find  grubs,  eggs  and  adult  in- 
sects to  sate  their  voracious  appetites,  and  ob- 
servation has  shown  that  the  amount  of  con- 
sumption is  astonishing.  In  a  word,  the  wanton 
destruction  of  ])irds  has  seriously  disarranged 
nature's  scheme  of  regulation  and  we  are  now 
beginning  to  realize  the  consequences. 

'I  he  first  movement  looking  to  the  preservation 
ol  bn-ds  was,  perha])s.  a  sentimental  rather  than 
an  economic  one.  The  wholesale  slatighter  of 
birds  for  the  barbarous  decoration  of  woiuen's 
hals  created  a  revulsion  among  those  of  finer 
leelings  who  lovc-d  Imds  ,mi,|  wh,,  saw  the  heart- 
lessness  ot  llir  custoni  pirvailing  in  llu'  name  of 
'^•'^'ii"ii-  Ibis  seiilinienl,  irin  f<  need,  of  course, 
by  the  economic  aigunnnt.  crystallized  in  the  Au- 
dubon   SocirlN     nio\rnKnl,    which    has    been    the 

great    educator    for    the    last    fifteen    or    twenty 
years.*   The  Indiana  Audubon  Society  within  that 
time  has   faithfully  pushed   its  propaganda   for 
bird  protection  with  a  wisdom  that  looked  to  the 
future  for  results,  and  with  a  patience  that  be- 
spoke permanence  it  carried  into  the  schoolroom 
its  gospel  of  good-will  to  birds,  and  its  annual 
meetings  held  successively  in  various  cities  over 
the  State  have  given  it  State-wide  prestige.    The 
efifects  have  been  beneficent  and  marked.     This 
society,  of  course,  was  but  a  unit  in  a  country- 
wide movement.     As  a  general  result  there  has 
been  a  notable  change   in  the   wearing  of  bird 
])lumage  by  women,  which  was  the  greatest  cause 
of   bird   destruction.      Stimulated,   doubtless,  by 
the  growing  interest  that  was  based  on  sentiment, 
the  economists  have  come  to  the  fore  and  the! 
public  is  being  educated  to  the  necessity  of  bird; 
l)roteclion  as  a  part  of   the  great  conservation  i 
movement  which  affects  material  welfare;  while' 
Indiana,  along  with  many  other  States,  now  hasi 
an  excellent  law  protecting  insectivorous  as  wellj 
as  game  birds.    The  State  laws,  in  turn,  are  rein-| 
forced  by  a  Federal  law  that  affords  protection', 
to  migratory  birds  as  they  pass  beyond  the  juris- 1 

diction  of  protecting  States.  | 



Early   History. — Knowdedge   of   coal    in    In-i 
diana  long  antedated  its  utilization  as  an  impor- 
tant natural  resource  in  this  part  of  the  country. 
As  early  as  1763  George  Croghan,  an  English  of- 
ficer who  was  captured  by  the  Indians  and  taken 
up  the  Wabash,  makes  mention  of  the  mineral. 
The  first  surveyors  of  Indiana  (1804)   also  dis- 
covered and  made  note  of  it,  and  in  1812  Robert 
Fulton,   who   brought   his    steamboat,   the    "Or- 
leans" down  the  Ohio  river,  found  and  dug  coal 
at  a  point  near  Cannelton.    The  first  charter  for 
the  mining  of  coal  was  granted  to  the  American 
Cannel   Coal   Company,   of   Cannelton,   in    1837. ; 
The  abundance   of   wood   for   fuel  and  the  ab- 
sence of  manufacturing  industries  retarded  the' 
development  of  the  coal  industry,  but  by  1840  it 
was  pursued  on  a  small  scale  in  various  places,  I 
|)artly  for  cx])ort.     The  chief  domestic  use  was 
tor    blacksnfithing.      The    earlier    mining    was 
where  the  coal  outcropped,  the  first  shaft  being 

*  Tlie  Intliana  Audubon  Society  was  organized  at  Indianapolis 
.Xpri!  26,  1896,  with  Judge  R.  W.  McBride  as  president  and 
(itnrgo  S.   Cottman  as  secretary. 



jjunk  in  1850  by  John  Hutchinson  one  mile  east 
bf  Newburg,  on  the  bank  of  the  Ohio  river.  In 
iigging  a  well  in  Clay  county,  in  1851,  the  block 
:oal  of  that  region  was  discovered,  and  in  the  fol- 
•owing  year  this  coal  was  mined  and  shipped  out 
\}i  the  county.  With  the  incoming  of  the  manu- 
factories the  coal  industry  rapidly  increased  and 
hi  1879  laws  were  passed  for  the  regulation  of 
inines  and  a  mine  inspector  was  appointed.* 
'  The  Indiana  Area. — The  Indiana  coal  area  is 
imrt  of  a  great  field  of  about  47,000  square  miles 
i:hat  covers  a  large  portion  of  Illinois  and  laps 
)ver  into  our  State  and  northwestern  Kentucky. 
The  total  Indiana  area  is  estimated  at  about 
:^500  square  miles.  It  comprises  the  west  and 
.;outhwest  part  of  the  State,  and  a  line  drawn 
"rom  Benton  southeastward  to  Owen,  thence  to 
Crawford  at  Leavenworth  on  the  Ohio,  would, 
•oughly  speaking,  enclose  our  coal  field.  This 
includes  fourteen  counties  that  are  wholly  and 
twelve  that  are  partly  underlain.  It  has  been 
;stimated  from  drillings  that  reveal  the  approxi- 
nate  extent  and  thickness  of  the  beds,  that  be- 
leath  the  surface  of  these  counties  lies  something 
like  40,000,000,000  tons  of  coal.  A  great  deal 
bf  this  is  regarded  as  "unworkable"  with  our 
oresent  facilities,  but  by  1898  100.000,000  tons 
!iad  been  actually  mined  out,  and  by  a  further 
;:omputation,  based  on  the  rate  of  increasing  con- 
iumption  for  eighteen  years,  and  on  area  re- 
garded as  workable,  it  is  thought  "safe  to  assume 
:hat  the  life  of  the  Indiana  coal  field  is  at  least 
iOO  years, f  and  probably  more"  (Ashley). 

Growth  of  Coal  Industry. — By  1879  the  coal 
ndustry  had  expanded  to  an  output,  that  year, 
of  about  1,000,000  tons,  and  by  1898  this  had  in- 
|;reased  to  5,000,000  tons,  in  spite  of  the  discov- 
ery and  extensive  use  of  natural  gas.  After  the 
hollapse  of  the  gas  era  mining  developed  yet 
jTiore  rapidly.  About  11,000,000  tons  were  taken 
but  in  1903  and  13,250,000  tons  in  1907.  Ac- 
cording to  the  annual  report  of  the  Inspector 
pf  Mines,  James  Epperson,  for  the  year  1910J 
i(35th  Geol.  Rept.),  the  "total  general  average 
'or  all  mines  in  the  State"  was  18,125,244  tons 

*  See  "Coal  Deposits  of  Indiana,"  by  George  Hall  Ashley. 
ndiana  Geological   Report   for   1898. 

t  This,  of  course,  is  largely  speculative.  Elsewhere  we  are 
old  our  fields  ought  to  last  a  thousand  years. 

{The  last  statistics  we  find  on  mining,  the  subject  not  being 
Included  in  the  later   reports  of  the   Department  of   Statistics. 

and  the  total  number  of  miners  14,810.  The 
total  number  of  mine  employes  were  21,171  and 
their  wages  for  a  year  amounted  to  $15,527,- 
390.72,  being  an  average  of  $733.42  for  each 
employe.  Of  the  output  54.56  per  cent,  was 
shipped  to  other  States,  and  the  remainder, 
amounting  to  8,235,655  tons,  was  used  in  In- 
diana. The  total  number  of  mines  employing 
more  than  ten  men  were  182,  and  these  were  dis- 
tributed irregularly  over  fourteen  counties,  with 
Clay,  Greene,  Sullivan  and  Vigo  in  the  lead  as 
to  numbers. 

Kinds  of  Indiana  Coal. — All  the  coals  of  this 
State  are  bituminous  in  character,  but  fall  into 
three  distinct  kinds,  known  as  "bituminous," 
"block"  and  "cannel."  Our  cannel,  which  is  lim- 
ited in  amount,  cuts  little  figure  in  the  coal  mar- 
ket, though  it  has  its  peculiar  merits,  being 
cleanly  to  handle  and  remarkably  easy  to  ignite. 
A  dift'erence  between  the  bituminous  and  the 
block  is  that  the  former  in  Inirning  runs  together 
or  "cokes,"  which  gives  it  especial  value  for  forge 
work,  while  the  block  burns  to  a  clean  white  ash 
without  coking.  The  especial  merit  of  the  latter 
is  as  a  steaming  coal.  The  quantity  of  bitumi- 
nous mined  is  far  in  excess  of  the  block  and  on 
the  market  takes  various  specific  names. 


First  Wells. — Conspicuous  among  the  natural 
resources  of  the  State  during  the  period  of  its 
usefulness,  was  natural  gas.  The  natural  gas  era, 
which  was  in  the  ascendency  here  from  1886  to 
1900,  may  be  spoken  of  as  spectacular,  so  sud- 
denly did  it  develop  as  an  economic  factor  and 
so  great  were  the  changes  it  wrought. 

What  is  frequently  spoken  of  as  the  "discov- 
ery" of  gas  in  the  eighties  is  an  inaccurate  use 
of  terms,  since  there  is  record  of  it  in  Pulaski 
county,  Indiana,  as  early  as  1865 ;  elsewhere, 
long  before  that,  it  had  been  used  for  lights  and 
fuel,  and  it  was  so  used  extensively  in  Pennsyl- 
vania before  it  was  utilized  in  Indiana.  In  1884 
a  well  sunk  at  Findlay,  Ohio,  yielded  a  strong 
flow  of  gas,  and  the  interest  in  this  part  of  the 
country  was  stimulated  by  that  find.  In  1886  it 
was  discovered  at  Portland,  Jay  county,  that 
Indiana  had  rock  capable  of  a  high-pressure  flow. 
The  same  year  a  Kokomo  company  drilled  and 



secured  a  "^aisher."  and  the  utilizing  of  this  well 
for  factory  and  domestic  fuel  seems  to  have  been 
the  beginning  of  the  '"gas  era"  in  this  State.* 

The  commercial  opportunities  that  opened  up 
with  the  application  of  this  new  resource  created 
an  excitement  akin  to  the  oil  craze  of  earlier 
days.  -A  cleanly,  convenient  and  labor-saving 
fuel  of  greater  heating  value  than  either  wood  or 
coal,  that  could  be  brought  cheaply  to  one's  fur- 
nace or  sto\c,  set  l)0th  manufacturers  and  pri- 
vate consumers  agog,  and  the  capitalists  hastened 
to  supply  them.f  Land  speculation  ran  rife 
w  iicrever  it  was  suspected  there  was  gas-bearing 
rock,  and  in  and  out  of  the  belt  wells  were  sunk 
till,  in  the  words  of  a  humorist  of  the  day,  Indi- 
ana, in  sjmts,  was  suggestive  of  a  porous  plaster, 
and  the  only  way  to  utilize  the  wells  that  never 
found  gas  was  to  "saw  them  into  post-holes." 

Natural  Gas  Area. — The  gas  area,  as  finally 
dfvclopcd,  comprised,  wholly  or  in  part  twenty- 
six  counties  (Gcol.  Rept.  1907).  The  chief  field 
may  be  described  as  approximately  pear-shaped, 
the  small  end  resting  in  Decatur  county,  thence 
swelling  eastward  with  the  eastern  limit  at  Ran- 
dolph and  Jay  comities  and  westward  to  the  east- 
ern part  of  Clinton.  From  these  east  and  west 
extremes  it  rounded  northward  almost  to  the 
Wabash  river.J  Another  field  in  the  southwest- 
ern ])art  of  the  State  extends  from  Vigo  to  Gib- 
son and  Pike,  and  reaches  eastward  to  Greene. 
These  fields  combined  are  said  to  be  much  larger 
than  those  in  any  other  State,  and  they  were 
practically  enlarged  miles  beyond  the  productive 
limits  by  the  construction  of  pipe-lines  that  con- 
veyed the  gas  to  outlying  territory.  Indianapolis, 
Ivichmond,  Lafayette  and  many  other  outside  cit- 
ies were  thus  supplied. 

Industrial  Effects  of  Gas. — The  gas  area  va- 
ried in  its  yield  or  strength  of  flow.  The  center 
of  our  greatest  sui)ply  was  Madison  and  Dela- 
ware counties  and  the  adjacent  region,  and  it  was 
lu're  that  natural  gas,  combined  with  excellent 
transportation  facilities,  wrought  the  greatest  ef- 
fect. This  was  industrial.  Cheap  fuel  was  a 
tempting  bait  to  the  manufacturers  that  required 
luuch  of  it.  .-md  the  gas  l)elt  suddenly  found  itself 

*  Before  lliis,  however,  gas  from  weaker  wells  that  had  been 
drilled  for  oil,  had  been  utilized  in  a  small  way. 

1  In  the  Kii'loRical  report  of  1895  a  list  of  incorporated  natural 
gaa  companies  is  given,  numbering  324. 

X  I'nr  chart  showing  location  of  wells  and  pipelines  see  Geol 
Rept.   1897. 

in  possession  of  a  valuable  asset.  Its  fuel  was  so'' 
cheap  that  it  could  be  given  away  and  many  com-' 
petitive  towns,  making  a  bid  for  industrial  pros-' 
perity,  ofl^ered  free  gas  to  establishments  that 
would  settle  in  their  midst.  The  general  result 
is  thus  stated  by  one  writer  on  the  subject : 

'Tn  1886,  when  gas  was  discovered,  the  gas 
belt  was  an  agricultural  district.  Besides  the  cus- 
tomary flouring-  and  saw-mills  the  factories  were 
few  and  confined  almost  exclusively  to  the  mak- 
ing of  wooden  wares.  .  .  .  Soon,  however, 
all  classes  of  industries  were  represented.  .  .  . 
About  the  time  the  gas  was  beginning  to  fail  in 
Ohio  and  Pennsylvania  it  was  discovered  in  In- 
diana. The  field  was  vast  in  extent,  the  supply 
strong.  Capitalists  were  glad  to  move  their  in- 
terests to  the  new  field.  By  1893  over  $300,- 
000,000  had  been  invested  in  factories  in  Indiana,; 
and  more  were  constantly  being  erected.  It  waSj 
estimated  that  at  that  time  not  less  than  three' 
hundred  factories  had  been  located  and  put  inj 
operation  as  a  direct  result  of  the  development! 
of  natural  gas.  Many  of  them  were  very  large,j 
as  the  De  Paiiw  Plate-Glass  Works  at  Alexan-i 
dria,  the  largest  of  its  kind  in  the  world.  In  1880! 
there  were  seven  States  manufacturing  morej 
glass  than  Indiana.  In  1890  only  three  StatesI 
stood  above  ours  in  this  product.  The  value  of| 
glass  products  in  1880  was  $790,781.  In  1892  it; 
had  risen  to  $2,995,409.  ...  In  1890  there' 
were  twenty-one  glass  factories  valued  at  $3,556,- 
563,  and  employing  3,089  men.  ...  In  the] 
iron  and  steel  industry  there  were  in  1880  nine 
factories  with  a  value  of  $1,820,000,  employing! 
1,740  men.  In  1890  the  number  of  factories  had! 
increased  to  thirteen,  the  value  to  $3,888,254.  Two; 
thousand  six  hundred  and  forty-four  men  re-' 
ceived  annual  wages  of  $1,215,702.  From  1890 
to  1895  the  growth  was  still  more  rapid.  Janu- 
ary 1,  1895,  the  number  of  glass  factories  was  50 
instead  of  21.  They  were  valued  at  $5,000,000 
and  employed  7,000  men,  with  an  annual  wagej 
of  $3,000,000."*  I 

Decline  of  the  Gas  Era;  Culpable  Waste. — I 
It  is  rarely  that  nature  has  given  to  man  a  bless- j 
ing  so  freely  bestowed  as  natural  gas,  and  if  itl 
had  been  properly  appreciated  and  used  with  dis-l 
crction  it  would  dotibtless  have  continued  its' 
service  for  many  years.     As  it  was,  never  was  a 

""Natural   Gas   in    Indiana,"  by   Margaret   Wynn;    Ind.   Mag. 
Hist.,  March,  1908. 



latural  resource  wasted  with  such  senseless 
LrodJgality  and  with  so  Httle  excuse.  There  was 
jiardly  a  Hmit  to  the  absurd  uses  to  which  it  was 
but.  The  writer  recalls  one  man  who  kept  a  big 
iiambeau  burning  over  his  swill  barrel  to  keep  it 
from  freezing  and  had  arches  of  lights  over  his 
gates  from  curved  perforated  pipes  ;  nor  was  this 
l^ccentricity  exceptional.  In  small  towns  the 
streets  were  illuminated,  torch-like,  by  the  lighted 
gas  flowing  without  check  from  the  mouths  of 
itwo-inch  pipes  and  it  was  no  rare  spectacle  to  see 
[.he  flow  from  gas  wells  burning  an  immense 
flame,  day  and  night.  It  is  said  that  "in  1889  the 
average  daily  waste  from  uncapped  wells  alone 
was  estimated  to  be  10,000,000  cubic  feet"  (Mar- 
garet Wynn). 

I  As  there  was  no  replenishing  of  this  fuel  this 
ivvaste  must  before  very  long  have  its  effect.  By 
reason  of  multiplying  wells  and  the  tapping  of 
new  areas  the  flow  steadily  increased  from  1886 
to  1900.  Since  this  time  it  has  been  declining. 
As  expressed  in  terms  of  money  value,  it  in- 
creased from  $300,000  worth  in  1886  to  $7,254,- 
539  in  1900,  and  declined  to  $1,702,243  in  1910 
(Geol.  Kept.  1911).  The  State  geologist  pro- 
tested against  the  waste  long  before  steps  were 
taken  to  check  it.  By  the  early  nineties  the  Leg- 
islature adopted  restrictive  measures,  and  the 
office  of  natural  gas  supervisor  was  created,  but 
it  was  too  late  to  save  the  illimitable  wastage 
which  has  been  a  dead  loss  to  the  community 
and  which  can  never  be  regained. 
1  Natural  Gas.* — The  gas  of  the  Indiana  part 
of  the  field  known  as  the  Lima-Indiana  has  been 
failing  for  the  last  few  years  until  it  has  gotten 
so  weak  in  places  that  it  is  being  replaced  by 
gas  piped  into  the  State  by  the  Logan  Natural 
Gas  and  Fuel  Company,  of  West  Virginia.  The 
■gas  is  pumped  into  the  State  and  reaches  it  with 
la  pressure  of  about  125  pounds,  but  is  reduced 
■to  a  few  ounces  before  being  turned  into  the  city 
lines.  The  following  towns  are  using  West  Vir- 
ginia gas :  Muncie,  Anderson.  Elwood,  Alexan- 
dria, Fairmount,  Hartford  City,  Marion,  New 
Castle,  Richmond,  Noblesville,  Tipton,  Lynn  and 
Middletown.  The  gas  is  now  used  mostly  for 
domestic  purposes,  very  little  being  used  for 
manufacturing,  and  is  sold  to  the  consumer  at 
from  thirty  cents  to  forty  cents  per  thousand. 
While  much  gas  is  being  piped  into  Indiana, 

*  Thirty-ninth  Annual  Report  Dept.  of  Geol. 

there  still  remain  2,295  gas  wells  that  are  produc- 
ing some  gas  and  are  supplying  a  great  many  of 
the  smaller  towns  and  the  farmers  on  whose  farms 
they  are  located.  In  Tipton  and  Howard  coun- 
ties the  Indiana  Natural  Gas  and  Oil  Company 
has  a  great  many  wells,  the  gas  from  which  is 
being  piped  to  Chicago.  There  were  sixty-four 
new  wells  drilled  in  the  year  of  1914,  and  147 
old  wells  abandoned. 

The  Sullivan  county  oil  field  produces  enough 
gas,  in  addition  to  that  used  in  the  field  for 
power,  to  supply  about  eighty  consumers  in  Sul- 

The  Oakland  City  oil  field  produces  enough 
gas  to  supply  Oakland  City  and  Winslow  with 

The  remaining  gas  wells  in  Indiana  have  an 
average  pressure  of  74.4  pounds,  and  the  av- 
erage price  per  thousand,  and  for  which  it  is 
sold,  is  $0,327.  The  remaining  gas  wells  and 
mains,  not  including  the  plants  supplied  with 
West  Virginia  gas,  represent  an  original  invest- 
ment of  about  $20,000,000,  but  in  their  present 
condition  would  be  worth  about  $1,000,000. 


First  Oil  Wells;  Development  of  the  Field. 

— While  the  petroleum  industry  in  the  United 
States  dates  back  to  1859  it  was  not  begun  in  In- 
diana until  1889,  when  a  well  was  sunk  on  the 
farm  of  D.  A.  Bryson,  near  the  village  of  Key- 
stone in  Wells  county.  This  was  done  by  a  cor- 
poration styling  itself  the  "Northern  Indiana  Oil 
Company"  and  it  was  the  beginning  of  an  indus- 
try that  became  one  of  the  great  ones  of  the 
State.  Two  years  later  the  above-named  com- 
pany had  fifteen  wells  and  these  were  multiplied 
by  other  fortune  seekers,  who  rapidly  explored 
and  developed  the  paying  oil  area.  This  area, 
which  lay  northeast  of  the  State's  center  and 
south  of  the  Wabash  was  developed  to  400 
square  miles  by  1896.  By  1900  it  had  grown  to 
900  square  miles,  and  to  1,350  by  1903.  The 
Lima-Indiana  oil  field  for  the  year  of  1914,  pro- 
duced 508.987  barrels  of  oil  from  3,796  wells; 
the  Princeton  and  Oakland  City  field  produced 
151,441  barrels  from  285  wells,  and  the  Sullivan 
county  field  produced  859,500  barrels  from  415 
wells,  making  a  total  production  for  the  State  of 
1,519,928  barrels  from  4,496  wells,  showing  an 




increase  over  the  ].ro;luction  of  1913  of  549,848 

The  ])rice  of  oil  for  ihe  last  year  has  been 
such  that  it  has  n(jt  offered  a  very  i,n-eat  induce- 
ment to  oil  operators  to  try  to  open  any  new 
tlelds.  or  to  ])roperly  develop  the  old  ones. 

There  are  a  threat  many  counties  in  Indiana 
which  oil  men  think  are  underlaid  with  oil,  but 
they  are  waitint,'  for  the  ])rice  to  advance  a  little 
so  that  the  chances  for  ,^:ain  will  l)e  i,n-eater. 
.\mon<,f  other  ])laces  look'ed  upon  with  favor  is 
the  lerritorv  around  r)irdseye,  |as])er  county; 
(ic-ntrv  \  ille.  .'^])encer  county;  Foltz,  Jefferson 
counlv.  and  Wilkinson.  Hancock  county.  Near 
l!irdse\e  and  ( lentryville  there  were  a  few  wells 
d.rilk-d  a  few  years  ago,  in  which  there  was  a 
good  showing  of  (»il.  but  for  the  want  of  ca])ital 
at  that  time  theri-  was  no  more  drilling  done.  In 
llancock  county,  the  oil  for  several  years  has 
bjcn  showing  up  in  the  old  gas  wells,  and  there 
have  been  several  thousand  acres  leased  recently 
with  the  expectation  of  drilling  deeper  for  oil. 

In  JelYerson  county  there  was  a  strong  gas 
well  drilled,  considering  its  depth,  near  Foltz. 
The  rock  producing  the  gas  is  thought  to  be  the 
.Xiagara  limestone,  which  in  itself  may  not  be 
of  much  im])ortance  but  may  be  an  indication  of 
something  deeper  at  that  point. 

There  were  a  few  fair  oil  wells  drilled  in 
."^helby  county,  on  the  west  edge  of  the  old  gas 
held  in  that  county. 

Illinois  geologists  claim  to  have  traced  an  anti- 
cline southeast  through  eastern  Illinois  to  the  In- 
diana line,  and  Kentucky  geologists  claim  to  have 
traced  one  northwest  throtigh  Kentucky  to  the 
southern  line,  and  that  being  the  case 
it  is  very  evident  that  it  will  cross  the  southwest- 
ern corner  ot  Imli.ina,  covering  some  points  al- 
ready mentioned  as  ])eing  ])roductive  of  oil. 

In  the  territory-  mentioned,  near  l.ruceville,  in 
Knox  comitw  there  have  been  some  light  gas 
wi'lU  producing  for  several  )ears.  The  Prince- 
ton held  in  (  iibson  county  has  been  a  very  ])ro- 
(Uictive  oil  field;  the  (  )akland  City  and  Peters- 
burg helds  in  I 'ike  county  h,i\e  ])een  producing 
oil  for  several  ye.ars,  ami  in  S])encer  count\-,  near 
(  ii'nti\\ille,  s(,'\i'r;d  wars  ago,  one  oil  and  one 
t^as  will  wvvv  drilled  which  showed  a  fair 
llow  ot  oil  ;ind  .i  o,,,,,]  \(,lnine  of  gas.  but  were 
nol  developed  further  for  the  want  of  ca])ital  at 
that  time.     While  Warrick  countv  is  in  line  of  the 

same  anticline,  no  drilling  has  ever  been  done 
The  above  counties  will  doubtless  be  developec 
as  soon  as  the  price  of  oil  is  sufficient  to  offer  th(i 
proj)er  inducement  to  operators. 


Quarrying  Area. — By  far  the  greater  part  ol 
Indiana  is  covered  by  a  sheet  of  glacial  drift 
brought  from  the  north  and  spread  over  the  bed 
rocks  at  varying  depths.  In  the  counties  south 
of  the  glacial  boundary  and  along  the  Wabash 
and  some  other  streams,  where  erosion  has  cut 
through  the  drift,  the  bedrock  out-cropping  orl 
approaching  the  surface  is  available  for  quarry-j 
ing.  The  State  has  no  granite,  except  in  the| 
form  of  boulders  that  have  been  transported  in 
the  glacial  drift,  but  among  the  various  lime- 
stones and  sandstones  certain  kinds  have  an  eco- 
nomic value  for  building,  flagging,  lime,  w^het- 
stones,  grindstones  and  other  uses. 

Building  Stone ;  the  Oolitic  Limestone. — 
It  has  been  said  that  no  State  in  the  Union  pos- 
sesses better  stone  for  building  purposes  than 
Indiana,  and  the  quarry  product  of  particular 
excellence  for  such  purpose  is  the  Oolitic  lime- 
stone from  Lawrence,  Monroe  and  adjacent 
counties.  It  is  often  called  "Bedford"  stone, 
from  the  extensive  quarries  near  that  city.  This, 
again,  is  said  to  have  "a  wider  sale  and  more 
extended  use  than  any  other  building  stone  in 
North  America,  its  wide  reputation  being  due  to 
its  general  usefulness  in  masonry,  ornamenta 
tion  and  monuments,  its  abundance,  the  ease  with 
which  it  can  be  quarried  and  dressed,  its  pleasing 
color  and  its  durability."* 

The  Oolitic  stone  in  Indiana  extends  from 
Montgomery  county  to  the  Ohio  river,  though 
north  of  White  river  it  largely  loses  its  value  as 
a  building  stone.  In  the  geological  report  of  1874 
is  mention  of  a  quarry  in  the  southwestern  part 
of  Jackson  covtnty,  and  again,  in  1878,  we  find 
a  description  of  "the  well-known  Stockslager 
( )olitic  (piarry"  of  Harrison  county.  As  an  indus- 
try of  real  commercial  value,  which  gives  the 
stone  rank  as  one  of  the  important  resottrces  of 
the  State,  it  is,  however,  chiefly  identified  with 
Lawrence,  Monroe  and  Owen  coitnties.    This  area 

*  "Tlie  Indian.T  Ocilitic  Limestone  Industry,"  liy  Ixayniond  S. 
Hlatchley  and  others;  Geol.  Rept.  1907.  See  also  long  treatise 
on  the  Bedford  Oolitic  Limestone  of  Indiana,  by  T.  C.  Hopl<ins 
:ind  C.   E.   Sichenthal,  Geol.   Rept.   1896. 



has  been  worked  for  many  years  and  since  the 
close  of  the  civil  war  vast  quantities  of  stone  have 
been  taken  out.  At  Bedford.  Lawrence  county, 
are  the  largest  quarries  in  tlie  State  and  among 
the  larj^'cst  in  the  United  States.  At  the  northern 
hmit  of  the  worked  tield  is  Romona.  in  Owen 
counlv.  and  between  it  and  Bedford  are  at  least 
a  dozen  districts,  each  with  its  group  of  quarries. 

The  output  of  building  stone  for  1912,  accord- 
ing to  (he  U.  S.  Geological  Survey  of  Mineral 
Resources,  was  10,442.304  cubic  feet.  There 
was  a  waste  of  fifty  per  cent.,  of  which  18,000 
cubic  feet  were  turned  out  as  crushed  limestone 
and  8,500  cul)ic  feet  was  made  into  lime. 

Quality  of  Oolitic  Limestone. — The  Oolitic 
stone  lias  various  merits  that  give  it  highest  rank 
as  a  quarry  product.  Being  comparatively  soft 
when  taken  out  of  the  beds  it  is  easily  sawed  and 
dressed.  It  is  especially  adapted  for  ornamental 
work  and  is  used  extensively  for  monuments, 
rustic  gateways,  lawn  settees  and  other  objects 
calling  for  the  exercise  of  the  stone  carver's  art, 
its  value  for  these  purposes  being  enhanced  by 
the  resistance  of  the  stone  to  weather. 

It  is  especially  famous,  however,  as  a  building 
stone  by  reason  of  its  workableness,  appearance, 
weather  resistance  and  crushing  strength,  its  re- 
sistance to  pressure  equaling  4,500  to  7,000 
pounds  per  square  inch,  as  tested  in  experiments 
(Blatchley).  For  architectural  uses  it  is  in  de- 
mand all  over  the  country,  notably  in  the  con- 
struction of  Government,  State  and  county  build- 
ings, libraries,  churches,  etc. 

Other  Quarry  Stone. — Beside  the  Oolitic 
output  other  stone  is  quarried  extensively.  A 
hard  limestone  known  as  the  "Niagara,"  which 
is  worked  in  Decatur  county,  is  used  more  or 
less  for  building  and  bridge  purposes.  This 
same  stone,  where  thinly  bedded,  is  especially 
adajjted  for  flagging  and  curbs  and  is  quarried 
for  that  ])uri)ose  in  several  localities,  notably 
near  Laurel,  in  P^ranklin  county.  Sandstone  of 
exrcllcnl  (|ualily  for  building  purposes  exists  in 
a  number  of  the  western  and  southwestern  coun- 
ties from  Warren  to  the  Ohio  river.* 

What  is  known  as  the  "Mansfield"  sandstone 
is  a  line  dark-brown  stone  adai)ted  for  house 
fronts  and  for  cornices  and  lintels  for  brick 
buildings.      Gray   and   bufT   sandstones   are   also 

•  For  Irtalisc  ami  map  sec  Ceol.   Kept.   1896. 

quarried  for  building  purposes,  but  the  sandstonel 
field,  about  175  miles  in  length,  considered  as  a' 
commercial  resource,  is  but  imperfectly  devel- 

Lime  Industry. — A  very  important  product 
from  certain  limestones  of  the  State  is  the  lime 
of  commerce,  the  chief  use  of  which  is  for  mortar 
and  plaster  for  building.  It  is  also  used  in  the 
tanning,  glass-making,  paper-making  and  cement 
industries,  and  for  various  other  purposes. 

Good  stone  for  lime-making  is  quarried  and 
so  utilized  in  various  parts  of  the  State  from 
Clark  and  Crawford  counties  on  the  Ohio  to 
Huntington  on  the  upper  Wabash. 


A  natural  resource  closely  allied  to  the  rocks 
is  clay  in  its  various  forms,  and  few,  if  any,  out-, 
rank  this  one  in  usefulness.  To  quote  Geologist 
Blatchley :  "No  mineral  resource  of  the  earth 
has  been  longer  used  or  has  been  made  into  such; 
various  products  for  the  benefit  of  the  human 
race,"  and  it  has  figured  in  the  manufactures  of, 
the  world  from  the  rude  utensils  of  prehistoric! 
races  to  the  multiplied  uses  of  the  present  day.  Aj 
list  of  these  uses  would  include  domestic  wares,' 
architectural  material,  draining  tile,  sewer  tile, 
flue  linings,  fire  brick,  ornamental  tile  and  pot-: 
tery,  and  other  articles  too  numerous  to  mention. 

The  clays  used  in  the  industries  vary  in  value 
according  to  purity,  fineness,  plasticity  and  other 
qtialities,  and  those  in  Indiana  are  adapted  to  a 
variety  of  manufactures,  from  common  brick 
and  draining  tile  to  pottery  and  ornamental  terra- 

The  common  yellow  clay,  used  for  the  cheaper 
building  bricks  and  draining  tiles,  is  found  and 
utilized  all  over  the  State,  but  the  finer  kinds 
are  in  the  western  counties  and  run  the  length 
of  the  State.  The  geological  report  of  1906  (the' 
last  one  to  consider  this  subject)  states  that  "the 
clays  of  Indiana  rank  in  value  next  to  coal  and 
petroleum  among  the  natural  resources  of  the| 
State,"  but  adds  that  "even  yet  but  few  of  the' 
main  deposits  are  being  worked,  and  there  is] 
room  for  five  times  as  many  factories  as  are  now' 
in  operation.  According  to  the  census  report  of' 
1910,  there  were  then  thirty-one  Indiana  estab- 
lishments engaged  in  the  manufacture  of  pot- 



lery,  terra-cotta  and  fire-clay  products,  and  these 
rave  employment  to  2,373  persons.  The  value 
)f  the  products  amounted  to  $2,965,768." 


Sand  for  the  manufacture  of  glass  is  a  natural 
esource  of  considerable  importance  in  Indiana, 
IS  there  were,  in  1910,  forty-four  glass  factories 
n  the  State  representing  an  investment  of  more 
,han  thirteen  million  dollars  and  an  output  in 
|)ne  year  valued  at  $11,593,094.  In  glass-making 
;and  of  a  certain  quality  is  used  in  large  quan- 
lities,  and  as  transportation  is  an  expensive  item 
he  proximity  of  the  material  to  the  factories  is 
K  factor  in  locating  the  industry.  This  sand  may 
!)e  loose  or  in  the  form  of  sandstone,  in  which 
fatter  case  it  is  crushed  and  prepared  for  use.  Our 
f)est  loose  sand  is  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Michigan, 
'it  Michigan  City,  in  a  huge  dune,  or  sand  hill, 
'vhich  is  practically  unlimited  in  quantity.  The 
|)est  in  the  rock  form  is  in  the  formation  known 
fis  Mansfield  sandstone,  which  extends  down  the 
Vest  side  of  the  State,  and  is  available  inexhaust- 
■bly  from  Fountain  county  to  the  Ohio  river. 
There  are  several  plants  established  for  crushing, 
:;creening  and  otherwise  converting  this  rock  into 
'he  sand  of  commerce,  but  we  find  no  statistics 
')f  the  industry.* 


Cement    Material;    "Natural"    Cement. — In 

-906  State  Geologist  Blatchley  said :  "No  min- 
eral industry  in  the  United  States  has  grown 
inore  rapidly  during  the  last  fifteen  years  than 
hat  of  the  manufacture  of  Portland  cement." 
ndiana  has  shared  in  that  industry,  her  output 
rapidly  increasing  in  recent  years  until  in  1910 
t  was  valued  at  $7,022,000  (U.  S.  Census), 
Ivhile  the  material  for  the  manufacture  of  cement 
(;xists  in  the  State  in  practically  unlimited  quan- 

;  The  constituents  of  cement  are  carbonate  of 
iime  and  clay — about  78  per  cent,  of  the  former 
md  22  per  cent,  of  the  latter  being  the  propor- 
ions  when  artificially  mixed  in  the  product 
mown  as  "Portland"  cement.  In  some  rocks 
')0th  these  elements  exist  and  in  such  proportion 

*  For    chapter    on    the    "Glass    Sands    of    Indiana,"    by    State 
Jeologist  Barrett,  see  report  of  1913. 

that  a  very  fair  cement  may  be  made  by  the  sim- 
ple process  of  burning  in  a  kiln  and  grinding  to 
a  dust.  Great  beds  of  such  rock  are  to  be  found 
in  Clark,  Floyd  and  other  counties  along  the 
Ohio  river,  and  the  "natural  rock"  or  "hydraulic" 
cement,  as  it  is  called,  has  been  manufactured  in 
Clark  county  for  many  years.  The  product 
known  to  the  trade  as  the  "Louisville"  cement 
was  put  out  in  the  year  1890  to  the  extent  of 
more  than  a  million  and  a  half  barrels,  and  by 
1899  this  had  increased  to  nearly  three  million 
barrels.  With  the  development  of  the  "Port- 
land" industry,  however,  the  demand  for  the 
natural  rock  production  fell  off  and  it  now  has, 
at  best,  a  very  minor  place  on  the  market. 

Portland  Cement. — In  the  Portland  cement 
as  distinguished  from  the  natural  rock  the  clay 
and  the  lime  element  are  mixed  artificially,  thus 
securing  a  more  perfect  proportion  with  a  su- 
perior cement  as  a  result.  The  process  was  in- 
troduced by  one  Joseph  Aspdin,  Leeds,  England, 
in  1824,  and  he  bestowed  the  name  "Portland" 
because  of  the  resemblance  of  the  cement  to  the 
Portland  oolitic  building  stone.  It  was  first 
made  in  Indiana  at  South  Bend,  in  1877-8,  and 
this  is  said  to  have  been  the  first  successful  manu- 
facture of  artificial  cement  in  the  United  States 
(Geol.  Kept.  1900,  p.  24). 

The  lime  for  Portland  cement  may  be  had 
from  two  sources — limestone  and  marl,  in  both 
of  which  Indiana  is  rich.  The  abundance  of 
limestone  has  been  already  touched  upon  in  the 
sections  on  "Quarry  Stone."  The  marl  deposits 
are  found  in  the  lake  region  of  the  State  in  the 
beds  of  existing  or  extinct  lakes,  the  supply  being 
practically  inexhaustible.  An  extensive  survey 
of  the  lakes  and  study  of  their  marls,  made  in 
1899  and  1900,  revealed  not  less  than  thirty-two 
deposits  extensive  enough  to  justify  the  erection 
of  cement  plants,  and  these  would  probably  be 
multiplied  with  the  improvement  of  facilities  for 
getting  at  the  deeper  beds.  The  lime  in  marl,  ac- 
cording to  one  theory,  has  been  a  long,  slow  de- 
posit from  the  waters  of  springs  that  well  up  in 
the  lakes.* 

One  advantage  of  marl  over  limestone  in  the 
manufacturing  process  is  that  the  labor  of  crush- 
ing is  obviated.     On  the  other  hand  there  is  a 

*  For  a  long  treatise  on  "The  Lakes  of  Northern  Indiana  and 
Their  Associated  Marl  Deposits,"  by  W.  S.  Blatchley  and  Geo. 
H.  Ashley,  see  Geol.  Rept.  1900. 



vast  anK.unl  oi  wantage  in  the  .luarryin-  and  Joseph  county,  where  Mishawaka  now  stands,  in 
dressin- of  hmestones  for  building  purposes,  and  1834.  Here  a  variety  of  articles  for  pioneer: 
this  wantage  makes  a  cheap  and  c<.n\enient  l)y-  use  were  manufactured  and  the  establishment 
pro<luc't  for  cement  manufacture.  In  a  list  of  had  a  wide  patronage  and  a  prosperous  career, 
eight  factories  that  were  operating  in  19C6,  three  Other  plants  in  other  localities  followed.  Four- 
used  marl  and  rive  used  various  kinds  of  lime-  teen  blast  furnaces  are  mentioned  by  Geologist 
stone.  The  largest  factory,  located  at  Mitchell,  lUatchley,  of  which  he  says:  "Most  of  them; 
Laurence  count'^N-,  with  a  capacity  of  5,000  bar-  have  long  since  gone  to  ruin,  and  of  those  still 

rels  per  day.  used  •'.Milchell"  limestone  with 
knobstone  shale  as  cla\.  Tlie  largest  marl  fac- 
lor\-,  c  |ual  to  1,8(X)  barrels  per  day.  was  at  Syra- 
cuse. Kosciusko  count}'. 

Uses  of  Cement. —  The  uses  to  which  Port- 
land CLineni  is  put,  continually  multi])lying,  are 
almost  ])eyond  enumeration.  One  of  the  con- 
spicuous uses  is  for  concrete  sidewalks,  the 
mileage  of  which  is  becoming  immense.  Con- 
crete highways  for  country  travel  are  likewise 
coming  into  service,     h^or  building  purposes  it  is 

standing  the  last  one  went  out  of  blast  in  1893." 
The  cause  he  assigns  is  that  the  ore  in  general 
"is  too  silicious  to  compete  with  the  richer  hema- 
tites of  the  Lake  Superior,  Missouri,  Tennessee^ 
and  Georgia  regions."  Nevertheless  it  is  main-. 
tained  that  there  is  a  promising  future  for  the 
abandoned  Indiana  ores,  interest  in  which  must 
be  revived  by  the  establishment  at  Gary  of  a 
system  of  blast  furnaces  and  iron  mills  that  rank 
among  the  greatest  in  the  United  States. 

Peat. — AVhile  peat  has  thus  far  played  but. 

beconung  a  formidable  rival  of  wood,  stone  and  little  part  in  the  economic  development  of  this, 
brick.  I'Dr  massive  work,  such  as  bridges,  abut-  State,  it  has  no  small  value  as  a  fuel  and  will 
menls.  piers,  etc.,  it  is,  to  no  small  degree,  super-  undoubtedly  be  utilized  in  time.  It  has  long; 
seding  stone,  and  it  is  taking  the  place  of  wood  been  used  in  Europe  and  is  now  used  in  many] 
in  sccjres,  if  not  hundreds,  of  articles.  The  limit  places  in  the  United  States 
is  b\-  no  means  yet  reached  and,  in  brief,  the  Peat  is  a  product  of  vegetation  growing  in 
cement  resources  of  the  State  are  destined  to  water,  and  is  defined  as  "a  moist,  spongy  and  par- 
be  productive  of  great  wealth,  as  there  is  op-  tially  carbonized  vegetable  matter."  When  dug 
poriunily  for  a  vast  expansion  of  the  industry  out  and  dried  it  is  inflammable,  burning  easily 
as  the  demand   for  this  useful  article  increases,  as  a   fuel,   and,   when   used  in  a   specially  con-i 

structed    stove,    is    very    desirable    for    domestic 

OTHER  MINERAL  RESOURCES  purposes.    A  peat  factory  molds  the  material  intoi 

compact  "briquettes."     It  has  less  heating  value! 

Iron. —  Indiana    does    not    rank    high    as    an  than  coal,  but  in  many  regions  where  peat  exists: 

iron  producing  State,  thotigh  that  is  not  because  lack  of  transportation  facilities  makes  coal  ex-| 

she  is  lacking  in  this  resource.     On  the  contrary,  pensive,  and  with  the  depletion  of  the  wood  sup-' 

tin-    Department    of    (ieology   and    Natural    Re-  ply  there  is  every  reason  why  peat  should  take 

sources  lists  no  less  than  thirty-two  counties  as  its  place,  as  it  has  done  in  other  countries, 
havuig  iron   ore  in   sufficient   (juantity   to  be   of  The  lake  region   of  northern   Indiana   is   rich 

iH-ononnc  in)i)ortance.^^     i',ighteen  of  these  are  in  in  peat  beds  and  a  study  of  the  peat  area  takes 

the  region  oi   [he  lakes  and  the  Kaid<akee  river,  in  about  7,500  square  miles.     It  has  been  esti-| 

where  bog  n'on  is  found,  and  the  others  lie  west  mated   that   peat   "briquettes"   can   be   manufac-; 

and  southwest,  wuh  .Martin  and  (Ireene  counties  tured    at   a   cost    of   about   eighty-six   cents   perlj 

K-a(hng.      In    tornier  years  the  iron   industry   for  ton.* 

home   iirrds    was   rather   extensively    develo]x^(l.  Mineral  Paint  Rocks  and  Clays.— These  are 

bnt   m  tmir  oilu-r  localities  with  better  facilities  certain    shales   and   clays   used    for   making   the 

an<l,    jR-rhap-^.    better   grades    of    ore    closed    the  "mineral  paints,"  such  as  umber,  sienna,  ochre 
business  in    Imliana. 

I'he  liT'^t   ])laiil    foi-  snu'ltiiig 
in   this   Stale    was   built   by    .\. 


•  Srr 


ritf     Iron     Orr     I)<iinsil!- 
•Iiol.     U,|,|.     I'lltl,. 

if     Iiuli;iii.-i, 

worknig  u'on 
I  hn-d    in    St. 

(lias.    w. 

etc.  .Abundant  de])osits  exist  in  the  State  andj 
have  been  worked  somewhat  in  \  igo,  Owen^] 
(irecne,    Martin   and   Duliois  counties,   and   j^er-'l 

*  Sec    "Peat    Deposits    of    Northern    Indiana,"    by    Arthur    E. 
Taylor.     Geol.  Rept.   1906. 



liaps  elsewhere,  but  the  industry  seems  thus  far 
iO  have  developed  but  feebly. 
j  Medicinal  Waters. — The  medicinal  waters  of 
ndiana  are  a  more  important  asset  than  is  gen- 
■■rally  supposed.  A  study  of  this  resource  by  the 
department  of  Geology,  published  in  1901,  dis- 
f;losed  that  there  were  eighty  springs  and  eighty- 
iix  wells  yielding  medicinal  waters,  distributed 
hroughout  fifty-two  counties  of  the  State.  A 
few  of  these  are  much  better  known  than  others, 
|iot  because  of  the  superiority  of  their  waters, 
')ut  because  they  have  been  made  resorts  and 
lave  been  widely  advertised.  Medicinal  water 
las  been  discovered  in  many  localities  by  deep 
)orings  for  natural  gas  or  oil,  and  for  that  reason 
he  number  of  wells  now  exceed  the  known 

'  The  waters  vary  in  their  chemical  constituents, 
)Ut  are  classified  under  the  four  heads  of  Alka- 
ine,  Saline,  Chalybeate  and  Neutral  or  Indiffer- 
;nt.  Of  these,  chalybeate  springs,  or  iron  springs, 
ire  the  most  common  and  the  saline  waters  are 
nost  used  for  medicinal  purposes.  Dyspepsia, 
;jout,  rheumatism,  obesity,  skin  diseases,  and 
itomach,  kidney  and  bowel  troubles  are  among 
lie  ailments  that  are  supposed  to  be  helped  by 
;hese  waters.  There  is  a  large  trade  in  bottled 
vaters  shipped  for  home  consumption,  but  the 
i:urative  fame  of  mineral  waters  has  been  built 
ip  by  sanatoriums  and  resorts  at  the  springs  or 
veils  where  the  patients  combine  plentiful  con- 
numption  with  a  system  of  bathing. 

A  number  of  these  sanatoriums  exist  in  dilTer- 
nt  parts  of  the  State. 

Precious  Metals  and  Stones. — Gold  and  dia- 
jnonds  in  Indiana  can  hardly  be  considered  as  a 
'natural  resource,"  but  it  is  interesting  to  know 
fhat  both  are  found  here,  and,  the  gold  especially, 
Dver  a  much  wider  area  than  is  generally  sup- 
oosed.  In  fact,  more  than  once,  the  Hoosiers 
lave  experienced  a  gold  excitement,  and  to  the 
present  day  local  gold  hunters  have  the  abiding 
:ever  and  expect  some  time  to  discover  rich 

To  one  who  puts  faith  in  the  science  of  geol- 
ogy, however,  such  hope  is  dispelled.  No  rocks 
n  Indiana  are  either  gold-  or  gem-bearing  and 
'3ur  limited  supply  has  come  with  the  glacial 
Irift  from  the  far  north.  The  rocks  containing 
chem.    deposited    here    and    there,    have    in    the 







course  of  long  weathering,  set  free  their  precious 
but  scant  burdens.  These  deposits  have  been  re- 
ported from  Brown,  Cass,  Dearborn,  Frankhn, 
(Greene,  Jackson.  Jefferson,  Jennings,  IMontgom- 
ery,  Morgan,  Ohio,  Putnam,  Vanderburg  and 
Warren  counties,  and  in  at  least  two  of  these — 
Brown  and  Morgan— it  has  been  sought  with 
zeal.  (in\y  a  few  years  since  a  company  was 
organized  for  sluicing  in  Morgan  county,  and 
the  promoters  carried  about  with  them  specimens 
of  their  tinds ;  but,  like  preceding  companies,  this 
one  went  glimmering.  As  early  as  1850,  gold 
was  "discovered"  in  the  State,  and  in  the  sixties 
there  was  quite  a  little  flurry  over  finds  in  Brown 
county,*  and  ever  since  then,  perhaps,  men  have 

•  The  late  John  Richards,  a  pioneer  of  Brown  county  who 
lived  on  Bear  creek,  some  years  ago  told  the  writer  of  leasing 
part  of  the  creek  bed  to  a  syndicate  from  Indianapolis,  who  pro- 
ceeded to  put  up  "the  biggest  and  best  flume  ever  built  in  Brown 

made  their  living  washing  out  dust  from  the 
sand  in  the  creek  beds.  One  old  gold  washer, 
"Uncle"  John  Merriman,  claimed  that  he  could 
average  $1.25  per  day  during  the  panning  season. 
The  largest  nugget  he  ever  found  weighed  132 
grains,  and  was  worth  $5.50.  As  he  was  old 
at  the  business  and  correspondingly  adept  his 
findings  may  be  accepted  as  about  the  maximum 
return  for  gold-hunting  in  this  State. 

In  the  search  for  gold  occasional  diamonds 
have  been  found,  but  usually  too  small  to  be  cut. 
There  is  record,  or  tradition,  rather,  of  two 
found  years  ago  that  sold  respectively  for  $50  i 
and  $75.  Other  precious  stones  have  been  found,  | 
but  few,  if  any,  of  commercial  value.* 

county."     Just   as   they   finished   this   flume   a   heavy   storm  and 
freshet  tore  it  out  and   swept  it  away  in  pieces — to  the  utter  dis- 
couragement of  the  builders.     This  was  probably  in  the  sixties. 
*  See  Geol.  Repts.  1888  and  1901. 



Growth  of  Manufactures. — As  stated  in  a 
previous  chapter  the  manufacturing  industries 
of  Indiana  were  almost  neghgible  during  the 
earlier  decades,  the  general  conditions  being  a 
fatal  handicap.  By  1850,  these  conditions  began 
to  change,  and  with  that  change  the  manufactur- 

made  possible  the  development  of  natural  re- 
sources. Practically  the  impetus  begins  with  the 
incoming  of  the  railroad,*  and  the  growth  of  the 
railroad  system  and  the  general  industrial  move- 
ment have  gone  abreast. 

Industrial  Statistics. — By  the  census  returns 

Convent  of  Sisters  of  St.  Francis,  Oldenburg,  Franklin  County. 

ing  era  set  in.  In  1849,  the  total  value  of  the 
manufacturing  output  was  $18,725,000.  By  1869 
it  had  increased  to  $100,000,000,  and  by  1909  to 
$579,075,000.  Within  those  years  the  State  ad- 
vanced from  fourteenth  to  ninth  place  in  the 
Union,  and  from  the  employment  of  14,440  wage- 
earners,  representing  1.5  per  cent,  of  the  total 
population,  as  estimated  in  1850,  we  have  for 
the  1910  estimate  186,984  employes,  amounting 
to  6.9  per  cent,  of  the  population.  This  growth 
it  attributed  by  a  census  writer  to  the  various 
natural  resources  of  the  State,  but,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  the  greatest  of  all  factors,  perhaps,  has 
been  improved  transportation  service  which  has 

of  1910,  $508,717,000  were  invested  in  manufac- 
turing industries  in  Indiana.  There  were  7,187 
establishments,  classified  under  fifty-five  sepa- 
rate industries,  besides  772  that  were  unclassi- 

The  most  important  of  these,  as  estimated 
by  the  capital  invested  were,  in  the  order  named, 
the  iron  industries,  foundry  and  machine  shop 
products,  carriages  and  wagons,  artificial  gas,  ag- 
ricultural implements,  lumber  and  timber  prod- 
ucts, automobiles,  furniture,  and  flour  and  grist 

*  It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  prior  to  the  railroad 
era  the  Wabash  and  Erie  and  Whitewater  canals  played  their 
parts  in  developing  their  respective  sections. 




mill  ];ro(lucts.  These  leading  industries  repre- 
sent investments  ranging  from  $47,781,000  for 
iron  industries,  to  $15,857,000  for  the  outjnit  of 
(lour  and  grist  mills.  Of  the  total  capital  in- 
volved about  one-third  is  invested  in  the  live  lead- 
ing cities — Indianapolis.  South  Bend,  Ft.  Wayne, 
I-Lvansville  and  'i'erre  llaute,  these  decreasing  in 
the  order  named.  Indianapolis  is  far  in  the  lead 
with  $76,497,000.  Its  largest  industry  is  that  of 
foundry  and  machine  products.  South  Bend 
leads  in  the  manufacture  of  carriages  and  wagons 
with  a  capital  of  $17,442,000,  which  is  far  in 
excess  of  any  other  one  local  industrial  invest- 
ment.    l'',\-ans\ille  leads  in  furniture. 

The  ten  leading  manufacturing  cities,  other 
than  the  five  already  named,  are  in  the  order 
of  their  investments :  Hammond,  Mishawaka, 
Richmond,  Anderson,  Michigan  City,  Muncie, 
Laporte,  Elkhart,  East  Chicago  and  Elwood. 

Out  of  the  State's  total  population  of  2,700,- 
873  in  1910,  the  manufactures  gave  employment 
to  208.263  persons,  including  wage-earners  and 
employers.  Compared  with  agriculture,  as  an 
industrial  factor,  the  latter  still  leads.  The  num- 
ber of  persons  employed  on  farms  as  owners, 
tenants  or  managers  in  1909  was  215,485.  This 
does  not  include  many  others  who  follow  agri- 
cultural occupations. 



Comparative  Agricultural  Values. — It  is  safe 
to  say  that  whatever  the  manufacturing  and 
commercial  future  of  Indiana  may  be,  it  will 
always  take  high  rank  as  an  agricultural  State. 
(The  quality  and  amount  of  its  cultivable  soil  in- 
sures that.  Among  all  the  States  of  the  Union 
Indiana,  Ohio,  Illinois  and  Iowa  rank  highest  in 
jthe  percentage  of  land  area  in  farms  and  in  the 
average  price  per  acre.  In  the  first — the  amount 
[of  farm  land  compared  with  total  area — Iowa 
j  ranks  first  with  95.4  per  cent.  Indiana  and  Ohio, 
(coming  next,  are  almost  a  tie,  the  former  having 
92.3  and  latter  92.5  per  cent.  In  the  average 
value  of  farm  lands  Illinois  comes  first  with 
$95.02  per  acre,  Iowa  follows  with  $82.58  and 
Indiana  comes  third  with  $62.36.  This  valuation 
{includes  land,  buildings,  implements  and  live 
stock,  and  the  land  value  alone  of  Indiana  ex- 
ceeds that  of  Ohio,  being  $1,328,196,545. 

Statistics  of  the  State. — The  approximate 
total  area  of  Indiana  is  23,068,800  acres.  Of 
this  21,299,823  acres  are  in  farm  lands  and 
16,931,252  acres  are  classed  as  "improved."  The 
average  size  of  farms  is  98.8  acres.*  The  im- 
proved acreage  has  about  doubled  since  the  Civil 
war,  and  the  total  number  of  farms  now  is 
215,485.  During  the  period  named  the  greatest 
land  increase  was  prior  to  1880,  it  dropping 
thereafter  to  a  small  per  cent.,  but  the  increase 
in  values  has  been  phenomenal  since  1900.  As 
against  the  present  average  acreage  value  of 
$62.36  the  value  in  1900  was  $31.81,  the  increase 
being  96  per  cent. 

Distribution  of  Values. — Land  values  in  In- 
diana range  from  ten  or  fifteen  dollars  per  acre 
to  a  hundred  and  twenty-five  or  more.  The  best 
land,  as  measured  by  selling  value,  is  represented 
by  a  block  of  counties  stretching  across  the  cen- 
tral and  north-central  parts  of  the  State,  reach- 
ing as  far  south  as  Johnson,  Shelby  and  Rush, 
and  as  far  north  as  Newton,  Miami  and  Wabash. 
Of  this  block  Marion  and  Benton  counties  rank 

*  The  average  size  of  farms  steadily  decreased  from  1850  to 
1900,  it  being  in  the  first-named  year  136.2  acres,  and  in  the  lat- 
ter 97.4  acres.  In  1910,  for  the  first  time,  there  is  shown  a  tend- 
ency to  increase. 

highest,  the  latter,  presumably,  because  of  its 
superior  soil,  and  the  former  because  of  Indi- 
anapolis and  its  influence  on  values.  The  north- 
ern tiers  of  counties  run  uniformly  from  fifty  to 
seventy-five  dollars  per  acre,  with  the  exception 
of  Starke,  Pulaski  and  Steuben,  which  rank 
lower.  The  Wabash  valley,  from  Parke  to 
Posey,  runs  from  fifty  to  seventy-five  dollars;  a 
stretch  a  little  farther  east,  extending  from  Put- 
nam to  Warrick  and  Spencer  on  the  Ohio  river 
are  twenty-five  to  fifty  dollars,  and  most  of  the 
southeast  corner  of  the  State  are  valued  at  the 
same  figure.  The  cheapest  land  reaches  from 
Monroe  and  Brown  to  Perry  and  Harrison,  on 
the  Ohio,  and  Jefferson  and  Switzerland  are  also 
included  in  this  class.  The  value  is  placed  at  ten 
to  twenty-five  dollars  per  acre,  though  it  is  prob- 
able that  but  little  land  in  the  State  is  sold  at  the 
ten-dollar  figure.* 

Crops  and  Their  Distribution. — Among  the 
crops  raised  in  Indiana  we  find  twenty-one  dif- 
ferent kinds  that  are  important  enough  to  be 
considered  by  the  State  Department  of  Statistics 
in  its  last  biennial  report  (1913-14).  These  are: 
Corn,  wheat,  oats,  rye,  barley,  buckwheat,  water- 
melons, cantaloupes,  apples,  berries,  potatoes, 
onions,  tobacco,  tomatoes,  timothy,  clover,  al- 
falfa, prairie  hay,  millet,  cow  peas  and  soy  beans. 

Corn. — Of  these,  as  measured  by  acreage  and 
yield,  corn  is  far  in  the  lead  ;  the  acreage,  as  com- 
pared with  wheat,  which  ranks  next,  running 
from  about  one  to  three  millions  more. 

The  total  yield  of  the  corn  crop  for  1913  was 
161,276,315  bushels.  The  ten  leading  counties 
as  to  total  yield  were  Tippecanoe,  Benton,  Rush, 
White,  Clinton,  Allen,  Boone,  Shelby,  Madison 
and  Montgomery ;  though  for  the  average  yield 
per  acre  Tipton  leads  the  State  with  an  average 
in  1913  of  57.69  bushels  per  acre.  Some  of  the 
river  counties,  like  Knox,  have  spots  that  yield 
phenomenally,  but  do  not  hold  up  when  it  comes 
to  a  total  estimate.  Statistics  show  that  corn  is 
grown  on  nearly  nine-tenths  of  the  farms  of  the 
State,  but   what   niav   lie   called  the  "corn   belt" 

From  charts  and  tables  of  Thirteenth  Census. 




occupies  the  central  i)art  of  the  State  from 
Wayne  to  Vigo,  and  from  Shelby  and  Johnson 
to  the  upper  Wabash  region. 

iyin,at.— In  wheat  the  State  seems  to  be  fall- 
ing off.  the  acreage  being  less  in  1912  than  any 
time  in  eight  years.  It  was  nearly  two  millions 
less  than  it  was  in  1899.  The  leading  wheat  sec- 
tions run  up  the  \\'abash  from  Posey  to  Sulli- 
van ;  Dubois  and  Floyd,  in  the  south,  are  good 
counties,  as  are  Shelby,  Johnson,  Rush,  Bartholo- 
mew. Hendricks  and  Marion  in  the  central  belt. 
Among  tile  northern  counties  Noble,  Kosciusko, 
Pulaski,  Whitley,  Grant.  Wabash,  Miami,  De- 
kalb, Carroll,  Cass,  Howard,  Benton,  Boone  and 
Clinton  all  take  rank.  In  1913  Miami  led  with 
an  average  vield  of  22.71  bushels  and  Posey  with 
a  total  yield  of  1,143,264  bushels.  In  the  average 
per  acre  we  find  the  ten  leading  counties  are  all 
in  tlie  northern  group  just  specified,  from  which 
it  may  be  concluded  that  our  true  wheat  belt  ex- 
tends across  the  State  from  Clinton  on  the  south 
to  Kosciusko  and  Dekalb  on  the  north. 

Oats  and  Rye. — Next  to  corn  and  wheat,  as 
considered  by  acreage,  comes  oats,  of  which  there 
has  been  a  slow  but  steady  increase  for  the  last 
thirty-five  years.  The  best  oats  region  coincides 
with  our  best  wheat  country,  being  the  north- 
central  counties. 

Rye  has  long  been  a  minor  crop,  but  is  on  the 
increase,  the  average  in  1913  amounting  to 
207,680  acres.  The  northern  counties  produce 
the  most,  as  they  do  of  barley,  which  is  also  a 
crop  of  minor  importance. 

Hay. — The  farmers  of  the  State  devote  con- 
siderable acreage  to  forage  crops  other  than  corn 
fodder,  such  as  timothy,  clover,  alfalfa,  cow  peas 
and  soy  beans.  Timothy  leads  in  acreage  and 
yield,  the  production  being  tolerably  uniform 
fr)r  the  last  twelve  or  fifteen  years,  with  an  an-  yii'ld  somewliat  exceeding  a  million  tons. 
Clover  conies  next  in  tonnage,  and  l)oth  these 
hay.s  thrive  best  in  the  northern  counties.  Al- 
falfa is  at  i^resent  regarded  as  a  coming  crop  and 
has  been  steadily  increasing  since  1909,  the  acre- 
age in  1913  being  36,624,  scattered  over  counties 
botli  north  ;iiid  south.  Cow  peas  and  soy  beans 
.seem  to  thrive  best  in  the  southern  section,  Knox 
iK-ing  the  leading  county  in  these  productions. 
I  he  total  yirld  for  1913  was  79.317  tons.  Be- 
sides the  above  crops  consideral)l(.'  wild  or  prairie 
hay  is  harvested  and  seems  to  Ik-  increasing  vear 

bv  year,  90,143  tons  for  1913  being  in  excess  of 
any  previous  year  given  in  the  statistics.  The 
wald  hay  counties  lie  both  north  and  south,  but 
the  leading  section  is  in  the  northwest  part  of 
the  state. 

Potatoes,  Onions  and  Tomatoes. — The  potato 
crop  is  on  the  decrease,  as  shown  by  the  returns 
for  the  last  thirteen  years,  the  production  within 
that  period  diminishing  almost  one-half.  The 
yield  for  1913  was  3,137,228  bushels.  This  crop 
does  best  in  the  northern  counties,  as  does  the 
onion  crop,  which  in  Indiana  runs  considerably 
over  a  million  bushels  a  year. 

The  tomato  crop  is  increasing,  a  yield  of 
125,224  tons  in  1913  being  larger  than  ever  be- 
fore. Tipton  county  takes  the  lead.  The  crop 
is  raised  chiefly  for  the  canning  factories. 

Melons. — A  crop  of  growing  importance,  par- 
ticularly in  the  lower  Wabash  counties,  is  that  of 
melons.  In  1913  there  were,  altogether,  8,057 
acres  devoted  to  this  product,  the  average  value 
per  acre  of  which  was  $62.83.  For  both  water- 
melons and  cantaloupes,  Knox,,Gibson  and  Posey 
counties  stand  at  the  head,  and  their  cantaloupes 
are  said  to  be  famed  as  far  east  as  New  York 
and  as  far  west  as  Colorado. 

Apples. — In  orchard  fruit,  particularly  apples, 
Indiana,  which  once  produced  a  superior  quality, 
suffered  decadence  because  of  the  inroads  of 
orchard  enemies  and  the  neglect  to  wage  an  intel- 
ligent warfare  against  such  enemies.  Of  recent 
years  there  has  been  a  revival  of  interest ;  apple- 
growing  by  scientific  orcharding  has  been  pro- 
moted, especially  in  the  southern  hill  counties, 
where  land  is  at  once  cheap  and  adapted  to  fruit, 
and  the  results  have  been  shown  at  apple  exhibits 
held  annually  at  Indianapolis  the  last  three  or 
four  years.  These  exhibits  compare  well  with 
those  of  the  famous  fruit  districts  of  W^ashington 
and  Oregon.  If  our  fruit  is  somewhat  inferior 
in  size  and  showiness,  it  is  superior  in  flavor,  and 
the  verdict  of  those  who  have  investigated  is  that 
Indiana  land  costing  twenty-five  dollars  or  less 
per  acre  will  make  as  good  return  to  the  investor 
as  will  Hood  River  or  Yakima  land  at  five  hun- 
dred dollars  an  acre — providing,  of  course,  the 
same  care  is  expended  as  is  necessary  there. 

Tobacco. — We  hardly  think  of  Indiana  as  be- 
ing a  tobacco  State,  yet  it  produced  in  1913  no 
less  than  10,049,280  pounds.  The  tobacco  "belt" 
is,  of  course,  chiefly  in  the  southern  part  of  the 






State,  but  counties  as  far  north  as  Tippecanoe 
and  Grant  figure  in  statistics,  and  Randolph  is 
one  of  the  ten  best. 

Live  Stock. — Indiana  as  a  live  stock  State 
takes  high  rank.  Horses,  mules,  cattle,  hogs, 
sheep  and  poultry  represent  the  animal  industries 
important  enough  to  be  considered  by  the  State 
Department  of  Statistics. 

From  the  beginning  of  the  State's  history  hogs 
have  been  far  in  excess  of  every  other  animal 
product.  Ever  since  the  statistics  have  been  kept 
the  number  on  hand  each  year  has  been  a  million 
and  a  half  to  two  millions,  the  statistics  for  1914 
giving  1,992,819.  The  loss  from  disease  is  a 
heavy  tax  on  the  industry,  running  into  the  hun- 
dreds of  thousands  each  year.  In  1911,  1912  and 
1913  it  averaged  about  a  half  million  a  year.  The 
greatest  number  of  hogs  are  raised  in  a  belt  cut- 
ting east  and  west  through  the  central  part  of 
the  State,  with  Rush  in  the  lead,  with  56,016  head 
on  hand  January  1,  1914. 

Cattle,  in  number  of  head,  rank  next  to  hogs, 
the  returns  for  1913  showing  1,076,033  on  hand 
March  1.  0(  these  40,954,419  were  dairy  cattle, 
the  figures  showing  beef  cattle  to  be  considerably 
in  excess.  The  leading  counties  for  milk  cows 
and  dairy  products  are  those  running  across  the 
north  part  of  the  State,  though  Hamilton  and 
Marion  rank  high,  and  Ripley  in  the  south  is  in  - 
eluded  among  the  "ten  best."    Allen  leads. 

The  production  of  horses  and  mules  has  in- 
creased year  by  year,  that  of  1914  exceeding  any 
previous  year,  being  646,846  horses  and  82,575 
mules.  The  best  horse  counties  lie  in  the  north, 
but  the  best  mule  counties  are  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  State,  with  Posey  decidedly  in  the 

The  chea])er  hill  lands  of  the  southern  coun- 
ties would  seem  to  be  the  logical  section  for  sheep 
grazing,  but  all  the  leading  counties  lie  north, 
with  Lagrange  and  Steuben  leading.  The  statis- 
tics for  fourteen  years  show  that  the  sheep  in- 
dustry has  been  steadily  declining.  In  1900  there 
were  932,856,  with  a  wool  clip  of  4,537,975 
])()unds.  By  1914  the  number  had  fallen  to 
481,075.  Perhaps  the  mortality  from  disease 
among  shec])  has  had  something  to  do  with  the 
decline.  The  yearly  loss  between  the  years  s])eci- 
fied  has  ranged  from  27,610  in  1913  to  83,754  in 
1901.     The  sheer  loss  in  1913  equaled  $116,874. 

W  hen  we  consider  jjoultry  and  eggs  the  figures 

loom  up  large.  In  1910  there  were  reported  a 
total  of  13,789,109  fowls,  valued  at  $7,762,015. 
Of  these  13,216,024  were  chickens.  There  were 
202,977  turkeys,  121,306  ducks,  139,087  geese  and 
57,433  guinea  fowls.  The  increase  during  the 
ten  preceding  years  was  15.4  per  cent,  and  the 
increase  of  value  83.8  per  cent.,  these  increases 
being  in  chickens.  The  egg  production  is  given 
as  80,755,437  dozens,  valued  at  $15,287,205. 

The  best  poultry  counties  lie  in  the  north, 
though  Ripley  is  classed  among  the  ten  that 
stand  highest.    Allen  and  Kosciusko  lead. 


The  "Grange." — In  1867  a  movement  to  or- 
ganize the  farmers  of  the  United  States  for  the 
purpose  of  protecting  themselves  commercially 
was  initiated  by  Oliver  Hudson  Kelley.  of  Wash- 
ington. The  organization  effected,  known  as  the 
"National  Grange  of  the  Patrons  of  Husbandry," 
became,  within  a  few  years,  the  greatest  that  had 
ever  been  promoted  in  this  country  in  behalf  of 
the  agricultural  classes.  Subordinate  associa- 
tions, called  State  Granges,  sprang  up.  and  by 
1874  there  were  upward  of  21,000  of  these,  with' 
a  total  membership  of  about  700,003. 

The  central  idea  of  the  order  was  co-operation 
in  selling  and  buying,  with  a  view  to  eliminating 
the  profits  of  the  middleman,  and,  especially,  the! 
unrighteous  gains  of  the  speculator  and  mon- 
opolist who  preyed  off  the  labor  of  the  producer. 
The  Grange  established  co-operative  elevators, 
warehouses,  flour  mills  and  purchasing  agencies, 
and  through  these  it  effected  a  material  saving  to 
its  members.  After  1874  the  popularity  of  the 
order,  for  some  reason  or  other,  declined  as  rap-j 
idly  as  it  had  risen.*  By  1880  it  had  dropped; 
entirely  out  of  public  notice,  and  for  ten  years 
little  was  heard  of  it.  Then  it  began  to  recover 
on  a  sounder  basis  that  was  better  thought  out. 
At  present  it  exists  in  thirty-one  States,  one  of 
which  is  Indiana. 

The  movement  in  Indiana  was  part  of  the! 
wider  movement  as  above  sketched,  and  was  or- 
ganized at  Terre  Haute.  Februar}-  28,  1872,  un- 
der the  direction  of  O.  H.  Kelley.  +  The  exact 
I)resent   status   of   the   order   we   are   unable   tc 

*  It  has  been  said  that  this  decline  was  "but   the  inevitable  re 
action  from  too  sudden  popularity." 

t  Terre  Haute   Daily   Gazette,   March   1,    1872. 



gather  from  the  reports  that  are  issued,  but  in 
1912  we  find  it  stated  that  since  1911  there  had 
been  an  increase  of  1,500  members  and  an  addi- 
tion of  twelve  new  local  granges  within  the  State. 
jThe  year  preceding  September  20,  1914,  there 
Iwere  added  eight  new  granges  and  something  like 
s600  members. 

Farmers'  Institutes. — March  9,  1889,  an  act 
iwas  passed  by  the  Legislature  providing  for 
county  institutes.  By  this  law  it  was  made  the 
jduty  of  "the  Committee  of  Experimental  Agri- 
culture and  Horticulture  of  the  Board  of  Trus- 
tees, together  with  the  faculty  of  the  School  of 
[Agriculture  of  Purdue  University,  to  appoint  be- 
fore November  first  of  each  year  suitable  per- 
sons to  hold  in  the  several  counties  of  this  State, 
between  the  first  day  of  November  and  the  first 
day  of  April  of  each  year,  county  institutes  for 
the  purpose  of  giving  to  farmers  and  others  in- 
terested therein  instructions  in  agriculture,  horti- 
culture, agricultural  chemistry  and  economic  en- 

j  This  law  continues  in  operation  and  has  been 
ti  great  educative  and  organizing  influence  among 
(ihe  farmers  of  the  State.  In  each  county  is  ap- 
Dointed  a  local  head  or  county  chairman,  who 
issumes  responsibility  for  the  meetings  of  that 
punty,  and  to  supply  these  meetings,  held  over 
,:he  various  counties,  something  like  a  hundred 
nstitute  speakers  are  secured.  These  include 
practical  farmers,  horticulturists,  stockmen  and 
i3pecialists  of  the  Purdue  Agricultural  Experi- 
iTient  station.  Of  late  years,  in  addition  to  the 
^mbjects  of  the  original  programs,  attention  is 
'^iven  to  domestic  science  for  the  women  and 
i^irls,  to  young  people's  contests  in  farm  produc- 
tions, and  to  boys'  and  girls'  clubs. 
I  Throughout  the  United  States  these  farmers' 
Institutes  are  increasing  and  broadening  their 
r-cope  of  work.  In  the  season  of  1909-10  (the 
jatest  figures  we  have)  there  were  held  in  Indiana 
554  meetings,  or  1,218  sessions,  at  a  cost  of  about 
I  en  thousand  dollars.  All  counties  of  the  State 
'vere  included  in  the  system. 


f  Of  recent  years  agricultural  conditions  in  In- 
liana  have  been  undergoing  changes.  From  a 
largely  preponderating  rural  population  that  has 
ormerly  prevailed  that  population  has  decreased 

not  only  in  its  ratio  to  the  urban  population  but 
actually.  Between  1900  and  1910  there  was  a 
sheer  loss  of  96,732.* 

This  must  be  accounted  for,  in  large  part,  by 
the  drifting  from  the  country  to  the  cities,  but 
another  factor  undoubtedly  is  the  seeking  of 
cheaper  lands  in  the  newer  States. f  As  a  coun- 
ter-balance to  this  reduction  of  the  farming  pop- 
ulation the  wider  introduction  of  labor-saving 
machinery  and  other  facilities  has  reduced  the 
necessity  for  manual  labor.  The  shifting  of  the 
population  city-ward  seems  not  to  have  afi^ected 
production,  and  it  may  be  accounted  for  in  part 
by  decreased  need  for  farm  labor. 

"Back  to  the  Soil"  Movement. — On  the  other 
hand  there  is  a  certain  "back  to  the  soil"  move- 
ment of  which  we  see  frequent  mention,  but  a 
study  of  this  movement  over  the  country  at  large 
by  George  K.  Holmes,  of  the  United  States  De- 
partment of  Agriculture,  shows  that  in  character 
it  is  by  no  means  an  equivalent  for  the  exodus 
from  the  farms,  and  would  not  be  even  if  the 
interchanging  elements  were  equal  in  number. 
Those  who  are  turning  country-ward  are  not  as  a 
rule  experienced  farmers,  and  Mr.  Holmes,  after 
collecting  data  from  forty-five  thousand  crop  cor- 
respondents, classifies  them  as  follows :  Those 
who  move  to  the  country  but  hold  to  their  occu- 
pations in  town ;  those  who  occupy  their  farms 
when  the  season  suits  and  go  back  to  the  town  in 
winter ;  those  who  take  to  the  soil  as  an  escape 
from  city  conditions  and  the  hard  struggle  for 
existence  there  ;  mercliants  and  many  others  who, 
having  failed  in  the  city,  fancy  they  can  succeed 
in  the  country  ;  those  who,  having  forsaken  the 
country  in  their  youth,  fondly  return  to  it  as  a 
matter  of  sentiment  after  they  have  spent  their 
lives  making  money  elsewhere ;  and,  finally,  the 
moneyed  man  indulging  in  a  fad  or  luxury,  who 
spends  lavishly  on  his  country  place,  upsets  the 
wage  scale  of  the  neighborhood  and  operates  as 
a  disturbing  influence  generally. 

This  study  of  ^Ir.  Holmes  applies  to  Iiifhana 
as  elsewhere,  and  it  is  obvious  that  none  of  the 
classes  he  specifies  contributes  very  largely  to 
agriculture  as  a  serious  pursuit.  It  should  be 
added  that  a  factor  in  the  situation  is  the  inter- 

*  This  is  not  all  an  agricultural  loss,  however,  as  "rnral"  popu- 
lation includes  those  in  towns  of  less  than  2,500. 

7  Inter-state  migration  works  both  wavs.  l)uf  in  the  shifting 
process  Indiana  has  lost  100,000  more  than  she  has  gained,  as 
shown  by  the  census  charts. 



urban  electric  railway,  which  has  brought  city 
and  country  into  far  closer  touch  than  formerly 
and  has,  to  a  large  degree,  shorn  the  country  of 
its  old-time  unattractive  isolation. 

Tenantry. — The  tables  show  that  farm  ten- 
antry in  Indiana  is  increasing.  In  1880  twenty- 
four  out  of  every  hundred  farms  were  operated 
by  tenants.  In  1910  it  stood  at  thirty  per  cent., 
with  a  marked  increase  in  favor  of  cash  tenantry. 
The  heaviest  percentage  of  tenantry  is  in  the 
northwest  part  of  the  State. 

The  Scientific  Impulse;  State  Aid. — As  a 
general  proposition  tenantry  means  agricultural 
deterioration,  and  Mr.  Holmes'  list  of  amateur 
farmers  as  cited  above  would  also  seem  to  imply 
deterioration  in  this  pursuit;  but  as  opposed  to 
this  we  find  that  to-day,  as  never  before,  there  is 
a  tendency  toward  improved  methods  of  farm- 
ing, based  on  scientific  instruction.  There  is  a 
distinctive  movement  in  this  direction ;  new  edu- 
cational influences  are  at  work,  and  an  increas- 
ing number  of  the  younger  farmers  are  equipped 
for  the  business  by  courses  in  the  agricultural 
colleges.  The  State  agricultural  school,  Purdue 
University,  is  an  important  factor  in  this  im- 
pulse. Not  only  does  it  offer  the  regular  four- 
years'  course  in  the  science  of  agriculture,  but  it 
also  conducts  various  special  short  courses  of 
which  the  farmers  and  their  families  can  take 
advantage  in  the  more  leisurely  seasons  at  small 
expense.  This  covers  two  features  which  the 
university  bulletin  designates  as  a  Winter  School 
and  a  Farmers'  Short  Course.  The  work  of  the 
first  "consists  of  lectures  and  laboratory  exer- 
cises arranged  to  meet  the  needs  of  farmers  and 
home-makers,"  and  its  object  is  to  "help  young 
men  and  women  to  produce  better  corn  and  live 
stock,  better  milk  and  butter  and  better  fruit,  and 
to  make  better  homes  and  at  the  same  time  to 
secure  a  greater  profit  from  the  time,  money  and 
energy  expended.  The  Farmers'  Short  Course  is 
"designed  to  meet  the  needs  of  busy  farmers"  by 
a  definite  plan  of  study  outlined  to  cover  a  period 
of  one  week  in  January  of  each  year.  This  is  an 
extension  course  and,  in  the  form  of  lectures,  is 
carried  into  the  counties  that  wish  to  take  advan- 
tage of  it. 

Under  a  "vocational  education"  act  approved 
February  22,  1913,  provision  was  made  for  a 
"County  Agent,"  to  be  appointed  by  Purdue  Uni- 
versity upon  petition  of  twenty  or  more  residents 

of  a  county  who  are  actively  interested  in  agri- 
culture. The  duties  of  this  agent  are,  under  the 
supervision  of  Purdue,  "to  co-operate  with  farm- 
ers' institutes,  farmers'  clubs  and  other  organiza- 
tions, conduct  practical  farm  demonstrations, 
boys'  and  girls'  clubs  and  contest  work,  and  other 
movements  for  the  advancement  of  agriculture 
and  country  life,  and  to  give  advice  to  farmers 
on  practical  farm  problems,  and  aid  the  county 
superintendent  of  schools  and  the  teachers  in 
giving  practical  education  in  agriculture  and  do- 
mestic science."  By  the  statistician's  report  of 
1914  there  were  twenty  agents  appointed  in  as 
many  counties,  and  they  are  a  pronounced  stimu- 
lus to  the  farming  communities.  One  feature  of 
the  work  is  the  organization  of  "county  tours"  in 
which  all  who  wish  to  join  drive  over  the  county, 
visiting  selected  farms  for  a  field  study  of  crops 
or  the  inspection  of  live  stock  or  farm  improve-, 
ments.  These  prearranged  trips  are  usually  madel 
by  auto,  and  are  led  by  the  agent,  accompanied, 
perhaps,  by  a  Purdue  specialist  who  lectures, 
upon  the  particular  subject  in  hand.  An  idea  ofi 
the  interest  aroused  by  these  trips  is  conveyed 
by  the  report  of  1914,  which,  summing  up  the 
results  of  the  "alfalfa  campaign"  alone,  over 
twenty  counties,  states  that  "a  total  of  613  auto- 
mobiles participated  in  the  tour,  carrying  3,184 
people.  Two  hundred  and  eighty-seven  farms 
were  visited,  inspecting  2,080  acres  of  alfalfa. 
One  hundred  fourteen  meetings  were  held,  with 
a  total  attendance  of  12,951.  A  grand  total  of 
16,135  people  were  reached." 

Social  Status  of  Farmers. — Within  the  easy 
memory  of  middle-aged  men  there  has  been  a 
marked  change  in  the  status  of  the  average,  rep- 
resentative farmer.  Not  only  is  the  uncouth, 
backwoodsman  of  whom  Eggleston  wrote  ex- 
tinct, but  the  rustic  Hoosier  whom  Riley  pictured 
in  his  earlier  days  is,  to  say  the  least,  vastly  modi-i 
fied.  Various  educational  influences — a  universalj 
free  school  system,  the  ubiquitous  newspaper  and 
farm  paper,  and  other  cheap  periodicals,  farm- 
ers' institutes,  granges,  clubs  and  other  organiza- 
tions— in  fact,  influences  too  numerous  to  easily 
trace,  have  done  their  work  to  a  degree  that  is 
very  noticeable  to  any  first-hand  observer.  The 
literary  copyist  who  to-day  goes  nosing  in  ob- 
scure places  in  search  of  the  time-honored 
"Hoosier  characters"  is  somewhat  amusing  as  a 



I  man  behind  the  times  who  does  not  yet  reahze 
;  that  the  present  type,  while  retaining  all  the  old- 
time  shrewdness,  humor,  raciness  and  fellowship, 
1  has  developed  new  qualities  that  present  a  new 
field  for  the  character  delineator.     The  typical 
;  farmer  of  to-day  is  well  informed  and  in  intelli- 
i  gent  touch  with  the  wider  affairs  of  the  world. 
He  is  coming  to  be  a  conscious  part  of  the  great 
1  social  movements.     Financially  he  thrives  better 

than  he  once  did,  and  he  lives  better.  The  "mod- 
ern" house  in  the  country  is  not  uncommon ;  the 
rural  telephone  service  is  all  but  universal ;  more 
automobiles  are  sold  to  farmers,  it  is  said,  than 
to  any  other  class.  The  spread  of  the  interurban 
service  has  also  been  a  great  modifying  factor  in 
rural  life  in  promoting  a  freer  touch  with  urban 
life,  and  the  social  differences  between  city  and 
country  people  are  becoming  obliterated. 


The  State  Seal. — The  origin  of  the  State  seal 
of  Indiana  is  involved  in  obscurity  and  has,  from 
time  to  time,  been  a  subject  for  discussion. 

In  the  first  constitution  we  find  it  provided 
that  "there  shall  be  a  seal  of  this  State,  which 
shall  be  kept  by  the  Governor,  and  shall  be  used 
by  him  officially,  and  shall  be  called  the  seal  of 
the  State  of  Indiana."  On  the  13th  of  December, 
1816,  the  first  Legislature  enacted  that  "the  Gov- 
ernor of  this  State  be  and  he  is  hereby  authorized 
to  provide  a  seal  and  also  a  press  for  this  State, 
and  that  a  sum  not  exceeding  one  hundred  dol- 
lars be  and  is  hereby  appropriated  for  that  pur- 
pose, to  be  paid  out  of  any  money  in  the  treas- 
ury not  otherwise  appropriated."  In  the  House 
Journal  of  1816  the  proposed  seal  is  discussed 
and  the  design  of  it  is  thus  defined :  "A  for- 
est and  a  woodman  felling  a  tree,  a  buffalo 
leaving  the  forest  and  fleeing  through  the  plain 
to  a  distant  forest,  and  the  sun  setting  in  the  west, 
with  the  word  Indiana."  It  will  be  noted  that 
while  most  of  the  features  existing  in  the  seal 
are  specifically  described  in  the  above,  no  men- 
tion whatever  is  made  of  mountains,  which  are 
manifestly  incongruous  in  an  Indiana  seal.  These 
mountains  have  been  variously  explained  as  the 
Alleghanies,  the  Rockies  and  as  "the  hills  lying 
least  of  Vincennes,"  while  the  orb  beyond  them 
has  been  both  the  rising  and  the  setting  sun — the 
emblem  of  a  rising  prosperity  and  of  empire 
I  taking  its  way  westward.  The  House  Journal 
["specifications"  say  "the  sun  setting  in  the  west." 
i  There  are  reasons  for  suspecting  that  the  de- 
sign did  not  originate  with  the  Legislature  of 
1816,  but  was  borrowed,  and  this  turns  out  to  be 
true,  for  on  a  slavery  petition  in  the  archives  at 

Washington,  dated  1802,  is  an  imprint  of  the  seal 
of  Indiana  Territory,  which  has  the  same  general 
features  as  the  present  emblem — the  woodman 
cutting  a  tree  and  the  buffalo,  sun  and  moun- 
tains, with  the  word  "Indiana"  on  a  scroll  in  the 
branches  of  the  tree.  A  reprint  of  the  document, 
with  a  description  of  the  seal,  may  be  found  in 
the  publications  of  the  Indiana  Historical  So- 
ciety, Volume  II,  pp.  461-469.  Discussing  the 
subject  there  Mr.  J.  P.  Dunn  argues  that  the  de- 
vice was  ordered  in  the  east  and  brought  to  the 
new  territory  by  either  Governor  Harrison  or 
John  Gibson,  the  territorial  secretary. 

Nearly  twenty  years  ago  the  Legislature  under- 
took to  ascertain  the  origin  of  the  seal  and  the 
authority  of  the  device,  because  of  the  various 
and  dift'erent  forms  in  use,  whereas  it  was  de- 
sirable that  the  public  business  of  the  State 
should  have  a  well-defined  and  legally  author- 
ized seal.  R.  S.  Hutcher,  the  leading  clerk  of 
the  Senate  in  1895,  an  expert  in  such  studies,  was 
appointed  a  special  commissioner  to  investigate 
the  matter  and  learn  whether  the  State  "has  any 
legalized,  authorized  great  seal."  The  result  of 
Mr.  Hutcher's  investigation  was  but  to  prove  that 
little  or  nothing  could  be  known.  There  was 
even  no  record  to  show  that  the  design  agreed 
upon  by  the  two  houses  in  1816  had  ever  been 
formally  adopted.  Hutcher  recommended  that  a 
more  definite  seal  be  established  by  legislative 
action,  but  no  such  action  was  taken.* — G.  S.  C. 

*  The  humoristic  editor  of  the  Rushville  Republican  some 
years  ago  thus  described  the  seal: 

"It  exhibits  a  woodman,  in  short  pants  and  G.  A.  R.  hat,  hack- 
ing at  a  tree,  one  of  his  hands  grasping  the  end  of  the  ax-handle 
while  the  other  clutches  it  close  up  to  the  butt,  in  the  way  weak 
woman  splits  kindling.  A  hornless  Poland-China  buffalo  is  fly- 
ing  from   the   awful   sight   with   a   despairing  gesture   from   a  tail 




The  Word  "Hoosier."— The  origin  of  the 
word  "Hoosier"  as  a  nickname  for  the  Indiana 
resident  has  long  been  a  matter  of  discussion. 
John  I'"inley,  of  Richmond,  has  been  credited  with 
introducing  the  term  into  print  by  his  poem,  "The 
Iloosier's  Nest."  first  published  as  a  "carrier's 
address"  in  the  Indianapolis  Journal  for  the  New 
Year's  issue,  January  1,  1833.*  Recently,  how- 
ever, I  have  found  an  earlier  usage.  The  Indiana 
Palladium,  of  Lawrenceburg,  in  its  issue  of  July 
30,  1831,  in  a  farcical  skit  describing  Noah  Noble 
as  horse  in  the  political  race,  uses  the  expression  : 
"Me     .     .     .     may  be  called  a  'Hoosher'." 

A  number  of  stories  about  the  origin  of  the 
word  have  been  current  for  many  years,  some  of 
them  1  icing  absurd  and  none  of  them  tenable. 
The  best  study  of  the  question,  and  the  only  one 
making  any  pretense  to  thoroughness,  is  a  mono- 
graph by  J.  P.  Dunn,  published  in  volume  iv  of 
the  Indiana  Historical  Collections.  Mr.  Dunn's 
study  practically  proves  that  it  is  not  a  chance 
word  at  all.  l)ul  one  with  antecedents  that,  prob- 
ably, reach  far  back  in  the  English  language ; 
which  was  long  used  in  the  south  to  denote  cer- 
tain uncouth  characteristics,  and  which  was  im- 
ported hither  as  descriptive  of  an  element  of  our 
early  population.  This  would  seem  to  be  borne 
out  by  early  newsj^iaper  references ;  as.  for  ex- 
ample, a  correspondent  in  the  Madison  Republi- 
can and  Banner,  of  October  3,  1833,  speaks  of 
"the  almost  ])roverl)ial  roughness  of  Hooshier- 
ism."  and  the  same  paper,  issue  of  September  12, 
1H3\  referring  sarcastically  to  James  B.  Ray's 
new  publication,  The  Hoosier,  alludes  to  the 
"sin',nilar  title  of  The  Hoosier,"  and  adds:  "All 
things  considered,  we  regard  the  title  in  this  case 
as  not  ina])pr()priale." — G.  S.  C. 

The  United  States  Courts  for  the  District  of 
Indiana. — Tlie  CMurls  of  the  Tnitcd  States  for 
the  District  of  Indiana  were  cstal)lished  by  an 
Act  of  C"ongress  on  March  3,  1817.  Three  days 
later  I'.enjamin  Parke  was  appointed  the  first 
district  judge.  He  was  a  native  of  New  Jersey, 
who.  in  ISOl,  reniowd  to  N'inccnnes  and  after- 
ward to  Salem,  Indiana.    Me  was  a  captain  under 

nearly  as  lonR  as  its  body,  having  previously  slud  one  of  its 
horns  Ixside  a  slump,  upon  which  leans  a  small  but  graceful 
blaek  liaiKlU-il  mop.  Iti  tlu'  background  old  Sol,  with  his  hair 
on   en. I,   sinks  down   behind   a   sway-back   hill   to   rest." 

•  In  the  history  of  I'orter  county  (page  18)  it  is  claimed  that 
the  cabin  described  by  linley  as  the  "Hoosier's  Nest"  was  a 
house  on  the  old  .Sac  li.iil  built  by  Thomas  Snow. 

William  Henry  Harrison  in  the  battle  of  Tippe- 
canoe. He  was  prominent  in  the  territorial  gov- 
ernment and  a  member  of  the  constitutional  con- 
vention that  framed  our  tirst  constitution.  He 
served  until  his  death,  July  13,  1835. 

From  1817  until  1825  the  court  was  held  at  the 
old  capital  at  Corydon,  Indiana.  The  record 
books,  which  are  still  well  preserved  and  in  the 
custody  of  Noble  C.  Butler,  clerk,  exhibit  inter- 
esting and  varied,  though  comparatively  unim- 
portant litigation  during  Judge  Parke's  adminis- 
tration. The  common  law  and  chancery  plead- 
ings, with  technical  verbosity  as  recorded  in 
the  plain,  old-fashioned  handwriting  of  Henry 
Hurst,  the  first  clerk  of  the  courts,  are  curiou.s 
mementos  of  obsolete  and  cumbersome  judicial 
procedure.  The  first  case  recorded  was  that  of 
United  States  vs.  Andrew  Hilton,  on  May  4, 
1819,  an  indictment  prosecuted  by  Thomas  H. 
Blake,  district  attorney,  charging  that  the  de- 
fendant did  "deal  in  and  sell  to  a  certain  Charles 
Dewey"  domestic  distilled  spirituous  liquors 
without  having  paid  the  tax,  at  the  town  of 
Liverpool,  Daviess  county.  There  was  a  trial 
by  jury  and  a  verdict  of  not  guilty.  It  does  not 
appear  whether  the  Dewey  mentioned  in  the  in- 
dictment was  the  same  Charles  Dewey  who  in 
1825  was  appointed  United  States  district  attor- 
ney and  afterward  for  many  years  was  a  judge 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Indiana.  The  last 
case  at  Corydon  was  Cuthbert  Bullitt  vs.  Rich- 
ard M.  Heth's  Administrators,  a  scire  facias  on 
a  judgment  in  debt  amounting  to  $1,031.23,1 
which,  on  November  6,  1824,  was  dismissed  at 
plaintiff's  costs.  ; 

In  January,  1825,  the  federal  courts  were  re- 
moved to  Indianapolis.     The  first  case  tried  in, 
this  city  was  on  January  5,  1825,  and  is  entitled 
United    States    vs.    Sundry    Goods,    Wares   and 
Merchandizes.      It   was   a   libel   of    information 
filed  by  Charles  Dewey,  the  then  district  attor- 
ney, for  the  confiscation  of  a  varied  assortment - 
of  goods,  including  liquor,  seized  from  William! 
H.  Wallace,  for  illegal  trading  with  the  Indian 
tribes  on  the  northwest  side  of  the  river  Tippe- 
canoe.     There   was   a   judgment    forfeiting   thej 
goods    and    awarding    one-half    to    the    United 
States  and  one-half  to  Edward  McCartney,  the 
informer.    An  appeal  was  prayed  to  the  Stipremei 
Court,  but  does  not  appear  to  have  been  per- 



!  Jesse  Lynch  Holnian,  the  second  district 
judge,  was  commissioned  September  16,  1835, 
and  held  office  until  his  death,  March  28,  1842. 
He  was  born  in  Danville,  Kentucky,  in  1784,  and 
studied  law  in  the  office  of  Henry  Clay,  coming 
to  Indiana  in  1808.  He  was  a  territorial  circuit 
jljudge  and  afterward,  from  1816  to  1830,  judge 
|of  the  Indiana  Supreme  Court.  It  is  said  that 
■Judge  Holman,  in  addition  to  his  judicial  labors, 
iserved  as  a  Baptist  clergyman  in  Aurora,  from 
fl834  until  his  death. 

The  third  district  judge  for  Indiana,  Elisha 
iMills  Huntington,  was  commissioned  May  2, 
11842,  and  served  until  his  death,  October  26, 
1862.  He  was  born  in  Otsego  county.  New 
York,  in  1806,  and  removed  to  Indiana,  where 
he  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  was  prosecuting 
attorney  in  1829,  circuit  judge  in  1831,  and  com- 
missioner of  the  General  Land  Office  at  Wash- 
ington in  1841. 

During  Judge  Huntington's  administration  an 
interesting  case  was  tried  under  the  fugitive 
slave  law.  In  the  year  1845  Vaughan,  a  citizen 
of  Missouri,  sued  Williams  for  rescuing  slaves 
of  the  plaintiff  after  the  plaintiff  had  found  and 
arrested  them  in  a  cabin  near  Noblesville.  The 
defendant  demurred  to  the  complaint  on  the 
ground  that  the  Ordinance  of  1787,  which  pro- 
hibited slavery  in  the  territory  northwest  of  the 
river  Ohio,  required  fugitive  slaves  to  be  re- 
turned only  when  claimed  in  one  of  the  thirteen 
original  States.  The  circuit  justice  ruled,  how- 
ever, that  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
operated  to  repeal  any  provisions  of  the  Ordi- 
nance repugnant  to  its  terms,  when  Indiana  was 
admitted  into  the  Union,  and,  the  provision  of 
the  federal  Constitution  requiring  the  return  of 
fugitive  slaves  escaping  from  one  State  into  an- 
other being  paramount,  the  obligation  to  return 
them  was  binding  if  the  plaintiff  successfully 
established  his  title.  The  evidence  in  the  case 
developed  that  the  slaves,  Sam,  Mariah  and  child, 
were  purchased  by  the  plaintiff  from  a  man 
named  Tipton,  in  Missouri,  and  that  Tipton, 
having  prior  to  the  sale  of  the  slaves  moved  with 
them  into  Illinois,  remained  in  that  State  the 
statutory  time  required  to  gain  a  residence,  and 
having  also  voted  and  exercised  the  rights  of  a 
citizen  of  that  State  prior  to  the  sale  to  Vaughan, 
the  slaves  became  free  under  the  laws  of  Illinois 
and  therefore  Vaughan  had  no  title.     The  jury, 

so  instructed,  returned  a  verdict  for  the  de- 
fendant.— Vaughan  v.  Williams,  3  McLean  530. 
Judge  Huntington  was  succeeded  by  Caleb 
Blood  Smith,  a  native  of  Boston,  who  studied 
law  at  Cincinnati,  Ohio,  and  at  Connersville, 
Indiana,  whence  he  removed  to  Indianapolis. 
Judge  Smith  was  influential  in  procuring  Lin- 
coln's nomination  and  was  Secretary  of  the  Inte- 
rior in  Lincoln's  cabinet,  which  position  he  re- 
signed to  accept  the  district  judgeship  on  Decem- 
ber 22,  1862.  He  was  a  man  of  remarkable  ora- 
torical powers.  After  serving  a  little  over  one 
year  he  died,  and  Albert  Smith  White,  of  La- 
fayette, was  his  successor,  but  White  held  the 

ifij    ""-Sff    ^m     ^B  9 

Old  United  States  Court-House  and  Postoffice  Building 
at  Indianapolis,  occupied  until  1904. 

office  only  a  few  months,  dying  at  Stockwell, 
Indiana,  September  4,  1864. 

President  Lincoln  then  appointed  David  Mc- 
Donald, who  took  the  oath  of  office  December 
13,  1864.  Judge  McDonald  was  a  professor  of 
law  in  the  Indiana  University,  which  institution 
conferred  upon  him  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  He 
was  also  author  of  McDonald's  Treatise,  a  work 
on  practice,  which  for  many  years  was  relied 
upon,  and  is  to  this  day  esteemed  by  many  as  a 
most  useful  textbook  to  guide  the  logic  of  the 
practitioner  and  the  judgment  of  the  justices  to 
"turn  upon  the  poles  of  truth." 

It  was  during  Judge  McDonald's  administra- 
tion that  the  military  commission  composed  of 
Brevet-Major  General  Alvin  P.  Hovey  and 
others  convened  in  the  United  States  court  room 
and  tried  Harrison  H.  Dodd,  William  A.  Bowles, 
Andrew  Humphreys,  Horace  Heffren,  Lambdin 



P.  Milligaii  riiul  Stephen  Horsey,  leaders  of  the 
Indiana  branch  of  the  Knights  of  the  Golden 
Circle.  The  conspiracy  embraced  an  alleged 
scheme  for  an  armed  ujirising  of  rebel  sym- 
pathizers, the  liljeration  of  prisoners  of  war  at 
("amp  Morton  and  other  military  prisons  in  Ohio 
and  Illinois,  the  assassination  of  Governor  Mor- 
ton, and  the  establishment  of  a  Northwestern 
Confederacy,  to  be  composed  of  Ohio,  Indiana, 
Illinois,  .Missouri  and  Kentucky.  The  prisoners 
were  conhned  in  cells  in  the  Postofttce  building, 
except  Dodd.  who,  upon  his  parol,  was  allowed, 
while  his  trial  was  in  progress,  to  occupy  a  room 
on  the  third  floor,  from  which,  about  four  o'clock 
in  the  morning  of  October  7,  1864,  he  escaped 
through  a  window  by  means  of  a  rope  fastened 
to  his  bed.  Friends  who  visited  him  had  fur- 
nished him  with  a  ball  of  twine,  which  he  utilized 
to  draw  uj)  a  rope  from  the  outside.  The  street 
lamps  near  the  federal  building  had  been  dark- 
ened to  conceal  his  exit.  He  went  to  Canada  and 
remained  there  until  the  Supreme  Court  of  the 
United  States  released  his  co-conspirator,  Milli- 
gan,  on  habeas  corpus  proceedings.  Dodd  after- 
ward became  a  prominent  Republican  politician 
in  Wisconsin.  After  Milligan  had  been  found 
guilty  and  sentenced  to  death,  application  was 
made  l)y  his  counsel,  Major  J.  W.  Gordon,  to 
the  United  States  Circtiit  Court  for  a  writ  of 
liabcas  corpus.  Judge  McDonald  and  Circuit 
Justice  Swayne,  who  heard  the  application,  being 
unable  to  agree,  certified  the  questions  involved 
to  the  Sui)reme  Court  of  the  United  States, 
where  the  jurisdiction  of  the  military  tribunal 
was  denied.  The  case  is  a  leading  one  on  the 
subject  of  the  jurisdiction  of  military  tribunals 
and  the  ])ower  of  civil  courts  to  review  their 
judgments  upon  writs  of  habeas  corpus. — In  re 
MiUujau.  4  Wallace  2. 

Ciiiil  May  10,  1869,  there  were  no  circuit 
judges,  the  work  of  the  circuit  court  being  di- 
vided between  the  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court 
assigned  lo  the  circuit,  and  the  district  judge. 
John  McIa-.-iii  was  the  first  Supreme  Court  jus- 
tice assigned  to  duty  in  this  circuit,  followed  by 
Justices  Noali  II.  Swayne,  David  Davis,  John  M. 
Harlan,  Mrllvillr  W  .  l-uller,  John  M.  Harlan  and 
Henry  S.  P.rown.  In  186*)  the  act  providing  for 
circuit  jnd-^i's  was  passed  and  Thomas  H.  Drum- 
mond.  of  Illinois,  was  appointed  to  that  office  by 
President  GraiU. 

Walter  Q.  Gresham  was  appointed  district! 
judge  to  succeed  Judge  McDonald,  and  commis-' 
sioned  September  1,  1869.  In  1882  he  resigned 
and  became  postmaster  general  in  the  cabinet  of 
President  Arthur,  and  was  succeeded  by  W^illiam 
Allen  W^oods,  of  Goshen.  Judge  Gresham  was 
appointed  circuit  judge  on  October  28,  1884, 
after  the  resignation  of  Judge  Drummond. 
Judge  Woods  continued  as  district  judge  until 
the  creation  of  the  circuit  court  of  appeals,  when, 
on  March  17,  1892,  he  was  commissioned  circuit 
judge  by  President  Harrison,  and  subsequently 
became,  and  was  at  the  time  of  his  death,  on 
June  29,  1901,  the  presiding  judge  of  the  United 
States  Circuit  Court  of  Appeals  for  the  Seventh 
Judicial  Circuit. 

To  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  promotion  of 
Judge  Woods  to  the  bench  of  the  circuit  court 
of  appeals,  John  H.  Baker,  of  Goshen,  was  ap- 
pointed district  judge  and  served  until  December 
18,  1902,  when  his  resignation  took  effect.   Judge, 
Baker  tendered  his  resignation  to  the  president  j 
on  May  1,  1902,  to  take  effect  upon  the  appoint-' 
ment   of    his    successor,    shortly    after    his    son,, 
Francis  E.  Baker,  was  appointed  by  President! 
Roosevelt  circuit  judge  in  place  of  Judge  Woods.} 
Francis  E.  Baker,  who,  at  the  time  of  his  ap-i 
pointment  by  President  Roosevelt,  was  one  of 
the  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Indiana,, 
was  commissioned  January  21,  1902,  as  judge  of 
the  circuit  court  of  appeals  for  the  seventh  ju- 
dicial circtiit,  and  is  now  in  office.* 

After  the  resignation  of  Judge  John  H.  Baker,! 
Albert  B.  Anderson  of  Crawfordsville,  was  ap-j 
pointed  district  judge  on  December  8.  1902,  and  I 
qualified  on  December  18,  1902,  and  is  now  in; 
office.  I 

While  Gresham  was  on  the  district  bench  the 
Whisky  Ring  conspirators  were  prosecuted  by 
Charles  L.  Holstein,  as  assistant  and  afterward' 
United  States  attorney.  The  Whisky  Ring  was 
a  conspiracy  between  distillers  and  government: 
officials  whereby  distillers  who  were  not  in  thei 
ring  were  trapped  into  technical  violations  of  the! 
law  and  members  of  the  ring  were  made  exempt  j 
from  the  payment  of  certain  taxes.  In  less  than  j 
one  year  the  government  had  been  defrauded! 
out  of  nearly  two  millions  of  dollars.  The  prose- ( 
cutions  were  ordered  by  President  Grant  under 

*  Judge  Balcer  died  at  his  liome  in  Goslien  on  October  21,  1915, 
at  tlie  age  of  eiglity-four  years. 



jthe  injunction,  "Let  no  guilty  man  escape."  A 
inumber  of  persons  were  indicted  in  this  district 
land  convicted  and  a  large  amount  of  property 

j  About  the  year  1877  the  prosecutions  against 
James  Slaughter  and  Carey  Miller  for  defalca- 
tions in  the  First  National  Bank  were  conducted, 
ilt  is  said  that  while  the  grand  jury  was  engaged 
!in  the  investigation  of  these  cases  preparatory  to 
returning  the  indictments  one  of  the  grand  jurors 
tame  to  Judge  Gresham  and  asked  him  whether 
ithe  government  of  the  United  States,  or  the  ad- 
ministration (at  that  time  President  Hayes)  had 
iany  right  to  control  the  deliberations  of  the 
igrand  jury.  Judge  Gresham  replied  that  it  cer- 
tainly had  not.  The  juror  stated  that  the  dis- 
trict attorney  had  said  that  the  government  did 
not  wish  to  prosecute  a  particular  case  and 
iwanted  to  withdraw  proceedings  against  a  certain 
man.  As  soon  as  Judge  Gresham  took  his  seat 
on  the  bench  that  day  he  had  the  grand  jury 
brought  in  and  charged  that  they  should  not  be 
influenced  by  the  wishes  of  the  administration 
or  the  desire  of  the  district  attorney  in  any  way 
whatever  in  their  deliberations ;  that  where  a 
matter  had  been  submitted  to  them  it  could  not 
be  withdrawn,  and  that  the  president  of  the 
United  States  had  no  more  control  over  their 
deliberations  than  the  czar  of  Russia. 
;  About  this  time  also  the  first  cases  under  the 
federal  election  law  were  brought,  resulting  in 
the  indictment  of  Henry  Wrappe  from  Jennings 
county.  In  this  case  General  Benjamin  Harrison 
iwas  pitted  against  Thomas  A.  Hendricks.  Hen- 
dricks challenged  the  array  on  account  of  their 
political  opinions,  and  Judge  Gresham  ordered 
the  jury  to  be  made  up  of  half  and  half.  Repub- 
licans and  Democrats. 

:  During  Judge  Gresham's  administration  and 
immediately  following  the  panic  of  1873,  there 
was  an  epidemic  of  railroad  foreclosure  suits. 
In  the  flush  times  prior  to  1873  eastern  capital 
had  sought  investment  in  the  development  of  the 
Irailroads  of  the  west  and  many  railroad  com- 
panies v/ere  thrown  into  the  hands  of  receivers 
because  of  their  embarrassed  financial  condition. 
■It  was  in  the  receivership  of  the  Indianapolis, 
fBloomington  and  Western  Railway  that  Hon. 
'John  M.  Butler  contended  before  Judge  Drum- 
mond  for  a  modification  of  the  doctrine  of  real 
estate  mortgages   when   applied   to   railroads   so 

that  claims  for  labor  performed  and  supplies  fur- 
nished shortly  before  the  appointment  of  a  re- 
ceiver should  be  paid  in  preference  to  the  mort- 
gage debt.  Judge  Drummond  in  this  case  an- 
nounced the  famous  "six-months'  rule,"  which  he 
adhered  to  in  subsequent  cases,  that  claims  for 
labor,  supplies  and  materials  accrued  in  the  op- 
eration and  maintenance  of  a  railroad  during  a 
period  of  six  months  prior  to  the  appointment  of 
a  receiver  should  be  paid  out  of  the  proceeds  of 
sale  in  preference  to  the  payment  of  the  mort- 
gage bonds.  In  the  Chicago,  Danville  and  Vin- 
cennes  receivership  the  rule  was  applied  to  the 
case  of  some  equipment  purchased  by  the  road. 
Henry  Crawford,  who  appeared  for  the  bond- 
holders, vigorously  assailed  before  Judges  Drum- 
mond and  Gresham  the  application  of  the  six- 
months'  rule  as  an  attempt  at  confiscation  of 
property  and  denounced  the  rule  as  a  figment  of 
"sentimental  equity."  Crawford  took  the  case  to 
the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  ( Fos- 
dick  V.  Schall,  99  U.  S.  235),  where  the  six- 
months'  rule  was  fully  approved,  but  the  case 
reversed  on  another  point.  It  is  related  that 
after  the  decision  of  the  Fosdick  case.  Judge 
Drummond  met  Mr.  Crawford  and  said  to  him: 
"What  do  you  think  now  of  my  sentimental 
equity?"  Crawford  replied:  "Yes,  Judge,  you 
had  the  ingenuity  to  invent,  but  not  the  common 
sense  to  apply  the  doctrine."  The  principle  of 
the  Fosdick  case  wrought  a  revolution  in  the  law 
of  railroad  receiverships.  It  became  firmly  em- 
bedded in  federal  jurisprudence  and  has  proved 
a  blessing  to  railroad  employes  all  over  the 

While  Judge  Woods  was  on  the  district  bench 
the  celebrated  tally  sheet  forgery  cases  were 
tried,  resulting  in  the  conviction  and  im])rison- 
ment  of  Simeon  Coy  and  William  F.  A.  Bern- 
hamer.  To  General  John  Coburn,  more  than  any 
other  man,  is  due  the  credit  for  the  prompt  or- 
ganization of  the  Committee  of  One  Hundred 
and  the  manifestation  of  a  determined  sentiment, 
non-partisan  in  character,  to  purify  the  pohtical 
atmosphere  of  Marion  county  by  punishment  of 
a  most  brazen  crime  against  the  ballot.  After 
conviction,  and  with  the  inevitable  consequences 
of  his  crime  before  him,  Coy  announced  his 
unique  aphorism  "When  I'm  done  I'm  did." 

W.  W.  Dudley,  who  during  the  Garfield  ad- 
ministration was  United  States  marshal  for  In- 



diana.  and  ulio.  durin,i(  the  llan■i^ou  campaign 
of  1888  was  chairman  of  the  National  Repubh- 
ran  Committee,  during  that  cami)aign  m:iiled  let- 
ters to  Indiana  chairmen  containing  tl:is^  lan- 
guage: "Divide  the  floaters  into  blocks  of  five 
and  ])ut  a  trusted  man  with  necessary  funds  in 
ciiarge  of  tliese  live,  and  make  him  res])onsible 
that  none  get  away,  and  that  all  vote  our  ticket." 
Hon.  Solomon  Claypool  was  district  attorney  at 
the  lime,  and  very  promptly  after  the  election  an 
attemi)t  was  made  to  indict  Dudley  under  Sec. 
5511  (the  federal  election  law,  since  repealed) 
making  one  who  "aids,  counsels,  procures  or  ad- 
vises" another  "to  commit  or  attempt  to  commit 
any  oft'ense"  named  in  the  section  (including  the 
briberv  of  a  voter)  punishable  by  fine  or  impris- 
onment. The  grand  jury  was  impaneled  and 
instructed  November  14,  1888,  and  continued 
their  deliberations  until  December  24,  when  they 
requested  a  construction  of  the  language  of  the 
act.  An  adjournment  was  had  until  January  15, 
1889.  when  the  court  further  instructed  the  jury 
essentially  as  follows :  "But  in  any  case,  beyond 
the  mere  fact  of  the  advice  or  counsel,  it  must 
jje  shown  that  the  crime  contemplated  was  com- 
mitted or  an  attempt  was  made  to  commit  it." 
It  was  immediately  charged  by  the  Democratic 
press  that  .Judge  Woods  had  "changed  his  in- 
structions" so  as  to  shield  Dudley ;  that  after  pro- 
ceedings were  commenced,  "Republican  leaders 
were  frightened ;  Quay  and  W'anamaker.  one  or 
both,  hastened  to  Indianapolis ;  high  and  close 
counsels  of  the  i)arty  were  held,  and  the  supple- 
mental charge  devised,  carefully  weighed  and 
ado])tcd."  A  sharp  issue  of  fact  arose  out  of 
what  constituted  the  first  charge.  There  being 
at  thai  time  no  official  court  reporter,  the  news- 
pajjer  re])orts  of  the  first  charge  were  said  to  be 
inaccurate  and  untrue.  On  the  other  hand  Judge 
Woods  insisted  that  his  first  charge,  which  was  did  nol  ]»ul  an\-  construction  on  the  statute, 
lull  ke])i  close-  lo  iis  very  words;  and  even  his 
loud«.'st  and  most  persistent  accusers  commended 
the  lirst  of  the  charges  in  (|uestion  as  being  "in 
the  i)lain,  simple  language  of  Section  5511." 
Wlirihci-  ihc  couiiseliiig  or  advising  of  another 
to  do  an  act  made  criminal,  by  Section  5511.  was 
a  offense  under  that  section,  unless 
tlu'  act  so  counseled  or  advised  was  done  or  at- 
tempU'd  lo  hr  done,  was  a  legal  question  aboul 
which     at     first     hlnslt     great     lawvers     differed. 

Judge  Woods'  conclusion,  in  the  negative,  was 
supported  by  very  able  decisions ;  Republic  v. 
Roberts,  1  Dall.  39;  Regina  v.  Gregory,  10  Cox 
C.  C.  459 ;  and  by  the  language  of  Section  5323 
R.  S.,  relating  to  piracies.  Hon.  Joseph  E.  Mc- 
Donald took  the  opposite  view,  and  even  Justice 
John  M.  Harlan  at  first  was  so  inclined,  but  on 
examination  of  the  authorities  cited  the  latter 
very  frankly  acknowledged  the  correctness  of 
Judge  Woods'  conclusion.  But  the  defamers  of 
Judge  Woods  continued  their  efforts  to  smirch 
his  judicial  character.  The  following  Democratic 
State  convention  adopted  a  resolution  solemnly 
declaring  "that  the  brazen  prostitution  of  the 
machinery  of  the  federal  court  of  the  United 
States  for  the  District  of  Indiana,  by  its  judge 
and  attorney,  to  the  protection  of  these  conspira- 
tors (Dudley  and  others)  against  the  suffrage, 
constitutes  the  most  infamous  chapter  in  the  ju- 
dicial annals  of  the  Republic."  The  fight  was 
continued  in  the  Senate  by  Senators  Turpie  and; 
Voorhees  in  an  unsuccessful  attempt  to  defeat 
the  confirmation  of  Woods  as  circuit  judge.; 
Senator  McDonald's  letter  of  November  9,  1888,i 
and  Mr.  Claypool's  testimony  before  the  Senate 
Committee,  show  beyond  question  that  the  last[ 
charge  was  in  exact  accord  with  the  view  of  the! 
statute  which  Judge  Woods  had  declared  to  Mc- 
Donald, to  Claypool,  and  to  others  before  the 
first  charge  was  given.  There  was,  therefore,  no 
change  of  front.  After  newspaper  discussion 
of  the  subject  had  died  out,  Hon.  W.  H.  H. 
Miller,  then  attorney-general,  called  Judge 
W'oods'  attention  to  the  decision  of  the  SupremCj 
Court  of  the  United  States  in  United  States  v.' 
Mills,  7  Peters  138,  where  the  precise  point  was 
decided  as  long  ago  as  1833.  The  Supreme  Court 
held  in  that  case  "that  an  indictment  for  advising, 
etc.,  a  mail  carrier  to  rob  the  mail,  ought  to  set 
forth  or  aver  that  the  said  carrier  did  in  fact 
commit  the  ofifense  of  robbing  the  mail."  This 
decision  was  entirely  overlooked  at  the  time  of 
the  Dudley  controversy,  and  sustains  emphat-; 
ically  the  correctness  of  the  judge's  instructions.] 

The  most  notable  judicial  action  of  Judgel 
Woods  was  the  injunction  against  the  Americani 
Railway  Union  in  the  strike  of  1894,  and  the 
trial  and  punishment  of  Debs  and  others  for  vio-l 
lation  of  the  injunction. 

During  Judge  Baker's  administration  as  dis- 
trict judge  the  cases  growing  out  of  the  embez- 



zlement  of  funds  of  the  Indianapolis  National 
Bank  were  tried.  The  sensational  events  accom- 
I  panying  the  trial,  which  are  yet  well  remembered, 
J  include  the  trial  and  conviction  for  contempt  of 
1  court  of  a  juror  who  solicited  a  bribe,  and  the 
';!  accidental  shooting  of  Addison  C.  Harris  by  a 

i  client  in  another  case. 
In  the  summer  and  fall  of  1894  the  attention 
of  the  court  was  directed  to  the  trial  of  the  strike 
leases,  resulting  from  the  so-called  "omnibus  in- 
junction"  against   Debs   and    other   officers   and 
1  members  of  the  American  Railway  Union.     The 
fearless  and  prompt  prosecutions  conducted  by 
Frank  B.  Burke,  district  attorney,  before  Judge 
Baker,  for  the  first  violations  of  the  injunction 
.  in   this    district    resulted    in    early   breaking   the 
backbone  of  the  strike  in  this  State  and  a  prompt 
restoration    of    law    and    order    in    the    railroad 
i centers. 

[j     In   the    Scott   county    lynching   case,    tried    in 
;1899  and   resulting   in   a   small   verdict    for   the 
plaintiiT,   Judge    Baker   announced   the   doctrine 
i  that  a  sheriff  is  liable  on  his  official  bond   for 
damages   resulting   from  his   failure  to  exercise 
1  reasonable  care  in  protecting  the  life  and  health 
of  prisoners  in  his  custody.     Tyler  v.  Cobin,  94 
Fed.  48.     This  decision  attracted  wide  attention, 
■  and  has  resulted  in  legislation  in  this  and  other 
:  States  designed  to  hold  sheriffs  to  a  stricter  ac- 
countability for  the  safety  of  prisoners. 
j      Notable  cases  have  been  tried  and  determined 
during  Judge  Anderson's  occupancy  of  the  federal 
bench  for  the  Indiana  district.    In  1909  the  Pan- 
ama libel  suit  was  commenced   in   Washington, 
D.  C,  and  an  effort  made  to  extradite  the  editors 
of  the  Indianapolis  Nezvs  from  Indianapolis  to 
[Washington  for  trial.     It  was  contended  that  the 
'publication   of   an   editorial   in   the   Indianapolis 
Nezvs  reflecting  upon   Theodore   Roosevelt   and 
1  others  was  libelous,  and  as  the  paper  circulated 
[in  Washington,  as  well  as  elsewhere,  the  editors 
I  could  be  extradited  from  Indianapolis  to  Wash- 
fington  for  trial.     In  denying  the  application  for 
:a  warrant  of  extradition.  Judge  Anderson,  in  an 
able  oral  opinion,  said :    "To  my  mind  that  man 
has  read  the  history  of  our  institutions  to  little 
purpose  who  does  not  look  with  grave  apprehen- 
sion upon  the  possibility  of  the  success  of  a  pro- 
ceeding such  as  this.     If  the  history  of  liberty 
means  anything,  if  constitutional  guaranties  are 
S  worth  anything,  this   proceeding  must   fail.      If 

the  prosecuting  authorities  have  the  authority  to 
select  the  tribunal,  if  there  be  more  than  one 
tribunal  to  select  from;  if  the  government  has 
that  power  and  can  drag  citizens  from  distant 
States  to  the  capital  of  the  nation,  there  to  be 
tried,  then,  as  Judge  Cooley  says,  this  is  a  strange 
result  of  a  revolution  where  one  of  the  grievances 
complained  of  was  the  assertion  of  the  right  to 
send  parties  abroad  for  trial."  A  similar  result 
was  reached  in  the  New  York  district,  where  the 
case  was  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court  and  the 
decision  denying  the  application  for  extradition 
of  editors  of  the  New  York  W^orld  was  affirmed. 

In  1912  an  indictment  was  returned  in  Judge 
Anderson's  court  against  a  large  number  of  offi- 
cers and  members  of  the  International  Association 
of  Structural  Steel  and  Iron  Workers  for  conspir- 
acy to  unlawfully  transport  dynamite  on  passen- 
ger trains  from  State  to  State.  The  purpose  was 
to  further  the  interests  of  the  iron  workers  in 
strikes  in  various  parts  of  the  country.  Mys- 
terious explosions,  resulting  in  great  destruction 
of  property  and  loss  of  life,  occurred  in  various 
parts  of  the  country.  Witnesses  from  Boston 
and  San  Francisco,  in  all  parts  of  the  country, 
and  some  from  foreign  countries,  told  details  of 
a  most  amazing  plot  that  resulted  in  great  loss  of 
life  and  of  property.  The  case  was  prosecuted 
by  Charles  W.  Miller,  then  United  States  attor- 
ney, and  resulted  in  the  conviction  and  sentence 
of  thirty-eight  officers  and  members  of  the  union. 

In  1914  Judge  Anderson  tried  the  Election 
Conspiracy  Case,  growing  out  of  an  election  in 
Terre  Haute.  It  was  popularly  believed  that 
since  the  repeal  of  the  so-called  Force  Bill,  under 
which  the  case  In  re  Coy  was  tried  during  Judge 
Woods'  administration,  there  was  no  federal  stat- 
ute which  could  be  invoked  for  the  protection  of 
the  purity  of  the  ballot  in  federal  elections. 
Nevertheless  a  large  number  of  Terre  Haute 
politicians  were  indicted  and  brought  to  trial, 
found  guilty  and  sentenced  to  prison  for  con- 
spiracy to  violate  various  sections  of  the  federal 
statutes  relating  to  elections.  This  case  was  vig- 
orously prosecuted  by  United  States  Attorney 
Frank  C.  Daily,  under  a  Democratic  administra- 
tion, against  a  large  number  of  Democrats,  Re- 
publicans and  Progressives,  resulting  in  convic- 
tion and  punishment  of  the  oft'enders,  and  the 
example  set  by  the  Indiana  court  has  resulted  in 
election  conspiracy  cases  in  other  States. 



The  le^Mslation  of  Congress  has  shown  a  con- 
sistent design  to  enlarge  the  jurisdiction  of  State 
courts  over  controversies  between  citizens  of  dif- 
ferent States  by  linnling  the  jurisdiction  of  fed- 
eral courts  over  the  subject-matter  involved. 
The  decisions  of  the  Supreme  Court  on  jurisdic- 
tional questions  have  imposed  still  further  limita- 
tions, as,  for  example,  the  decision  in  Bardes  v. 
Ilawarden  Bank.  178  U.  S.  524,  construing  the 
bankruptcy  law  in  such  a  way  as  to  throw  into 
the  State  courts  practically  all  litigation  involving 
the  marshaling  of  assets  of  a  bankrupt  fraudu- 
lently or  preferentially  transferred.  Notwith- 
stanthng  these  jurisdictional  contractions,  the  fed- 
eral courts  of  Indiana  are  very  busy,  and  although 
Indiana  is  one  of  the  largest  districts  in  the 
L'nion.  the  nisi  prius  work  was  practically  all 
performed  by  Judge  Anderson  during  his  term, 
while  other  States  having  less  work  are  subdi- 
vided into  two  or  more  districts  or  divisions  with 
a  district  judge  for  each. — Rowland  Evans. 

Insurance  in  Indiana. — Prior  to  the  year  1852 
all  the  insurance  companies  in  the  State  of  In- 
diana were  organized  by  special  act  of  the  Leg- 
islature. The  acts  incorporating  these  com- 
panies were  very  broad,  giving  power  to  do  all 
kinds  of  insurance,  and  most  of  them  also  includ- 
ing banking  powers.  The  first  insurance  com- 
pany to  be  chartered  in  Indiana,  in  1832,  was  the 
Lawrenceburg  Insurance  Company  of  Lawrence- 
burg.  The  stock  of  this  company  was  trans- 
ferred to  Drew  &  Bennett,  of  Evansville,  Ind., 
in  1884,  who  changed  the  name  of  the  company 
to  the  Citizens'  Insurance  Company  of  Evans- 
ville, Ind.,  under  which  name  it  was  operated 
until  1903,  when  it  went  out  of  business.  Nota- 
ble among  the  insurance  companies  that  were 
granted  special  charters  prior  to  the  adoption  of 
the  Constitution  of  1852,  are  the  Firemen's  and 
Mechanics'  Insurance  Company  and  the  Madison 
Insurance  Company.  These  companies  were  or- 
ganized by  i)romincnt  citizens  of  Madison  and 
have  bc-cii  successfully  operated  up  to  the  present 

W'lu-n  the  Constitution  of  1852  was  adopted 
tlurr  \\;i^  ].nt  into  it  the  following  i)rovision :  "In 
all  e;isi's  enunuT.-ited  in  thr  ])i-cceding  section  and 
in  all  other  e.ases  where  a  general  law  can  be 
ni.idc,  all  laws  shall  be  general  and 
ol  ninlorui  operation  tbrougiiout  the  State"  (Art. 

4,  Sec.  23,  Ind.  Const.  1852).  This  section  re- 
voked the  power  to  create  corporations  by  spe- 
cial enactment. 

At  the  first  session  of  the  Legislature  under 
the  new  constitution  a  law  was  passed  for  the 
organization  of  both  stock  and  mutual  insurance 
companies.  (Ind.  R.  S.  1852,  p.  351.)  This  law 
of  1852,  with  some  few  amendments,  is  still  the 
only  law  in  the  State  of  Indiana  providing  for 
the  organization  of  fire  insurance  companies. 
When  this  law  was  enacted  there  was  contained 
therein  Section  22,  which  read  as  follows: 
"Whenever  such  company  shall  be  notified  of  any 
loss  sustained  on  a  policy  of  insurance  issued  by 
them,  the  company  shall  pay  the  amount  so  lost 
within  sixty  days  after  such  notice,  under  a  pen- 
alty of  ten  per  centum  damages  for  every  thirty 
days  such  loss  remains  unpaid  thereafter."  This 
section  virtually  prohibited  the  organization  of 
insurance  companies  in  the  State  of  Indiana. 

Beginning  with  the  year  1881  and  at  nearly 
every  session  of  the  Legislature  thereafter,  upj 
to  the  session  of  1897,  a  bill  was  prepared  by  the; 
writer  and  introduced  in  the  Legislature  to  re-  j 
peal  this  Section  22,  but  the  bill  was  defeated  atj 
every  session  until  the  session  of  1897,  when  itj 
was  passed.  | 

No  stock  insurance  company  worthy  of  the 
name  had  ever  organized  under  the  law  of  1852, 
from  the  time  of  its  passage  until  the  repeal  of  I 
this  Section  22.  The  reason  therefor  is  readily 
apparent.  Since  the  repeal  of  this  section  sev- 
eral strong  stock  fire  insurance  companies  have 
organized  under  the  law  of  1852  and  are  reflect-j 
ing  credit  upon  the  State  by  their  successful  man-j 

A  number  of  mutual  fire  insurance  companies' 
were  organized  under  the  amendments  to  the 
Act  of  1852,  passed  in  1865,  and  attained  very 
large  success.  Few  of  these  companies  are.  how-j 
ever,  in  existence,  and  those  that  are  in  existence 
confine  their  business  to  a  limited  territory.  ; 

A  few  life  insurance  companies  were  organ-j 
ized  under  the  mutual  law  of  1865,  but  none 
of  them  are  now  in  existence.  They  have  either! 
retired  from  business  or  reincorporated  under 
later  enacted  laws. 

In  1881  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  provid-! 
ing  for  the  organization  of  farmers'  mutual  fire 
insurance    companies.      The    business    of    these 



companies  was  confined  to  three  contiguous  coun- 
ties. Under  this  law  a  great  many  farmers' 
mutual  fire  insurance  companies  are  existing 

j  A  number  of  assessment  life  and  accident  in- 
'surance  companies  were  organized  in  Indiana 
prior  to  1883,  under  the  provisions  of  the  Vokm- 
tary  Association  Act.  A  number  of  these  com- 
panies did  a  very  large  business,  but  none  of 
them  are  in  existence  to-day. 

I  In  1883  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  provid- 
sing  for  the  organization  of  life  and  accident  in- 
surance companies  on  the  assessment  plan,  and 
ithereafter,  at  the  session  of  1897,  passed  the  Stip- 
ulated Premium  Assessment  Law.  The  life  in- 
surance business  in  Indiana  may  be  said  to  date 
from  the  enactment  of  the  law  of  1897.  Several 
jo f  the  strong  life  insurance  companies  in  the 
[state  were  organized  thereunder  and  continued 
jto  operate  under  these  laws  until  the  year  1899, 
^when  the  law  relating  to  stock  and  mutual  life 
insurance  companies  was  passed.  After  the  pas- 
sage of  this  last-mentioned  law  all  the  companies 
jthat  had  previously  organized  under  the  Assess- 
'ment  and  the  Stipvilated  Premium  Laws  reorgan- 
ized under  the  Stock  and  Mutual  Life  Insurance 
Company  Law  and  have  continued  to  since  op- 
erate under  the  provisions  thereof.  The  life  in- 
surance business  in  Indiana  really  dates  from 
the  year  1899. 

Previous  to  1901  life  insurance  companies  on 
the  stock  plan,  in  order  to  do  business  outside 
of  the  State,  were  required  to  have  not  less  than 
$200,000  of  capital  stock,  and  mutual  life  insur- 
ance companies  were  required  to  have  not  less 
than  $200,000  of  net  surplus  funds.  This  was 
[by  reason  of  what  is  known  as  the  Retaliatory 
Section  in  the  laws  of  the  different  States.  The 
law  of  Indiana  would  not  admit  a  foreign  in- 
fsurance  company  with  less  than  $200,000  of  cap- 
fital  stock  paid  up,  or,  in  case  of  a  mutual  com- 
ipany,  with  less  than  $200,000  of  net  surplus,  and, 
therefore,  other  States  virtually  said  to  Indiana 
companies :  "We  will  exact  a  like  requirement  of 
•you  and  will  not  permit  you  to  do  business  un- 
less you  have  a  like  capital  stock,  or  a  like  sur- 
plus." As  none  of  the  Indiana  companies,  prior 
:to  1901,  had  such  an  amount  of  capital  stock  or 
jnet  surplus,  they  were  thereby  confined  to  the 
limits  of  the  State  of  Indiana  for  business.     In 







1901.  however,  the  Legislaiurc  amended  the  law 
of  Indiana  as  related  to  life  insurance  companies 
and  jjermitted  life  insurance  companies  of  other 
states  to  do  business  in  Indiana  with  $100,000 
capital  stock  or  net  surplus.  This  let  the  Indiana 
companies  into  other  Stales,  and  their  material 
K'rowth  may  he  dated  from  that  year. 

In  1907  the  Indiana  life  insurance  companies 
passed  lhrou.i,di  their  most  crucial  period.  At 
the  session  of  the  Lei,Mslature  of  that  year  there 
was  a  bill  introduced,  wdiich,  if  it  had  passed, 
would  have  wiped  out  all  Indiana  life  insurance 
companies  and  would  have  rendered  it  impossible 
ever  thereafter  to  have  organized  a  life  insur- 
ance company  within  the  State  so  long  as  the 
bill  would  have  remained  as  a  law  on  the  statute 
books,  b'ortunately  for  the  State  of  Indiana  the 
life  insurance  companies  and  an  aroused  public 
sentiment  were  enableil  to  defeat  this  vicious  leg- 
islation, and  saved  the  life  insurance  business  to 
the  State. 

Prior  to  1899  the  fraternal  orders  existing  in 
the  State  of  Indiana  were  organized  under  the 
\oluntary  Association  Act  heretofore  mentioned. 
In  1899  the  Legislature  passed  a  law  for  the 
organization  of  fraternal  beneficiary  associations 
and  established  rates  for  insurance  therein. 
There   are   a   mnnber   of   very   strong    fraternal 

beneficiary  associations  in  the  State  doing  busi- 
ness under  the  provisions  of  this  act. 

In  1893  the  Legislature  enacted  a  law  for  the 
organization  of  live-stock  insurance  companies. 
A  number  of  companies  have  been  organized 
under  this  law  and  one  of  these  companies  is 
recognized  to-day  as  the  leading  live-stock  in- 
surance company  in  the  United  States. 

Prior  to  1909  the  only  laws  under  which  an 
accident  insurance  company  could  be  organized 
were  the  old  laws  of  1852  and  amendments 
thereto,  the  assessment  laws  of  1883  and  1897, 
and  the  Voluntary  Association  Act,  neither  of 
which  laws  were  satisfactory. 

In  1903  a  casualty  law  was  passed  in  Indiana, 
but  it  did  not  provide,  however,  for  insurance 
against  personal  accidents  until  amended  by  the 
Act  of  1909.  There  are  several  companies  doing 
business  in  the  State  at  this  time  that  are  organ- 
ized under  the  law  of  1903  and  the  amendments 
of  1909,  and  are  doing  business  throughout  the 
United  States. 

In  1907  and  again  in  1909  and  1911  unsuccess- 
ful attempts  were  made  to  pass  the  Fire  Marshal 
Law.     The  bill  was  again  introduced  at  the  ses- 
sion of  the  Legislature  in  1913  and  passed.    The  ; 
law  is  now  in  successful  operation. — Guilford  A.  i 
Dcitch,  author  of  Insurance  Digest. 


A  General  Survey  of  Indiana  by  Counties 
with  Brief  Historical  Sketches 

Edited  and  Compiled  by  Max  R.  Hyman 


An  Outline  of  the  State's  Development 

The  Mound  Builders. — That  the  territory  now 

occupied  by  Indiana  was  inhabited  by  prehistoric 

people   is   evidenced   by   their   work,    silent,   yet 

!  indisputable  evidence  of  their  former  occupancy, 

I  which  still  remains.    These  works,  notable  in  the 

southern  part  of  the  State,  are  in  the  form  of 

,  mounds,  memorial  pillars,  fortifications,  weapons 

and   domestic   utensils   that    furnish    "abundant 

evidence  to  show  that  at  one  time,  long  anterior 

to  the  coming  of  the  red  man,  Indiana  was  quite 

densely  populated  by  a  race  that  lived,  flourished 

and  passed  away,"*  leaving  no  other  traces  of 

i  their  existence.     They  have  been  classed  as  the 

Mound  Builders. 

Under  Three  Flags. — The  territory  which  is 
now  included  within  the  present  boundaries  of 
Indiana  was  formerly  owned  by  the  Miami  Con- 
federacy of  Indians.  It  was  first  explored  by 
La  Salle  in  the  latter  part  of  the  seventeenth 
century,  about  1670,  when  he  is  said  to  have 
descended  the  Ohio  river  as  far  as  the  Louisville 
!  rapids.  It  is  well  established  that  he  traversed 
|the  region  of  the  Kankakee  and  St.  Joseph  rivers 
jin  the  northwestern  part  of  the  State  in  1679. 
Father  Allouez,  the  French  missionary,  accom- 
panied by  Dablon,  visited  this  vicinity  in  1675- 
80,f  and  French  trappers  appeared  at  the  end 
of  the  seventeenth  century. 

It  was  under  the  domination  of  France!};  from 
the  time  of  the  discovery  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Mississippi  by  La  Salle,  in  1682,  until  1763,  when 
it  was  ceded  to  Great  Britain  after  the  French 
and  Indian  war.  From  1763  to  1779,  it  was  held 
nominally  by  Great  Britain  as  a  part  of  her  colo- 

I     *  Smith's  History  of  Indiana,  p.   42. 

t  History  of   Notre   Dame,  p.   30. 

t  Jacob  Piatt  Dunn,  in  his  History  of  Indiana,  says  "Indiana 
had  no  capital  within  her  boundaries  for  one  hundred  and  thirty 
.years  after  white  men  had  been  upon  her  soil.  She  was  but  part 
of  a  province  of  a  province.  For  ninety  years  her  provincial 
seat  of  government  vacillated  between  Quebec,  New  Orleans  and 
Montreal,  with  intermediate  authority  at  Fort  Chartres  and  De- 
troit and  the  ultimate  power  at  Paris.  Then  her  capital  was 
whisked  away  to  London,  without  the  slightest  regard  to  the 
'wishes  of  her  scattered  inhabitants,  by  the  treaty  of  Paris.  Six- 
teen years  later,  it  came  over  the  Atlantic  to  Richmond,  on  the 
James,  by  conquest;  and  after  a  tarry  of  five  years  at  that  point, 
t  shifted  to  New  York  City,  then  the  national  seat  of  govern- 
ment, by  cession.  In  1788  it  reached  Marietta,  Ohio,  on  its 
progress  toward  its  final  location.  In  1800  it  came  within  the 
|!imits  of  the  State." 

nial  possessions  in  North  America  and  the  juris- 
diction of  the  State  of  Virginia  was  formally  ex- 
tended over  it  from  1779  to  1784. 

In  1778,  during  the  Revolution,  Vincennes  and 
Kaskaskia  were  captured  from  the  British  by  a 
force  of  Virginians  under  George  Rogers  Clark 
and  later  in  the  same  year  the  region  northwest 
of  the  Ohio  was  made  the  county  of  Illinois  by 
the  Virginia  Legislature. 

In  1783,  the  British  claims  to  all  territory  east 
of  the  Mississippi  and  north  of  Florida  were  re- 
linquished in  favor  of  the  United  States.  The 
States  which  claimed  title  to  lands  northwest 
of  the  Ohio  and  east  of  the  Mississippi  ceded 
their  rights  to  the  United  States  before  1787,  and 
in  that  year  this  region  was  organized  as  the 
Northwest  Territory. 

Indiana  Territory. — In  1800,  that  part  of  the 
Northwest  Territory  lying  between  the  Missis- 
sippi river  and  a  line  extending  from  a  point  on 
the  Ohio  river  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Ken- 
tucky to  Fort  Recovery  and  thence  to  the  Cana- 
dian line  was  organized  as  the  Territory  of  Indi- 
ana, together  with  the  area  now  constituting  Illi- 
nois, Wisconsin,  northeastern  Minnesota  and 
western  Michigan.  Two  years  later,  by  a  clause 
in  the  enabling  act  for  Ohio,  the  boundary  be- 
tween Indiana  and  Ohio  was  fixed  in  its  present 
location  and  by  the  same  act  the  region  north  of 
Ohio  was  added  to  Indiana.  In  1804,  the  form 
of  territorial  government  was  changed  from  the 
first  to  the  second  grade,  thus  giving  Indiana  a 
Legislature  and  a  Delegate  in  Congress.  The 
organization  of  Michigan  Territory  in  1805,  and 
Illinois  Territory  in  1809,  left  Indiana  with  its 
present  boundaries,  and  in  December,  1816,  the 
State  of  Indiana  was  admitted  to  the  Union. 


1.  Highest  elevation  in  the  State — 1,285  feet 
above  sea  level.  Summit,  Randolph  county,  eight 
miles  south  of  Winchester. 

2.  Lowest  elevation  in  the  State — 313  feet 
above  sea  level,  at  the  confluence  of  the  Wabash 
and  Ohio  rivers,  Posey  county. 




3.  Average  elevation  above  sea  level — esti- 
mated to  be  700  feet. 

A  topographic  map  of  an  area  is  an  expression 
of  the  surface  features  of  that  area.  Such  a 
map  could  be  absolutely  true  in  detail  only  when 
based  upon  a  system  of  contour  lines  having  the 
smallest  possible  intervals. 

The  map  herewith  is  not  offered  as  a  piece  of 
perfect  workmanship.  The  elevations  were  de- 
rived from  the  data  published  in  the  State  Geolo- 
gist's Thirty-sixth  Annual  Report,  and  in  the  ab- 
sence of  complete  topographic  contours  the 
boundaries  of  areas  of  different  elevations  could 
not  be  established  with  exactness,  but  the  bound- 
aries are  generally  true. 

Could  one  but  stand  at  some  point  in  southeast- 
ern Indiana,  say  between  the  southeastern  corner 
of  Switzerland  county  and  the  southeastern  cor- 
ner of  Union  county,  and  look  westward  or 
southwestward  and  see  the  outcropping  features 
of  the  geological  formations  of  the  State,  they 
would  present  an  ascending  series,  geologically 
speaking,  from  the  Lower  Silurian,  in  the  extreme 
southeastern  part  of  the  State,  up  to  the  highest 
formation,  the  Merom  sandstone,  along  the  Wa- 
bash river  on  the  western  side  of  the  State. 
Above  this  of  course  is  the  glacial  drift.  Or,  to 
put  the  matter  in  another  way,  the  formations 
are  successively  younger  as  we  ascend  geologic- 
ally from  the  eastern  and  southeastern  parts  of 
the  State  to  the  western  part,  the  sediments  and 
drift  of  the  western  part  having  been  laid  last. 

The  picture  is  more  difficult  to  draw  from  any 
viewpoint  along  the  eastern  margin  of  the  State, 
from  Union  county  northward,  for  the  reason 
(1)  that  the  northern  two-thirds  of  the  State  are 
covered  with  a  thick  mantle  of  glacial  drift ;  and, 
for  the  further  reason,  (2)  that  erosion  has  not 
played  such  a  prominent  part  in  the  northern 
part  of  the  vState  as  in  the  southern  part,  where 
it  has  profoundly  influenced  the  topography  of 
the  State. 

While  the  above  is  true  from  a  geologic  stand- 
point, the  reverse  is  true  from  a  topographic 
standpoint.  Topographically  speaking  the  east- 
ern parts  of  the  State  are  the  highest,  the  slope 
or  dip  being  to  the  south  and  southwest.  The 
only  exception  to  this  southwestern  slope  worthy 
of  notice  is  a  small'  area  in  the  extreme  north- 
ern end  of  the  State,  which  area  is  drained  by 
the  Pigeon,  Elkhart  and  St.  Joseph  rivers.     The 

lower  courses  of  these  rivers  have  been  largely 
influenced,  if  not  entirely  changed,  by  the  depo- 
sition of  drift  materials  during  the  later  glacial 

The  elevation  along  the  eastern  margin  of  the 
State,  from  Franklin  county  to  Steuben  county, 
is  from  800  to  about  1,200  feet  above  the  mean 
sea  level.  Along  the  western  margin  of  the  State, 
from  Posey  county  to  Lake  county,  the  elevation 
varies  from  313  feet  in  the  extreme  southeastern 
part  of  Posey  county  to  about  750  feet  in  Lake 

Indiana  is  not  a  mountainous   State.     It  has 
never  been  such.    There  is  no  geological  evidence 
within  the  State  of  violent  agitation  or  upheaval 
in  the   formative  period   of  the   portion   of  the' 
earth's  crust  now  known  as  Indiana.    All  of  the 
valleys   and   hills   and   undulations   in  the   State! 
were    formed  by  the   erosive   power   of   water,' 
either  glacial  or  stream.    The  differences  in  ele- 
vation above  sea  level  in  the  State  are  not  suf-j 
ticient  to  cause  any  marked  difference  either  inj 
climate  or  in  vegetation,  either  native  or  culti-| 
vated.    The  oak,  the  maple  and  the  ash  grow  asi 
vigorously  in  Randolph  county,  where  the  alti-: 
tude  is  greatest,  as  in  Posey  county,  where  it  is; 
the  least.     The  same  thing  is  true  of  corn  andi 
wheat.     The  slight  difference  in  seeding  time  in  I 
the  southern  part  of  the  State,  and  seeding  time! 
in  the  northern  part  is  due  to  latitude  and  not  to ; 
altitude.     Perhaps  spring  is  incidentally  encour-i 
aged  in  the  southern  part  of  the  State  by  the  pre-  [ 
vailing   south   to   southwestern   slopes,   and   re-| 
tarded  somewhat  by  the  flat  and  slopeless  areas  in 
the  northern  part  of  the  State.     The  same  thing 
would  be  true  of  harvest  time.    While  differences 
in  life  and  crop  zones  of  the  State  have  not  been  I 
profoundly   influenced   by   altitude,   nevertheless: 
an  intimate  knowledge  of  the  topography  of  the 
State  is  of  inestimable  value  to  the  people  in  the  j 
several  ways  enumerated  under  the  head  of  Hyp- 1 
sometry  of  Indiana  in  the  Thirty-sixth  Annual  i 
Report  of  Department  of  Geology,  as  follows  :| 

1.  As  preliminary  maps  for  planning  extensive  [ 
irrigation  and  drainage  projects,  showing  areas 
of  catchment  for  water  supply,  sites  for  reser- 
voirs, routes  of  canals,  etc. 

2.  For  laying  out  of  highways,  electric  roads, 
railroads,  aqueducts,  and  sewage  systems,  thus 
saving  the  cost  of  preliminary  surveys. 

3.  In  improving  rivers  and  smaller  waterways. 

irrnv>^.-:^r  rm-  tti-;i^  ^rrr-i  nr^^-r-  ;-:j 

300-400  ft. 

400-500  ft. 

500-600  ft.  ^^^         ^'^f^^i^^ 

600-700  ft. 
700-800  ft. 

800-900  ft, 

900-1000  ft. 

1000-1100  ft 


Above  1200  ft.  f-        !         I- 

K        E      N     T     V.    C 

Topographical  Map  of  Indiana.     The  highest  points  in  Indiana  are  located  in  the  south  central  and  southeast 
corner  of  Randolph  County. — Map  by  Edward  Barrett,  State  Geologist. 



4.  As  bases  for  the  compilation  of  maps  show- 
ing the  extent  and  character  of  forest  and  graz- 

iiij,^  lands. 

5.  In  classifying  lands  and  in  plotting  the  dis- 

lril)nti(in  and  natnre  of  sods. 

(,.  In  locating  and  mapping  the  boundaries  of 
ihe  life  and  crop  zones,  and  in  mapping  the  geo- 
grai)hic  distribution  of  plants  and  animals. 

7.  As  base  maps  for  the  plotting  of  informa- 
ti.,n  relating  to  the  geology  and  mineral  resources 
of  the  country. 

8.  In  connection  with  questions  relating  td 
State,  county  and  town  boundaries. 

9.  As  a  means  of  promoting  an  exact  knowl] 
edge  of  the  country  and  serving  teachers  anc' 
pupils  in  geographic  studies. 

10.  In  connection  with  legislation  involving 
the  granting  of  charters,  rights,  etc.,  when  jj 
physical  knowledge  of  the  country  may  be  desir' 
able  or  necessary. — Edward  Barrett,  State  Geolo 
gist,  3/th  Annual  Report  Department  of  Geologi 
and  Natural  Resources. 


Scene  on  White  River  at  liroad  Ripple,  Marion  Count}-. 



ADAMS  COUNTY  is  located  in  the  north- 
-eastern part  of  Indiana.  It  is  bounded  on 
,the  north  by  Allen  county,  on  the  west  by  Wells, 
Ion-  the  south  by  Jay  county  and  on  the  east  by 
^he  State  of  Ohio.  It  contains  336  square  miles 
of  practically  level  surface  admirably  suited  to 

Organization. — The  county  was  organized  in 
1836  with  Decatur  as  the  seat  of  justice.  The 
site  was  offered  to  the  locating  commissioners  by 
iSamuel  Johnson,  who  offered  as  an  inducement 
to  have  the  county  seat  located  on  his  land,  the 
sum  of  $3,100,  four  church  lots,  half  an  acre  for 

Limberlost."  This  district,  since  it  has  been 
dredged,  has  proved  to  be  the  most  fertile  and 
valuable  soil  in  Adams  county,  and  many  very 
productive  oil  wells  have  been  sunk  in  and  near 
this  district. 

Population  of  Adams  county  in  1890  was 
20,181 ;  in  1900  it  was  22,232,  and  according  to 
United  States  Census  in  1910  it  was  21,840,  of 
which  958  were  of  foreign  birth.  There  were 
4,810  families  in  the  county  and  4,774  dwellings. 

Township,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
twelve  townships  in  Adams  county :  Blue  Creek, 
French,  Hartford,  Jefferson,  Kirkland,  Monroe, 

Court-House  and  Soldiers'  Monument,  Decatur, 

.  public  square,  one  acre  for  a  seminary  and  two 
cres  for  a  cemetery.  He  further  agreed  to  pay 
he  expenses  of  the  locating  commissioners,  and 
urnish  a  house  to  hold  court  in  until  suitable 
luildings  could  be  erected.  This  offer  was  ac- 
epted  and  the  commissioners  promptly  accepted 
he  offer  "and  proceeded  to  the  aforesaid  town 
ite,  and  marked  a  white  oak  tree  with  blazes  on 
our  sides,  on  each  of  which  they  individually  in- 
cribed  their  names."  A  large  tract  of  land  lying 
letween  Allen  and  Randolph  counties  had  been 
■reviously  called  Adams  county,  after  the  distin- 
uished  statesman  who  bore  that  name;  yet  no 
rganization  had  been  effected. 
Notable  Features. — The  southern  part  of  the 
ounty  embraces  the  famous  "Limberlost"  dis- 
jrict,  immortalized  by  Mrs.  Gene  Stratton-Porter 
'1  her  books,  "Freckles"  and  "A  Girl  From  the 

Public  Library,  Decatur,  Adams  County. 

Preble,  Root,  St.  Marys,  Union,  Wabash  and 
Washington.  The  incorporated  towns  are  De- 
catur, Berne,  Geneva  and  Monroe.  Decatur  is 
the  county  seat. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State,  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Adams  county 
was  $7,447,405 ;  value  of  improvements  was 
$2,508,870,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables 
was  $16,251,740.  There  were  3,598  polls  in  the 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  500  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Adams  county  built  and  un- 
der jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners 
January  1,  1915.  Gravel  road  bonds  outstanding, 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 





55.74  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Adams 
county  by  the  Chicago  &  Erie;  Cincinnati,  Rich- 
mond'&  Fort  Wayne  ;  G.  R.  c\:  I. :  and  the  Toledo, 
St.  Louis  &•  Western  railroads.  Tlie  BlutTton, 
(icneva  cS:  Cclina  Traction  Company,  and  the 
l-Vjrt  Wayne  .^  Springlield  Railway  Company, 
opc-rate  18.70  miles  of  electric  lines  in  the  county. 
Educational.— Accordin.LT  to  the  report  of  E. 
.^.  Christen,  county  superintendent  of  Adams 
county,  there  were  ninety-five  schoolhouses,  in- 
cludin.i4  six  hi'^h  schools,  in  Adams  county  in 
]»n4  employing  149  teachers.  The  average  daily 
attendance  hy  pui)i!s  was  4.170.  The  aggregate 
amount  i)aid  in  salaries  to  superintendents,  super- 
visors,  princi])als   and    teachers    was   $72,003.50. 

The  estimated  value  of  school  property  in  the 
county  was  $410,600,  and  the  total  amount  of 
indebtedness,  including  bonds,  was  $120,378. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Adams  county 
in  1910  over  2,300  farms  embraced  in  208,00C 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  88.7  acres.  The 
value  of  all  farm  property  was  $23,000,000, 
showing  a  per  cent,  of  increase  in  value  over  190C 
of  107.3.  The  average  value  of  land  per  acre 
was  $76.70.  The  total  value  of  domestic  animah 
was  over  $2,000,000:  Number  of  cattle  17,000 
valued  at  $450,000;  horses  10,000,  valued  x 
$1,300,000;  hogs  55,000,  valued  at  $320,000 
sheep  25,000,  valued  at  $106,000.  The  tota 
value  of  poultry  was  $100,000. 



Ad.l-:X  COUNTY  is  located  in  the  north- 
eastern i)art  of  Indiana,  bordering  on  the 
.State  of  Ohio.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Xoble  and  Dekalb  counties,  on  the  west  by  Whit- 
lev  and  Huntington  counties  and  on  the  south  by 

Portrait  of    |n]i 

Allrii,   in   .'Mliii   County  Court-Housc. 
—I'aiiitrd  hv  Jnucll. 

Wells  and  Adams  counties.  It  is  the  largesi 
county  in  the  State  with  an  area  of  over  65 
square  miles.  Its  geographical  location  has  bee 
a  pronounced  factor  in  determining  its  pros 
perity,  particularly  in  its  earlier  history.  Foil 
Wayne,  its  j^redecessor  of  the  old  French  perioc 
Fort  Miami,  and  the  Indian  town  antedatin 
that,  were  all  located  at  the  fork  of  the  Maume, 
river,  because  it  was  a  controlling  point  in  an  iir 
portant  line  of  travel  between  the  Great  Lake 
and  the  Mississippi  valley.  WTien,  in  course  o 
time,  that  travel  was  augmented  by  the  Wabasj 
and  Erie  canal,  and  the  tides  of  migration  set  i! 
from  the  east,  Fort  Wayne  became  a  gateway  tj 
the  State  and  Allen  county  received  the  fir;' 
fruits  of  the  invasion. 

Organization. — The  organization  of  Alle 
county  became  effective  x\pril  1,  1824,  with  Foj 
Wayne  as  the  seat  of  justice,  and  the  first  ele* 
tion  for  county  officers  was  held  in  the  last  weej 
of  May.  The  county  at  that  time  embraced  ah 
the  territory  afterward  given  to  W'^ells,  Adam 
I  funtington  and  Whitley  counties.  The  first  ci 
cuit  court  was  held  August  9,  1824,  with  Samu 
1  fanna  and  Benjamin  Cushman  on  the  bench  ar 
C.  W.  Ewing  as  prosecuting  attorney.  Alk 
county  is  named  for  Colonel  John  Allen,  a  di; 
tinguished  Kentucky  lawyer.  During  the  peric 
preceding  the  siege  of  Fort  W^ayne  by  the  Indi; 



tribes  in  1812,  the  governors  of  Kentucky  and 
Ohio  took  military  precautions  against  invasion 
by  the  red  men.  In  May  of  that  year,  Governor 
Scott  of  Kentucky  organized  ten  regiments. 
Among  the  patriots  who  enlisted  was  Colonel 
Allen,  who  was  placed  in  command  of  the  rifle 
regiment.  He  lost  his  life  at  the  battle  of  River 
Raisin.  An  oil  painting  of  him  hangs  on  the  wall 
of  the  "relic  room"  in  the  court-house. 

Population  of  Allen  county  in  1890  was 
66,689 ;  in  1900  was  77,270,  and  according  to 
United  States  Census  of  1910  was  93,386,  of 
which  9,251  were  of  foreign  birth.  There  were 
21,128  in  the  county  and  20,282  dwellings. 

Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
,  twenty  townships  in  Allen  county :  Aboite, 
Adams,  Cedar  Creek,  Eel  River,  Jackson,  Jef- 
!  ferson,  Lafayette,  Lake,  Madison,  Marion,  Mau- 
'imee,  Milan,  Monroe,  Perry,  Pleasant,  Scipio, 
!  Springfield,  St.  Joseph,  Washington  and  Wayne. 
•The  incorporated  cities  and  towns  are  Fort 
Wayne,  Monroeville,  New  Haven,  Shirley  City. 
t  The  county  seat  is  Fort  Wayne. 
1  Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
'the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
■  the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Allen  county  was 
'$34,064,690;  value  of  improvements  was  $18,- 
! 426,060,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables  was 
:$63,420,840.  There  were  17,555  polls  in  the 

i  Improved  Roads. — There  were  325  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Allen  county  built  and  under 
^jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners  January 
:1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds  outstand- 
ing, $700,847. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
173.21  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Allen 
^county  by  the  Cincinnati,  Findlay  &  Fort  Wayne ; 
ICincinnati,  Richmond  &  Fort  Wayne ;  Fort 
I  Wayne,  Cincinnati  &  Louisville;  Fort  Wayne 
i&  Jackson ;  Grand  Rapids  &  Indiana ;  Lake  Erie 
l&  Fort  Wayne ;  New  York,  Chicago  &  St.  Louis  ; 
'■Vandalia ;  Wabash ;  and  the  Fort  Wayne  &  De- 
troit branch  of  the  Wabash  railroad.  There  are 
f91.6  miles  of  electric  railway  operated  by  the 
Fort  Wayne  &  Springfield;  Fort  Wayne  & 
iNorthern  Indiana  Traction  Company;  Fort 
iWayne  &  Northwestern  Railway  Company,  and 
j:he  Ohio  Electric  Railway  Company. 






Scliuol  for  Foeblc-Minded  Youth,  Fort  Wayne. 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  of 
]).  ().  ^Ici'omh,  county  superintendent  of  Allen 
countv,  there  were  191  schoolhouses,  including 
six  high  schools,  in  Allen  county  in  1914  employ- 
ing 467  teachers.  The  average  daily  attendance 
by  pupils  was  10,866.  The  aggregate  amount  paid 
in  salaries  to  superintendents,  supervisors,  princi- 
pals and  teachers  was  $332,206.86.  The  estimated 
value    of    school    i)roperty    in    the    county    was 

82,184,000,  and  the  total  amount  of  indebtedness, 
including  bonds,  was  $726,668.  ; 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Allen  county  in; 
1910  over  4,300  farms  embraced  in  395,000  acres. 
Average  acres  per  farm,  91.3  acres.  The  value  of 
all  farm  property  was  $43,000,000,  showing  93.2f 
per  cent,  increase  in  value  over  1900.  The  aver- 
age value  of  land  per  acre  was  $74.97.  The  total! 
value  of  domestic  animals  was  over  $3,500,000:, 
Number  of  cattle  30,000,  valued  at  over  $800,- 
000;  horses  17,000,  valued  at  $2,000,000;  hogs' 
56,030,  valued  at  $380,000 ;  sheep  37,000,  valued 
at  $166,000.  The  total  value  of  poultry  was 

Industrial. — According  to  the  United  States' 
Census  of  1910,  there  w^ere  230  industries  'in! 
Fort  Wayne,  furnishing  employment  to  12,184j 
persons.  Total  amount  of  capital  employed,  $20,-; 
346.176.  Value  of  products,  $23,686,809,  value 
added  by  manufacture,  $12,271,618. 

Fort  Wayne,  the  seat  of  justice  of  xA-llen 
county,  was  located  on  a  high  bank  opposite 
which,  on  the  north,  the  St.  Marys  and  the  St.' 
Joseph  unite  and  form  the  Maumee  river.  Oni 
the  site  of  this  town   was  the  old  "Twightwee 

Fort  Wayne,  1794. 



Village"  or  principal  seat  of  the  Miamis,  in  their 

j  language  called  Ke-ki-on-ga,  a  place  of  impor- 
tance  over  150  years  ago.   Here,  too,  was  old  Fort 

'  Wayne,  erected  by  order  of  General  Wayne  in 
September,  1794,  and  just  below  this  fort,  on  the 

'  opposite  side  of  the  Mauniee,  was  fought  the 
disastrous   battle   of   General   Harmar   with   the 

I  Miamis  under  Chief  Little  Turtle,  on  October 
20,  1790.   This  place  at  one  time  was  called  "The 

!  French  Stores,"  as  it  was  for  a  long  tune  a  place 
of  resort  for  many  of  the  French  traders,  and 
near  it  was  the  carrying  place  from  the  naviga- 
ble waters  of  Lake  Erie  to  those  of  the  \\^abash. 
Fort  Wayne  continued  to  be  a  military  post  until 
1819.  Until  the  removal  of  the  Miamis  and  the 
Pottawatomies,  west  of  the  Mississippi  in  1841, 
it  was  used  as  a  trading  point  by  the  Indians  for 
the  disposal  of  their  furs. 

According  to   the   United   States    Census    for 
1910,  Fort  Wayne  has  a  population  of  74,352, 

land  is  now  the  second  largest  city  in  the  State. 
Fort  Wayne  has  seven  railroads :    The  Penn- 
sylvania Lines  ;  Wabash  system  ;  New  York,  Chi- 

icago  &   St.   Louis    (Nickel   Plate)    railway   and 

iLake  Shore  and  Michigan  Southern  railway — 
four  great  east  and  west  trunk  lines ;  Grand  Rap- 
ids &  Indiana  railway  with  its  direct  line  from 
the  Straights  of  Mackinaw  to  Cincinnati,  and 
the  Lake  Erie  &  Western,  and  the  Cincin- 
nati, Hamilton   &   Dayton   railroads,   which   run 

:to  the  territory  south  and  southwest.  It  is  the  di- 
visional point  of  six  of  its  seven  railroads.    The 

Sacred  Heart  Academy,  Fort  Wayne. 

Postoffice  Building,  Fort  Wayne. 

large  car  building  and  repair  shops  of  the  Penn- 
sylvania lines  are  located  here,  and  the  Wabash, 
Nickel  Plate,  and  the  Lake  Shore  &  Michigan 
Southern  railroads  maintain  modern  plants  for 
light  car  and  locomotive  repair.  Fort  Wayne  is 
the  terminal  point  of  five  important  electric  inter- 
urban  railways,  reaching  in  all  directions. 

The  public  schools  of  Fort 
Wayne  rank  among  the  best 
of  the  cities  of  America  ;  be- 
sides it  has  numerous  private 
and  parochial  schools  and 
colleges  of  high  standard. 
It  is  the  seat  of  Concordia 
College,  founded  in  1839,  in 
Perry  county,  Missouri,  by 
Lutheran  refugees  f  r  o  m 
Saxony,  which  was  removed 
to  Fort  Wayne  in  1861.  The 
college  is  supported  mainly 
by  the  Missouri  Synod  of 
the  German  Lutheran 

Sacred  Heart  Academy. 
— In  1866,  when  the  road 
to  Fort  Wayne  was  still  un- 



made,  when  as  yet  for  many  miles  the  wood- 
man's ax  had  not  been  heard,  the  ground  for 
the  foundation  of  Sacred  Heart  Academy  was 
broken.  It  is  conducted  by  the  Sisters  of  the 
Holy  Cross. 

Built  upon  an  eminence,  the  academy  com- 
mands a  charming  view  of  the  surrounding  coun- 
try, beautiful  in  its  rolling  stretches  of  cultivated 
fields  and  native  woodland.  The  timber  used  in 
the  building  was  cut  from  the  neighboring 
woods ;  the  bricks,  of  which  the  house  is  con- 
structed, made  upon  the  spot. 

The  academy  curriculum  embraces  all  studies 
from  the  minim  department  through  the  four 
years  of  academic  work  as  well  as  the  commer- 
cial course.  Special  attention  has  always  been 
paid  to  music  in  its  varied  branches.  Art,  too, 
claims  a  prominent  place,  its  disciples  being 
taught  not  only  the  rudiments  of  drawing,  but 
advanced  work  in  still  life  and  from  the  cast. 

While  every  effort  is  made  for  their  bodily 
comfort  and  mental  training,  paramount  atten- 
tion is  bestowed  upon  the  moral  development 
and  heart  culture  of  the  students  of  Sacred 
Heart  Academy. 

School  for  Feeble-Minded  Youth. — By  an 
act  of  the  Legislature,  approved  March  7,  1887, 

the  School   for  Feeble-Minded  Youth,  at  Fort 
Wayne,  was  established,  and  the  trustees  were 
authorized    to    take    immediate    charge    of    the 
feeble-minded  children  then  at  "The  Asylum  for 
Feeble-Minded   Children"   at  the   Soldiers'  and 
Sailors'   Orphans  Home  at  Knightstown.     The 
present  site  at  Fort  Wayne  was  purchased  May 
19,  1887.    Certain  buildings  of  the  Eastern  Hos- 
pital for  the  Insane  at  Richmond  were  utilized 
as    temporary    quarters    for    the    children    from 
May  1,  1887,  to  July  8,  1890,  when  the  new  in- 
stitution   was    opened.     The    privileges    of    the 
school    are    extended    to    feeble-minded,    idiotic, 
epileptic,    and   paralytic   children   under    sixteen 
years   of   age.    Since    1901    the   school   has  also 
maintained   a   custodial   department    for    feeble- 
minded women  between  the  ages  of  sixteen  and  • 
forty-five  years,  such  women  to  be  received  by  i 
commitment  from  the  courts.   An  interesting  and  i 
valuable    adjunct    to    this    institution    is    called  ; 
"Colony  Farm,"  a  tract  of  land  containing  509^  j 
acres,  on  which  the  older  and  stronger  male  in-  I 
mates  are  employed  in  all  kinds  of  farm  work.  [ 
This  farm  has  been  in  operation  since  1893.   For  | 
such  of  the  children  as  are  capable  of  receiving 
it,  the  school  affords  literary,  manual  and  indus-  , 
trial  trainine. 



south  of  the  center  of  the  State.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  Johnson  and  Shelby,  on 
the  east  by  Decatur  and  Jennings,  on  the  south 
by  Jackson  and  Jennings  and  on  the  west  by 
Brown  county.  The  county  contains  405  square 
miles  and  is  noted  for  its  splendid  soil. 

Organization. — The  county  was  organized 
by  legislative  act  January  8,  1821,  which  became 
effective  February  12,  1821.  The  county  was 
named  for  General  Joseph  Bartholomew,  a  dis- 
tinguished citizen  of  Clark  county  and  a  senator 
in  the  State  Legislature  from  1821  to  1824.  Gen- 
eral Bartholomew  was  lieutenant-colonel  com- 
manding a  battalion  of  infantry  at  the  battle  of 
Tippecanoe,  where  he  was  severely  wounded.  He 
died  twenty-nine  years  later  on  the  day  of  the 

presidential  election  in  1840.  John  Tipton,  later 
United  States  senator  from  Indiana,  was  con- 
nected in  an  interesting  way  with  the  founding 
of  the  county  seat  at  Columbus.  He  donated 
thirty  acres  for  the  site,  and  the  commissioners, 
grateful  for  the  donation,  named  the  county  seat 
Tiptona,  in  honor  of  General  Tipton.  This  was 
done  February  15,  1821.  However,  on  March  20, 
the  commissioners  rescinded  their  action,  on  ac- 
count of  Tipton's  political  views,  it  is  supposed, 
and  changed  the  name  of  the  county  seat  to  Co- 

Population  of  Bartholomew  county  in   1890  < 
was  23,867 ;  in  1900  was  24,594,  and  according  to  ■ 
United   States   Census   in    1910   was  24,813,  of 
which  561  were  of  foreign  birth.     There  were  ; 
6,281  families  in  the  county  and  6,112  dwellings.  ■ 



Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
fourteen  townships  in  Bartholomew  county : 
Clay,  Clifty,  Columbus,  Flat  Rock,  German,  Har- 
rison, Haw  Creek,  Jackson,  Nineveh,  Ohio,  Rock 
Creek,  Sand  Creek,  Union  and  Wayne.  The  in- 
corporated cities  and  towns  are  Columbus,  Clif- 
ford, Elizabethtown,  Hartsville,  Hope  and  Jones- 
ville.   Columbus  is  the  county  seat. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Bartholomew 
county  was  $11,944,026;  value  of  improvements 
was  $3,777,950,  and  the  total  net  value  of  tax- 
ables  was  $20,203,861.  There  were  4,226  polls  in 
the  county. 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  424  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Bartholomew  county  built  and 
under  jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners 
January  1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds 
outstanding,  $282,165.25. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
70.5  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Bar- 
tholomew county  by  the  Chicago,  Terre  Haute  & 
Southeastern ;   Columbus,   Hope   &   Greensburg, 

Swinging  Bridge,  Hartsville,  Bartholomew  County. 

Clifty  Falls.    Clifty  rises  in  the  southeast  corner  of  Rush  county,  flows  through  Decatur  and  empties  into  White 
River  three  miles  below  Columbus.    The  Indian  name  of  this  stream  was  Es-the-nou-o-ne-ho-n-eque,  or  Cliff 
of  Rocks  River. — Photograph  by  Wm.  M.  Herschell. 



and  the  P.,  C,  C.  &  St.  L.  railway.  There  are 
26.43  miles  of  electric  railway  operated  by  the 
Central  Indiana  Lighting  Company  and  the  In- 
terstate Public  Service  Company. 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  of 
Samuel  Sharp,  county  superintendent  of  Bar- 
tholomew county,  there  were  eighty-two  school- 
houses,  including  two  high  schools,  in  Bartholo- 
mew county  in  1914,  employing  186  teachers. 
The  average  daily  attendance  by  pupils  was  4,371. 
The  aggregate  amount  paid  in  salaries  to  super- 
intendents, supervisors,  principals  and  teachers 
was  $98,111.69.  Estimated  value  of  school  prop- 
erty in  the  county  was  $373,400,  and  the  total 
amount  of  indebtedness,  including  bonds,  was 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Bartholomew 
county  in  1910  over  2,100  farms  embraced  in 
244,000   acres.     Average   acres   per    farm    115.1 

acres.  The  vahie  of  all  farm  property  was  $21, 
000,000,  showing  70.2  per  cent,  increase  in  valui 
over  1900.  The  average  value  of  land  per  acre  wa 
$67.73.  The  total  value  of  domestic  animals  wa: 
over  $1,400,000:  Number  of  cattle  11,000,  valuec 
at  $280,000;  horses,  7,500,  valued  at  $670,000 
hogs,  30,000,  valued  at  $197,000;  sheep,  8,000 
valued  at  $33,000.  The  total  value  of  poultry  wa: 

Industrial. — According  to  the  report  of  th( 
State  Bureau  of  Inspection  for  1912,  there  wen 
twenty-four  industries  in  Columbus,  furnishint 
employment  to  more  than  1,500  persons.  Amont 
the  more  important  industries  are  the  W.  Wi 
Mooney  &  Sons  Tannery,  one  of  the  largest  ir 
the  United  States ;  Reeves  &  Co.,  manufacturer:' 
of  thrashing  machinery ;  the  Reeves  Pulley  Com 
pany,  manufacturers  of  wood  pulleys,  and  Cald 
well  &  Drake  Iron  Works. 



BENTON  COUNTY  is  located  in  the  north- 
western part  of  the  State.  It  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Newton  and  Jasper,  on  the  east  by 
White  and  Tippecanoe,  on  the  south  by  Warren 
county  and  on  the  west  by  the  State  of  Illinois. 
The  county  contains  414  square  miles. 

Organization. — The  year  1840  witnessed  the 
organization  of  Benton  county,  named  for  the 
celebrated  Thomas  H.  Benton.  The  act  of  Feb- 
ruary, 1840,  however,  did  not  name  commission- 
ers, and  it  was  not  until  January  31,  1843,  that 
the  Legislature  named  commissioners  to  locate  a 
county  seat.  The  commissioners  met  on  the  third 
Monday  of  May,  1843,  at  the  home  of  Basil  Jus- 
tus and  chose  a  site  on  section  18,  township  34 
north,  range  7  west,  on  land  donated  by  Henry 
W.  i'Jlsworth  and  David  Watkinson.  In  Septem- 
ber. 1843,  the  commissioners  ordered  that  a 
i-oiui-house  l)c  erected  in  the  county  seat  "in  the 
lown  of  Milroy,"  which  was  named  in  honor  of 
Sanuiel  Milroy,  one  of  the  locating  commission- 
ers. Learning  that  there  was  another  town  of 
that  name  in  the  State,  the  commissioners,  at  the 
()et()ber  session,  changed  the  name  to  "Oxford." 
The   county   seat   remained   here   until   July    10, 

1874,  when  it  was  transferred  to  Fowler,  whicb 
had  been  laid  out  in  1871,  for  the  ostensible  purj 
pose  of  making  a  bid  for  the  county  seat.  Thij 
change  gave  rise  to  a  bitter  fight  between  th^ 
towns  of  Oxford  and  Fowler.  The  immediat(| 
cause  for  the  hostilities  was  the  condemnation  ot 
the  old  court-house  at  Oxford  on  March  20,  1873j 
which  was  followed  by  injunctions  and  otheil 
legal  proceedings  wdiich  culminated  in  the  court- 
house being  ordered  erected  at  Fowler.  Thf, 
court-house  was  largely  the  gift  of  the  late  Moseij 
Fowler  of  Lafayette.  Its  corner-stone  was  laicj 
August,  1874,  and  the  first  court  was  held  Febrii-} 
ary,  1875. 

Benton  county  has  no  large  towns  or  Iarg«. 
manufacturing  enterprises,  but  is  noted  for  iti 
agricultural  enterprises  and  live  stock  interests. 
It  is  also  noted  as  the  home  of  the  "Hickory 
drove  Herd"  of  Hereford  cattle,  the  substantial 
l)asis  of  the  Hereford  cattle  industry  of  America. 
The  county  has  the  special  distinction  of  being 
the  birthplace  and  training  ground  of  two  of  the 
most  remarkable  horses  in  the  history  of  the 
world — the  world- famed  "Dan  Patch"  was  bred,| 
trained    and    campaigned    as    an    unbeaten    race 



horse  by  Daniel  A.  Messner  of  Oxford,  Ind.,  and 
"Honest  George"  was  raised  and  trained  at  Bos- 
well  by  Mat  Cooper. 

Population  of  Benton  county  in  1890  was 
1 11,903;  in  1900  was  13,123,  and  according  to 
I  United  States  Census  in  1910  was  12,688,  of 
'  which  695  were  of  white  foreign  birth.  There 
were  3,029  families  in  the  county  and  3,017 
I  dwellings. 

i  Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
1  eleven  townships  in  Benton  county:  Bolivar, 
[Center,  Gilboa,  Grant,  Hickory  Grove,  Oak 
I  Grove,  Parish  Grove,  Pine,  Richland,  Union  and 
[York.  The  incorporated  cities  and  towns  are 
Ambia,  Boswell,  Earl  Park,  Fowler,  Otterbein, 
/and  Oxford.  Fowler  is  the  county  seat  of  Ben- 
ton county. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Benton  county 
was  $13,777,275 ;  value  of  improvements  was 
$2,009,385,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables 
was  $20,745,375.  There  were  1,837  polls  in  the 
;    Improved  Roads. — There  were  440  miles  of 

improved  roads  in  Benton  county,  built  and  un- 
der jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners 
January  1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds 
outstanding,  $710,354. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
84.22  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Benton 
county  by  the  Chicago  &  Eastern  Illinois ;  Chi- 
cago, Indiana  &  Southern;  Cincinnati,  Lafayette 
&  Chicago;  C,  C,  C.  &  St.  L.,  and  Lake  Erie  & 
Western  railways. 

Educational, — iVccording  to  the  report  of 
Charles  FI.  Dodson,  county  superintendent  of 
Benton  county,  there  were  seventy-three  school- 
houses,  including  eleven  high  schools,  in  Benton 
county  in  1914,  employing  138  teachers.  The 
average  daily  attendance  by  pupils  was  1,811. 
The  aggregate  amount  paid  in  salaries  to  super- 
intendents, supervisors,  principals  and  teachers 
was  $81,500.97.  The  estimated  value  of  school 
property  in  the  county  was  $230,600. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Benton  county 
in  1910  over  1,200  farms  embraced  in  252,000 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  198.4  acres.  The 
value  of  all  farm  property  was  $37,000,000, 
showing  111.6  per  cent,  increase  in  value  over 
1900.    The  average  value  of  land  per  acre  was 

Views  in  Fowler,  Benton  County. 



$128.94.  The  total  value  of  domestic  animals  was 
over  $2,000,000:  Number  of  cattle,  11,000, 
valued   at   $401,000;   horses,    11,000,   valued   at 

$1,400,000;  hogs,  25,000,  valued  at  $194,000; 
sheep  5,600,  valued  at  $29,000.  The  total  value 
of  poultry  was  $51,000. 



BLACKFORD  COUNTY  is  located  in  the 
second  tier  of  counties  northeast  of  Indi- 
anapolis. It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Wells,  on 
the  east  by  Jay,  on  the  south  by  Delaware  and  on 
the  west  by  Grant  counties,  and  contains  an  area 
of  169  square  miles. 

Organization. — The  county,  which  was  orig- 
inally a  part  of  Jay  county,  was  organized  Feb- 
ruary 18,  1839,  and  named  in  honor  of  Judge 
Blackford.  The  first  settlement  in  the  county 
was  made  by  John  Blount  in  1835  and  in  the 
winter  of  1836  Abel  Baldwin,  of  Vermont,  made 
an  exploration  of  the  forests  and  entered  land  for 
a  party  of  emigrants  from  that  State.  In  the 
autumn  following,  they  removed  to  the  Sala- 
monie  and  laid  off  the  town  of  Montpelier, 
named  after  the  capital  of  Vermont.  Hartford 
was  founded  in  1839  and  for  several  years  the 
rival  towns  were  competitors  for  the  county  seat. 
It  took  two  separate  acts  of  the  Legislature  be- 
fore the  organization  of  the  county  became  ef- 
fective, and  it  was  not  until  after  the  fourth  set 
of  commissioners  were  appointed,  February  24, 
1840,  that  the  county  seat  was  finally  located  at 
Hartford,  the  site  probably  selected  by  the  second 
set  of  commissioners.  Later  the  town  name  was 
changed  to  Hartford  City  at  the  suggestion  of 
F.  L.  Shelton.  What  is  known  as  the  "Godfroy 
Reserve,"  where  the  one-time  noted  war  chief 
Godfroy  of  the  Miamis  long  resided,  is  located 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county.  Godfroy  was  a 
noble-looking,  kind-hearted  man,  and  was  held 
in  great  esteem  l)y  the  Indians  and  white  men. 

Population  of  Blackford  county  in  1890  was 
10,461;  in  1900  was  17,213,  and  according  to 
United  States  Census  in  1910  was  15,820,  of 
which  629  were  of  white  foreign  birth.  There 
were  3,837  families  in  the  county  and  3,775 

Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
four  townships  in  Blackford  county :    Harrison, 

Jackson,  Licking  and  Washington.  The  incor- 
porated cities  and  towns  are  Hartford  City  and; 
Montpelier.    Hartford  City  is  the  county  seat. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the  to-j 
tal  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Blackford  county 
was  $3,829,610;  value  of  improvements  was 
$2,116,745,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables| 
was  $10,317,690.  There  were  2,246  polls  in  the 
county.  i 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  250  miles  of! 
improved  roads  in  Blackford  county,  built  andl 
under  jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners! 
January  1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds 
outstanding,  $366,648.46. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
27.92  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  BlacW 
ford  county  by  the  Fort  Wayne,  Cincinnati  a 
Louisville  and  the  P.,  C,  C.  &  St.  L.  railways] 
The  Union  Traction  Company  of  Indiana  oper-i 
ates  15.25  miles  of  electric  lines.  | 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  oi 
Edgar  M.  Servies,  county  superintendent  ot- 
Boone  county,  there  were  112  schoolhouses,  in- 
cluding six  high  schools,  in  Boone  county  in  1914 
employing  150  grade  and  forty  high-school  teach-i 
ers.  The  average  daily  attendance  by  pupils  was 
3,997.99  grade;  585.73  high  school.  The  aggrej. 
gate  amount  paid  in  salaries  to  superintendents! 
supervisors,  principals  and  teachers  was  $100.-1 
775.50.  The  estimated  value  of  school  property  in 
the  county  was  $430,335,  and  the  total  amount  of| 
indebtedness,  including  bonds,  was  $150.830| 
One  orphanage  school,  two  miles  south  of  Zions-i 
ville,  is  maintained  by  the  Baptist  church,  but  the 
teacher  is  furnished  by  the  township  trustee. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  lUackford  count): 
in  1910  over  1,100  farms  embraced  in  98,00C 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  85.4  acres.  Thi 
value  of  all  farm  ]M-operty  was  $9,000,000,  show- 



!ing  TZ  per  cent,  increase  over  1900.  The  average 
lvalue  of  land  per  acre  was  $65.22.  The  total 
value  of  domestic  animals  was  over  $995,000: 
Number   of    cattle    7,600,    valued    at   $227,000; 

horses,  4,900,  valued  at  $518,000;  hogs,  28,000, 
valued  at  $167,000;  sheep,  14,000,  valued  at 
$68,000.  The  total  value  of  poultry  was  about 



BOONE  COUNTY,  named  after  the  famous 
Indian  hunter  and  trapper,  Daniel  Boone, 
s  bounded  on  the  north  by  Clinton,  on  the  east 
oy  Hamilton,  on  the  south  by  Marion  and  Hen- 
dricks and  on  the  west  by  Montgomery  counties. 
[t  is  situated  on  the  ridge  of  what  were  in  the 
;arly  days  called  the  dividing  swamps  between 
vVhite  river  and  the  Wabash.  The  area  of  the 
:ounty  is  418  square  miles. 

Organization. — The  county  was  organized 
in  1830  and  the  first  courts  were  held  in  James- 
[own,  which  remained  the  seat  of  justice  until  the 
■•emoval  to  Lebanon,  made  efl;ective  by  an  act  of 
he  Legislature  January  26,  1832,  providing  for 
;:ommissioners  to  relocate  the  county  seat.  The 
'irst  court-house  was  completed  in  1833  and  it  is 
presumed  that  the  formal  transfer  of  the  county 
neat  to  Lebanon  occurred  that  year. 

This  county  was  once  the  abode  and  hunting 
^•round  of  the  Eel  river  tribe  of  the  Miami  In- 
iians.  In  1819  Thorntown  had  a  population  of 
.00  Indians  and  a  few  French  traders.  The 
arge  reserve  at  this  place  was  not  purchased  un- 
;il  1828,  nor  did  the  Indians  remove  until  1835. 

The  present  court-house,  which  was  completed 
nd  dedicated  July  4,  1912,  is  built  of  Bedford 
'imestone  and  one  of  the  features  is  the  dome, 
jvhich  is  the  second  in  size  in  the  State,  being 
■fty  feet  in  diameter.  The  north  and  south  en- 
j'rances  are  each  adorned  by  four  columns  35  feet 
I  inches  in  length,  52  inches  in  diameter  at  the 
'ase  and  48  inches  at  the  top.  These  columns  are 
,aid  to  be  the  largest  one-piece  columns  in  the 
jJnited  States. 

'  Population  of  Boone  county  in  1890  was 
|6,572;  in  1900  was  26,321,  and  according  to 
IJnited  States  Census  in  1910  was  24,673,  of 
vhich  131  were  of  white  foreign  birth.  There 
>ere  6,414  families  in  the  county  and  6,334 

Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
twelve  townships  in  Boone  county :  Center,  Clin- 
ton, Eagle,  Harrison,  Jackson,  Jefferson,  Marion, 
Perry,  Sugar  Creek,  Union,  Washington  and 
Worth.  The  incorporated  cities  and  towns  are 
Lebanon,  Advance,  Jamestown,  Thorntown  and 
Zionsville.  Lebanon  is  the  county  seat  of  Boone 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 

Boone  County  Court-House,  Lebanon. 

the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Boone  county 
was  $12,867,745 ;  value  of  improvements  was 
$3,720,295,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables 
was  $24,893,350.  There  were  4,200  polls  in  the 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  563  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Boone  county,  built  and  under 
jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners  January 
1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds  outstand- 
ing, $232,024. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
63.74  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Boone 
county  by  the  Central  Indiana ;  Chicago,  Indian- 
apolis &  Louisville ;  C,  C,  C.  &  St.  L. ;  Peoria  & 
Eastern,  and  Vandalia  railways.   The  Lebanon  & 



Thfirntown  Traction  Company  and  the  Terre 
llaulc.  In.lianapolis  &  Eastern  Tractir.n  Com- 
pany oi)erate  50.14  miles  of  electric  lines  in  the 


Educational.— According-    to    the    report    of 

lvljj;ar  M.  Servies.  cotinty  stiperintendent  of 
I'.donc  cotinty.  there  were  112  schoolhotises.  in- 
cluding,^ six  high  schools,  in  the  county  in  1914, 
cmploving  190  teachers.  The  average  daily  at- 
tendance hy  r.upils  was  4.584.  The  aggregate 
aninnnt  paid  in  salaries  to  superintendents,  super- 
visors, ])riiicii)als  and  teachers  was  $100,775. 
l-:stiniated  value  of  school  property  in  the  county 

was  $430,335,  and  the  total  amount  of  indebted 
ness,  including  bonds,  was  $160,650. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Boone  county  in 
1910  over  3,300  farms  embraced  in  264,000  acres 
Average  acres  per  farm,  79.7  acres.  The  value  oi 
all  farm  property  was  $35,000,000,  showing  116.6 
per  cent,  increase  over  1900.  The  average  value 
of  land  per  acre  was  $103.12.  The  total  value  of 
domestic  animals  was  over  $3,000,000:  Number 
of  cattle.  21,000,  valued  at  $720,000;  horses,  14,-, 
OCO.  valued  at  $1,500,000;  hogs,  92,000,  valued  at 
$624,000;  sheep,  22,000,  valued  at  $105,000.  The' 
total  value  of  poultry  was  $146,000. 




ROWX  COUNTY  is  located  in  the  second 
tier  (if  counties  south  of  Indianapolis.  It 
is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Morgan  and  Johnson, 
on  the  east  by  Bartholomew,  on  the  south  by 
Monroe  and  Jackson  and  on  the  west  by  IMonroe 
counties,     it  contains  320  sciuare  miles. 

Organization. — It  was  organized  February 
4,  1836,  which  was  made  effective  April  1,  1836. 
The  county  was  named  in  honor  of  General  Jacob] 
Brown,  one  of  the  heroes  of  the  war  of  1812. 
The  first  name  of  the  county  seat  was  Jack- 
sonburg,    btit    during    the    first    year    of    its   ca-l 

Inlicnpnint,  ufar  Wrcl  I'aH'h,  I'.rown  County.— Plioto  By  Frank  M.  IJohcnbcrgcr 

'  "^'^"^llll^^'' 

V*       »•»-;»; 



reer  was  changed  to  Nashville.  The  original  jail, 
built  in  1837,  is  still  in  use  and  is  the  last  remain- 
ing relic  of  the  log  jails  doing  service  in  the 

Brown  county  lies  in  the  northern  angle  of  the 
unglaciated  region  of  Indiana,  which  condition 
brings  the  rugged  portion  of  the  State  farther 
north  and  nearer  Indianapolis  at  this  point,  than 
at  any  other.  Here  the  mighty  grinding,  planing 
force  of  the  ice  sheet  has  not  cut  down  the  ridges 
and  filled  up  the  hollows.  It  has  not  worn  the 
underlying  rocks  into  soil  enriched  by  silt  from 
far-off  regions.  The  ridges  stand  out  boldly  as 
chiseled  by  the  cutting  force  of  the  streams.  The 
soil  is  home-made  out  of  the  underlying  rocks, 
which  are  mostly  shale  and  sand-stone.  The  ease 
with  which  the  finer  soil  can  be  removed  from 
the  slopes  by  water  causes  the  soil  to  be  coarse 
and  loose.  This  accounts  for  the  wonderful 
growth  of  timber  with  which  nature  has  covered 
it,  also  making  this  region  an  ideal  one  for  adap- 
tation to  fruit  growing. 

The  rugged  nature  of  the  county  had  a  deter- 
rent effect  upon  railroad  building  and  it  was  not 
until  1906  that  the  Illinois  Central  railroad,  which 
runs  twelve  miles  through  the  county,  was  built 
from  Indianapolis  to  Effingham,  111.,  where  it 
joins  the  main  line  from  Chicago  to  New  Orleans. 
With  the  entrance  of  the  railroad  this  region  of 
exceptional  natural  beauty,  which  before  lay  all 
l)ut  unknown  almost  in  the  shadow  of  the  State 
Capital,  has  become  the  mecca  for  artists  and  the 
admirers  of  the  beautiful  in  nature.  Many  sum- 
mer homes  have  been  built  here  since  and  large 
sums  of  money  have  been  invested  in  the  fruit- 
raising  industry. 

Population  of  Brown  county  in  1890  was 
10,308;  in  1900  was  9,727,  and  according  to 
United  States  Census  in  1910  was  7,975,  of  which 
45  were  of  white  foreign  birth.  There  were  1,745 
families  in  the  county  and  1,724  dwellings. 

Townships,    Cities   and   Towns. — There   are 

five  townships  in  Brown  county :  Hamblen,  Jack- 
son, Johnson,  Van  Buren  and  Washington.  Nash- 
ville is  the  county  seat. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Brown  county 
was  $1,049,665 ;  value  of  improvements  was, 
$310,595,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables  was 
$2,143,380.  There  were  1,035  polls  in  the  county. 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  thirty-three 
miles  of  improved  roads  in  Brown  county  built 
and  under  jurisdiction  of  the  county  commission- 
ers January  1,  1915.  There  were  no  gravel  road 
bonds  outstanding  January  1,  1915. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  arei 
11.36  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Brown 
county  by  the  Indianapolis  branch  of  the  Illinoisi 
Central  railroad.  j 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  ofi 
Sylvester  Barnes,  county  superintendent  ofj 
Brown  county,  there  were  seventy-six  school-; 
houses,  including  three  high  schools,  in  Brownl 
county  in  1914,  employing  eighty-seven  teachers.; 
The  average  daily  attendance  by  pupils  was 
1,437.  The  aggregate  amount  paid  in  salaries 
to  superintendents,  supervisors,  principals  and 
teachers  was  $34,184.33.  The  estimated  value  ofi 
school  property  in  the  county  was  $49,900,  and 
the  total  amount  of  indebtedness,  including 
bonds,  was  $3,030.  t 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Brown  county 
in  1910  over  1,500  farms  embraced  in  160,0^ 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  107.1  acres.  The 
value  of  all  farm  property  was  $3,400,000,  show- 
ing 40.8  per  cent,  increase  over  1900.  The  aver- 
age value  of  land  per  acre  was  $12.75.  The  totalj 
value  of  domestic  animals  was  over  $530,000' 
Number  of  cattle,  5,000,  valued  at  $123,000 
horses,  3,000,  valued  at  $305,000;  hogs,  5,300, 
valued  at  $41,000;  sheep,  5,600,  valued  at  $21,- 
000.  The  total  value  of  poultry  w^as  $38,000. 





CARROLL  COUNTY,  located  in  the  third 
tier  northwest  of  IndianapoHs,  is  bounded 
on  the  north  by  White  and  Cass,  on  the  east  by 
Howard  and  Cass,  on  the  south  by  CHnton  and 
on  the  west  by  White  and  Tippecanoe  counties, 
'and  contains  376  square  miles.  The  county  is 
jtraversed  by  the  Wabash  and  Tippecanoe  rivers, 
oy  Deer  creek  and  Wild  creek,  which  are  its  prin- 
:ipal  streams.  The  western  side  of  the  county 
oorders  on  what  is  known  as  the  "Grand  Prairie." 
The  surface  is  generally  level  and  clay  and  black 
soil  predominate  about  equally. 
;  Organization. — It  was  organized  January  7, 
1828,  which  became  effective  May  1,  1828.  The 
prst  county  seat  was  christened  Carrollton,  but 
Dn  May  24,  1828,  was  changed  to  Delphi.  The 
bounty  was  named  in  honor  of  the  venerable 
Charles  Carroll,  then  the  sole  survivor  of  those 
Ivho  had  signed  the  Declaration  of  Independence. 
(n  its  earlier  history,  the  Wabash  and  Erie  canal 
fiurnished  it  with  great  facilities  for  trade  and 
bxportation  of  produce. 

:  Population  of  Carroll  county  in  1890  was 
^0,021;  in  1900  was  19,953,  and  according  to 
Jnited  States  Census  in  1910  was  17,970,  of 
vhich  263  were  of  white  foreign  birth.     There 

Carroll  County  Court-House,  Delphi. 

ivere  4,579  families  in  the  county  and  4.536  dwell- 

Townships,  Cities  and  Towns. — There  are 
hirteen  townships  in  Carroll  county:  Adams, 
Burlington,  Carrollton,  Clay,  Deer  Creek,  Demo- 

crat, Jackson,  Jefferson,  Madison,  Monroe,  Rock 
Creek,  Tippecanoe  and  Washington.  The  incor- 
porated cities  and  towns  are  Delphi,  Camden  and 
Flora.    Delphi  is  the  county  seat. 

Delphi  Library,  Carroll  Count\'. 

Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Carroll  county 
was  $7,567,840;  value  of  improvements  was 
$2,181,410,  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables 
was  $14,489,540.  There  were  2,967  polls  in  the 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  385  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Carroll  county  built  and  under 
jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners  January 
1,  1915.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds  outstand- 
ing, $450,283. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
59.01  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Carroll 
county  by  the  Chicago,  Indianapolis  &  Louisville  : 
Vandalia;  and  the  Wabash  railroads.  The  Fort 
Wayne  &  Northern  Indiana  Traction  Company 
operates  15.62  miles  of  electric  lines  in  the  county. 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  of 
Philip  B.  Hemmig,  county  superintendent  of  Car- 
roll county,  there  were  eighty-seven  schoolhouses, 
including  seven  high  schools,  in  the  county  in 
1914  employing  160  teachers.  The  average  daily 
attendance  by  pupils  was  3,243.  The  aggregate 
amount  paid  in  salaries  to  superintendents,  super- 
visors, principals  and  teachers  was  $76,567.80. 



Estimated  value  of  school  property  in  the  county 
was  $267,000,  and  the  total  amount  of  indebted- 
ness, including  bonds,  was  $47,646.03. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Carroll  county 
in  1910  over  2,200  farms  embraced  in  227,000 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  101.7  acres.  The 
value  of  all  farm  property  was  $27,000,000,  show- 

ing 105  per  cent,  increase  over  1900.  The  aver-: 
age  value  of  land  per  acre  was  $93.69.  The  total 
value  of  domestic  animals  was  over  $2,200,000: 
Number  of  cattle,  16,000,  valued  at  $485,000; 
horses,  10,000,  valued  at  $1,200,000;  hogs,  57,000, 
valued  at  $365,000;  sheep,  11,000,  valued  at 
$55,000.   The  total  value  of  poultry  was  $87,000. 



CASS  COUNTY  is  bounded  on  the  north 
by  Pulaski  and  Fulton,  on  the  east  by 
Miami,  on  the  south  by  Howard  and  Carroll 
and  on  the  west  by  White  and  Carroll  counties. 
It  contains  420  square  miles. 

High  School,  Logansport. 

Organization. — 4'he  organization  of  Cass 
county  became  effective  April  13,  1829,  and  the 
county  seat  was  fixed  at  Logansport  by  three  of 
the  five  commissioners  named  by  the  legislative 
Act  of  December  18,  1828.  The  county  was 
named  after  the  Honorable  Lewis  Cass.  Here 
was  located  the  town  of  Kenapacomequa  or 
I'Anguille,  the  French  name,  or  Old  Town, 
which  was  destroyed  by  General  Wilkinson 
August  8,  1791.  The  village  stood  on  the  north 
Ijank  of  Ke\  river,  six  miles  northeast  of  Logans- 
port and  extended  for  two  miles  and  a  half  along 
the  stream.  It  was  then  called  a  village  of  the 

The  Eel  and  Wabash  rivers  unite  near  the 
center  of  the  county,  furnishing  an  abundance  of 
water  power  for  the  water  works,  electric  light 

plant  and  factories  of  the  city  of  Logansport,' 
which  is  built  on  both  sides  of  the  two  rivers.* 
Along  these  streams  there  is  an  inexhaustible' 
supply  of  limestone,  gravel  and  sand  of  superior! 
quality   for  building  purposes  and  road-makingl 

PubHc  Library,  Logansport. 

and  a  good  quality  of  clay  for  making  brick  is 
found  in  abundance  in  dift'erent  parts  of  the 
county.  j 

Population  of  Cass  county  in  1890  was; 
31,153;  in  1900  was  34,545,  and  according  to; 
United  States  Census  of  1910  was  36,368.  of 
which  2,031  were  of  white  foreign  birth.  There  j 
were  9,080  families  in  the  county  and  8,758  [ 
dwellings.  [ 

Townships,   Cities   and   Towns. —  There   are. 
fourteen    townships    in    Cass    county:    Adams,! 
Bethlehem,   Boone,   Clay,   Clinton.   Deer   Creek, 
Eel,  Harrison,  Jackson,  Jefferson,  Miami,  Noble,: 
Tipton  and  Washington.    The  incorporated  cities, 
and    towns    are    Logansport,    Galveston.    Royal 
Center  and  Walton.     Logansport  is  the  county 



Taxable  Property  and  Polls. — According  to 
the  annual  report  of  the  Auditor  of  State  from 
the  abstract  of  the  tax  duplicate  for  1913,  the 
total  value  of  lands  and  lots  in  Cass  county  was 
'$12,264,550,  value  of  improvements  was  $4,950,- 
780  and  the  total  net  value  of  taxables  was 
$26,858,345.  There  were  6,178  polls  in  the 

Improved  Roads. — There  were  402  miles  of 
improved  roads  in  Cass  county  built  and  under 
jurisdiction  of  the  county  commissioners  Janu- 
ary 1,  1914.  Amount  of  gravel  road  bonds  out- 
tstanding,  $675,194.75. 

Railroads — Steam  and  Electric. — There  are 
107.99  miles  of  steam  railroad  operated  in  Cass 
:ounty  by  the  Chesapeake  &  Ohio ;  Logansport 
division  P.,  C,  C.  &  St.  L. ;  Richmond  division 
P.,  C,  C.  &  St.  L. ;  Effner  branch  P.,  C,  C.  &  St. 
L ;  Michigan  division  of  Vandalia  ;  Butler  branch 
JDf  the  Vandalia,  and  the  Wabash  Railways.  The 
JFort  Wayne  &  Northern  Traction  Company  and 
:he  Union  Traction  Company  of  Indiana  operate 
1-0.48  miles  of  electric  lines  in  the  county. 

Educational. — According  to  the  report  of 
\.  L.  Frantz,  Logansport,  Ind.,  county  superin- 
endent  of  Cass  county,  there  were  108  school- 
louses,  including  ten  high  schools  in  Cass  county 
n  1914,  employing  241  teachers.  The  average 
laily  attendance  by  pupils  was  5,595.  The  ag- 
jjregate  amount  paid  in  salaries  to  superintend- 
l^nt,  supervisors,  principals  and  teachers  was 
5139,317.09.  The  estimated  value  of  school 
broperty  in  the  county  was  $643,500,  and  the 
lotal  amount  of  indebtedness,  including  bonds, 
vas  $142,898. 

There  are  three  Catholic  and  one  German 
vUtheran  schools  in  Cass  county. 

Consolidation  is  coming  fast ;  almost  every 
township  has  one  consolidated  school  building  of 
from  five  to  nine  teachers. 

Agriculture. — There  were  in  Cass  county  in 
1910  over  2,400  farms,  embraced  in  240,000 
acres.  Average  acres  per  farm,  102.3  acres.  The 
value  of  all  farm  property  was  $27,000,000, 
showing  92.5  per  cent,  increase  over  1900.  The 
average  value  of  land  per  acre  was  $80.57.  The 
total  value  of  domestic  animals  was  over  $2,300,- 
000 :  Number  of  cattle  20,000,  valued  at  $590,000 ; 
horses  10,000,  valued  at  $1,200,000;  hogs  52,000, 
valued  at  $360,000 ;  sheep  20,000,  valued  at  $95,- 
000.    The  total  value  of  poultry  was  $105,000. 

Industrial. — According  to  the  United  States 
Census  of  1910  there  were  sixty-eight  industries 
in  Logansport,  furnishing  employment  to  2,412 
persons.  Total  amount  of  capital  employed, 
$2,003,965.  Value  of  products,  $4,201,369; 
value  added  by  manufacture,  $2,219,816. 

Northern  Hospital  for  Insane. — The  General 
Assembly  of  1883,  by  an  act  approved  March  7, 
made  provision  for  the  erection  of  three  addi- 
tional hospitals  for  the  insane  (Laws  1883,  p. 
164).  The  first  of  these  to  be  opened  was  the 
Northern  Hospital,  located  a  mile  west  of 
Logansport  and  popularly  known  as  Longclifif. 
The  site  was  purchased  October  4,  1883.  The 
work  of  construction,  which  was  on  the  "block 
plan,"  began  in  the  following  summer,  but  was 
discontinued  in  1886  because  of  the  exhaustion 
of  funds.  It  was  not  until  July  1,  1888,  that 
the  first  patients  were  received.  These  came  at 
first  from  all  parts  of  the  State,  but  the  hospital 
is  now  limited  to  the  care  of  patients  from 
twenty-two  counties  designated  the  northern 
district  for  the  insane  (Laws.  1889,  p.  391). 



GLARK  COUNTY  is  located  in  the  south- 
east section  of  the  State  and  its  entire 
Southeastern  section  is  bounded  by  the  Ohio 
iver.  To  the  north  are  Jefferson  and  Scott 
ounties,  while  Washington  bounds  it  on  the 
|.^est  and  Floyd  county  on  the  south. 
Organization. — Clark    county    was    set    apart 


February  1,  1801,  by  William  Henry  Harrison, 
Governor  of  the  Territory  of  Indiana,  and  was 
named  in  honor  of  the  celebrated  General  George 
Rogers  Clark,  at  one  time  a  citizen  of  the  county. 
At  that  time  the  boundaries,  as  defined  by  the 
Governor,  were  "Beginning  on  the  Ohio  river  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Blue  river,  thence  up  that  river 



Administration  Building,  Indiana  State  Forest  Reserva- 
tion, Clark  County. 

to  the  crossing  of  the  Vincennes  road,  thence  in 
a  direct  hne  to  the  nearest  point  on  White  river, 
thence  up  that  river  to  its  source  and  to  Fort 
Recovery,  thence  on  the  hne  of  the  northwest 
territory  to  the  Ohio  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ken- 
lucky,  thence  to  the  place  of  beginning."     The 
original  county  was  very  large  and  included  in 
whole  or  in  part  twenty-one  of  the  present  coun- 
ties of  the  State,  which  constituted  about  one- 
tiflli   of  the  area.     Clark  county  now  contains 
abdut  400  sffuare  miles.    Most  of  the  land  within 
ihc  ])rcsent  limits  of  the  county  is  embraced  in 
what  is  called  "Illinois  Grant,"  or  "Clark's  Grant," 
made  by  the   Legislature   of   Virginia   in    1786, 
which  conveyed  to  certain  commissioners  149,000 
acres  of  land  in  trust,  to  be  apportioned  accord- 
ing to  rank,  to  General  Clark  and  the  officers  and 
inc-n  of  the  regiment  which  he  commanded  in  the 
e.\])(.<liti()n  to  Vincennes  and  Kaskaskia.     It  was 
di\id<-Ml  into  500-acre  tracts  and  apportioned  ac- 
curchngly.    ( )ne  thousand  acres  more,  lying  along 
the  Falls  of  the  Ohio,  was  also  granted  at  the 
same  tinu-  for  the  location  of  a  town  to  be  called 
Clarksvilk',  which  tlourished  for  a  time,  but  has 
since  gone  to  decay.    The  lirst  settlements  of  any 
consc(|uence  were  made   from   1790  u])  to   1800 
in  the  towns  along  the  river,  so  that  the  inhabi- 
tants on  the  lirst  notice  of  the  ajjproach  of   In- 
dians might   I'scape  into   Kentuckw 

('lark  county  was  the  gateway  to  the  great 
northwest  and  constituted  the  highwav  over  which 
tlie  stream  ol  ei\iHzalion  made  its  way  from 
the  east  and  Minth  to  tlie  new  eountr\-  norlli  of 
the  (  )hio  i-i\i'f.      I  lie  I'alls  of  the  (  )hio  furnished 

the  means  of  crossing  the  river  and  determined 
the  earlier  settlement  of  this  part  of  the  State. 
The  first  county  seat  was  Springville,  a  little 
village  which  stood  near  where  Charlestown  now 
stands.  It  was  on  the  old  Indian  trail  from  the 
falls  of  the  Ohio  to  the  Indian  nations  of  the 
north,  west  and  east.  A  short  distance  west  of 
this  little  town  lived  Jonathan  Jennings,  first 
Governor  of  Indiana.  Springville,  at  one  time, 
was  a  great  trading  center  for  the  French  and 
Indians,  but  not  a  vestige  now  remains  to  tell 
w^here  the  village  stood.  On  June  9,  1802, 
Governor  Harrison  issued  a  proclamation  "fixing 
the  seat  of  justice  at  the  town  of  JefTersonville 
.  .  .  after  the  first  day  of  August  next." 
The  territorial  Legislature  changed  it  to  Charles- 
town  by  the  Act  of  December  14,  1810,  and  it 
remained  there  until  September  23,  1873,  when 
it  was  permanently  located  at  Jefifersonville.  The 
old  court-house  at  Charlestown  is  still  standing 
and  in  a  good  state  of  preservation. 

Indiana  State  Forest  Reservation. — By  an 
act  of  the  Legislature,  March  3,  1903,  the  State 
purchased  2,000  acres  of  land  for  a  forest  reser- 
vation, laboratory  of  forestry,  demonstration 
and  State  nurseries.  The  reservation  is  lo- 
cated one  mile  north  of  Henryville,  which  may 
be  reached  by  going  to  Henryville  via  the  Penn- 
sylvania or  the  Indianapolis  &  Louisville  electric 
line  which  touches  the  east  side  of  the  reserva- 

The  "Knobs." — Five  miles  below  the  Falls: 
of  the  Ohio  commences  a  range  of  hills  called  the; 
"Knobs."  They  rise  about  500  feet  high,  are  from; 
a  mile  to  a  half  a  mile  in  width  and  are  about' 
equal  in  elevation.  Each  hill,  separately,  is  small, 
often  covering  less  than  half  an  acre  ;  thev  unite, 

Postoffice  Building,  Jctifersonville. 



Generally,  one  hundred  or  two  hundred  feet  be- 
■low  their  summits.  They  extend  about  fifty 
.miles  into  the  interior  and  the  country  behind 
fthem  falls  off  very  little  from  a  level.  A  similar 
ridge  of  hills  extends  into  Kentucky,  from  the 
south  side  of  the  river  opposite.  It  is  not  un- 
Slikely  that  they  were  once  united  and  formed  an 
;obstruction,  the  only  remains  of  which  at  this 
time  are  the  Falls  of  the  Ohio.  A  few  miles 
[above  Jefifersonville  is  an  elevated  pear-shaped 
ridge  overlooking  the  Ohio  river,  which  is  sup- 
posed to  be  the  remains  of  a  fort  built  by  the 
IMound  Builders.  About  eight  miles  north  of 
this  stone  fort  is  a  circular  inclosure.  This  is  an 
earthwork  of  about  2,000  feet  in  circumference 
and  the  embankment  was  originally  about  twelve 
feet  high.  In  form  it  is  almost  a  perfect  circle. 
.Pottery,  fresh  water  shells  and  fragments  of 
ibones  have  been  found  here  in  great  abvmdance. 
From  this  place  to  the  stone